9/11 Commission Report
The 9/11 Commission Report, formally named Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, is the official report of the events leading up to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. It was prepared by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States at the request of United States president George W. Bush and Congress, is available to the public for sale or free download; the commission was established on November 27, 2002 and their final report was issued on July 22, 2004. The report was scheduled for release on May 27, 2004, but a compromise agreed to by Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert allowed a sixty-day extension through July 26; the commission interviewed over 1,200 people in 10 countries and reviewed over two and a half million pages of documents, including some guarded classified national security documents. The commission relied on the FBI's PENTTBOM investigation. Before it was released by the commission, the final public report was screened for any classified information and edited as necessary.
After releasing the report, commission chair Thomas Kean declared that both Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush were "not well served" by the FBI and CIA. In addition to identifying intelligence failures occurring before the attacks, the report provided evidence of the following: Airport security footage of the hijackers as they passed through airport security Excerpts from the United Airlines Flight 93 cockpit voice recording, which recorded the sounds of the hijackers in the cockpit and the passengers' attempts to regain control Eyewitness testimony of passengers as they described their own final moments to family members and authorities on airphones and cellphones from the cabins of doomed airlinersThe commission concluded 15 of the 19 hijackers who carried out the attacks were from Saudi Arabia, but the commission "found no evidence that the Saudi government as an institution or senior Saudi officials individually funded the organization" to conspire in the attacks, or that it funded the attackers though the "report identifies Saudi Arabia as the primary source of al-Qaeda funding".
Mohamed Atta, the leader of the attacks, was from Egypt. Two hijackers were from the United Arab Emirates, one was from Lebanon. According to the commission, all 19 hijackers were members of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization, led by Osama bin Laden. In addition, while meetings between al-Qaeda representatives and Iraqi government officials had taken place, the panel had no credible evidence that Saddam Hussein had assisted al-Qaeda in preparing or executing the 9/11 attacks; the commission's final report offered new evidence of increased contact between Iran and al-Qaeda. The report contains information about how several of the 9/11 hijackers passed through Iran, indicates that officials in Iran did not place entry stamps in their passports. However, according to the report, there is no evidence. Iran has since implemented several publicized efforts to shut down al-Qaeda cells operating within its country; the commission report chose to place blame for failure to notify the military squarely upon the FAA.
Ben Sliney, FAA operations manager at Herndon and Monte Belger, FAA Acting Deputy Administrator on 9/11, both stated to the commission that military liaisons were present and participating in Herndon's response as the events of 9/11 unfolded. Sliney stated. In addition to its findings, the report made extensive recommendations for changes that can be made to help prevent a similar attack; these include the creation of a National Intelligence Director over both the CIA and the FBI, many changes in border security and immigration policy. The 9/11 Commission Report states that "long-term success demands the use of all the elements of national power: diplomacy, covert action, law enforcement, economic policy, foreign aid, public diplomacy, homeland defense." Quantitative numbers will not defeat the insurgents. In order to defeat an insurgency one must promote a stronger ideology, value system, security environment, than the opposition; the 9/11 Commission emphasizes the use of public diplomacy. Defeating insurgents and terrorists is not based on traditional war tactics.
In 2003, the U. S. government realized how important political and cultural support was to the counterinsurgency efforts in Afghanistan. An Afghan regional official claimed that Afghanistan was on the right track for a stable government and begged the United States not to leave the theater, claiming that Afghanistan would lose progress if the U. S. withdrew their political support and local outreach to the public. The Afghan population is able to interact with U. S. presence in their country, allowing them to feel more secure and safe, thus countering the insurgent ideology. The ability of the United States to interact with the local Afghan population has been an essential tool to winning the counterinsurgency operations in the country. According to the 9/11 Commission, conducting public diplomacy with the local population of Afghanistan is necessary for long-term success within the country. "A former Under Secretary of the State fo
Wheaton College (Illinois)
Wheaton College is a Christian, residential liberal arts college and graduate school in Wheaton, Illinois. The Protestant college was founded by evangelical abolitionists in 1860. Wheaton College was a stop on the Underground Railroad and graduated one of Illinois' first African-American college graduates. Wheaton is noted for its "twin traditions of quality academics and deep faith," according to Time magazine and is ranked 20th among all national liberal arts colleges in the number of alumni who go on to earn PhDs. Wheaton is included in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges, it has been described as one of America's foremost Christian institutions. Wheaton College was ranked 8th in "Best Undergraduate Teaching" by the U. S. News & World Report for national liberal arts colleges in 2016; the school was ranked 57th overall among national liberal arts colleges by U. S. News & World Report for 2016. Forbes lists Universities in its 2015 rankings. Wheaton College was founded in 1860, its predecessor, the Illinois Institute, had been founded in late 1853 by Wesleyan Methodists as a college and preparatory school.
Wheaton's first president, Jonathan Blanchard, was a former president of Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois and a staunch abolitionist with ties to Oberlin College. Mired in financial trouble and unable to sustain the institution, the Wesleyans looked to Blanchard for new leadership, he took on the role as president in 1860, having suggested several Congregationalist appointees to the board of trustees the previous year. The Wesleyans, similar in spirit and mission to the Congregationalists, were happy to relinquish control of the Illinois Institute. Blanchard separated the college from any denominational support and was responsible for its new name, given in honor of trustee and benefactor Warren L. Wheaton, who founded the town of Wheaton after moving to Illinois from New England. A dogged reformer, Blanchard began his public campaign for abolitionism with the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1836, at the age of twenty-five. In his life, after the Civil War, he began a sustained campaign against Freemasonry.
This culminated in a national presidential campaign on the American Anti-Masonic Party ticket in 1884. Under Blanchard's leadership, the college was a stop on the Underground Railroad; the confirmation came from the letters of Daniel Studebaker, one of Blanchard's relatives by marriage, who notes that the town and college's anti-slavery beliefs were so held "that he, along with hundreds of other Wheaton residents, had seen and spoken with many fugitive slaves". Blanchard lobbied for universal co-education and was a strong proponent of reform through strong public education open to all. At this time, Wheaton was the only school in Illinois with a college-level women's program. Wheaton saw its first graduate of color in 1866, when Edward Breathitte Sellers took his degree. Additionally, he is one of the first African-American college graduates in the state of Illinois. In 1882, Charles A. Blanchard succeeded his father as president of the college. In 1925, J. Oliver Buswell, an outspoken Presbyterian, delivered a series of lectures at Wheaton College.
Shortly thereafter, President Charles Blanchard died and Buswell was called to be the third president of Wheaton. Upon his installation in April 1926, he became the nation's youngest college president at age 31. Buswell's tenure was characterized by expanding enrollment, a building program, strong academic development, a boom in the institution's reputation, it was known for growing divisiveness over faculty scholarship and personality clashes. In 1940, this tension led to the firing of Buswell for being, as two historians of the college put it, "too argumentative in temperament and too intellectual in his approach to Christianity." By the late 1940s, Wheaton was emerging as a standard-bearer of Evangelicalism. By 1950, enrollment at the college surpassed 1,600, in the second half of the twentieth century, enrollment growth and more selective admissions accompanied athletic success and improved facilities, expanded programs. In 1951, Honey Rock, a camp in Three Lakes, was purchased by the college.
In 2010, the public phase of The Promise of Wheaton campaign came to a close with $250.7 million raised, an "unprecedented 5-1/2 year campaign figure for Wheaton College". In 2010, Wheaton College become the first American Associate University of the Tony Blair Faith Foundation's Faith and Globalization Initiative. Tony Blair noted that the partnership will "give emerging leaders in the United States and the United Kingdom the opportunity to explore in depth the critical issues of how faith impacts the modern world today through different faith and cultural lenses" and that Wheaton's participation will "greatly enrich the Initiative"; as of 2015 the college continued to retain its Christian "Statement of Faith and Educational Purpose" and expected public statements of its faculty members to conform to it. Wheaton College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. According to The Princeton Review's "The Best 351 Colleges", "If the integration of faith and learning is what you want out of a college, Wheaton is arguably the best school in the nation with a Christ-based worldview."
Students may choose in the sciences. Some of the most popular in recent years have been business, English, biblical studies, political science, international relations, psychology. In 2011 it was ranked No. 1 for best cafeteria food in the nation according to the Princeton review. In 2015, U. S. News & World Report ranked Wheaton College at 56 out of 265 Best National Liberal Arts Col
National September 11 Memorial & Museum
The National September 11 Memorial & Museum is a memorial and museum in New York City commemorating the September 11, 2001 attacks, which killed 2,977 people, the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, which killed six. The memorial is located at the World Trade Center site, the former location of the Twin Towers that were destroyed during the September 11 attacks, it is operated by a non-profit institution whose mission is to raise funds for and operate the memorial and museum at the World Trade Center site. A memorial was planned in the immediate aftermath of the attacks and destruction of the World Trade Center for the victims and those involved in rescue and recovery operations; the winner of the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was Israeli architect Michael Arad of Handel Architects, a New York- and San Francisco-based firm. Arad worked with landscape-architecture firm Peter Walker and Partners on the design, creating a forest of swamp white oak trees with two square reflecting pools in the center marking where the Twin Towers stood.
In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began heavy construction on the memorial and museum. The design is consistent with the original master plan by Daniel Libeskind, which called for the memorial to be 30 feet below street level—originally 70 feet —in a plaza, was the only finalist to disregard Libeskind's requirement that the buildings overhang the footprints of the Twin Towers; the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation was renamed the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in 2007. A dedication ceremony commemorating the tenth anniversary of the attacks was held at the memorial on September 11, 2011, it opened to the public the following day; the museum was dedicated on May 15, 2014, with remarks from Michael Bloomberg and President Barack Obama. The museum opened to the public on May 21. In September 2007 the Memorial & Museum began a four-month national-awareness tour of 25 cities in 25 states, thousands participated in tour activities.
The tour began at Finlay Park in Columbia, South Carolina, ending at Steinbrenner Field in Tampa, Florida. Highlights included an exhibition of photographs, artifacts from the site and a film with firsthand accounts from individuals who had directly experienced the attacks. At the opening ceremony in South Carolina, the students of White Knoll Middle School were honored and retired New York City police officer Marcelo Pevida presented the city with an American flag which had flown over Ground Zero; the main attractions of the 2007 national tour were steel beams used in the construction of the memorial, for visitors to sign. The National September 11 Memorial & Museum conducts a "cobblestone campaign", in which a contributor may sponsor a cobblestone which will line the Memorial plaza. Donors are recognized on the Memorial's website. Donors are able to locate their cobblestone by entering their name at a kiosk on the Memorial plaza. In 2008 the Memorial conducted two holiday cobblestone campaigns: the first for Father's Day, the second for the December holiday season.
On September 9, 2011, Secretary Shaun Donovan of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development said that the department had given $329 million to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum through HUD's Community Development Block Grant program. According to CNN, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey dropped its claim that the 9/11 Memorial & Museum owed it $300 million in construction costs in return for "financial oversight of the museum and memorial". Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii sponsored S.1537, the National September 11 Memorial and Museum Act of 2011, which would provide $20 million in federal funds annually toward the Memorial's operating budget. The legislation was presented to the U. S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources on October 19, 2011. In return for federal funding S.1537 would authorize the Secretary of the Interior to accept the donation by the memorial's board of directors of title to the National September 11 Memorial, contingent on agreement by the board, the governors of New York and New Jersey, the Mayor of New York and the Secretary of the Interior.
On October 19, 2011 William D. Shaddox of the National Park Service voiced concerns to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources about the agency's ability to provide the funds required by S.1537, testifying that NPS ownership of a property over which it would not have operational and administrative control was unprecedented. The World Trade Center Memorial Foundation, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum was formed as a 501 non-profit corporation to raise funds and manage the memorial's planning and construction, its board of directors met for the first time on January 4, 2005, it reached its first-phase capital-fundraising goal in April 2008. This money and additional funds raised will be used to build the memorial and museum and endow the museum. In 2003, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation launched the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition, an international competition to design a memorial at the World Trade Center site to commemorate the lives lost on 9/11.
Individuals and teams from around the world submitted design proposals. On November 19, 2003, the thirteen-member jury selected eight finalists. Reflecting Absence, designed by Michael Arad and Peter Walker, was chosen as the winning design on January 6, 2004, it consists of a field of trees interrupted by two large, recessed pools, the footprints of the Twin Towers. The deciduous trees (swamp white oak
A flight recorder is an electronic recording device placed in an aircraft for the purpose of facilitating the investigation of aviation accidents and incidents. Flight recorders are known by the misnomer black box—they are in fact bright orange to aid in their recovery after accidents. There are two different flight recorder devices: the flight data recorder preserves the recent history of the flight through the recording of dozens of parameters collected several times per second; the two devices may be combined in a single unit. Together, the FDR and CVR give an accurate testimony, narrating the aircraft's flight history, to assist in any investigation; the two flight recorders are required by international regulation, overseen by the International Civil Aviation Organization, to be capable of surviving the conditions to be encountered in a severe aircraft accident. For this reason, they are specified to withstand an impact of 3400 g and temperatures of over 1,000 °C, as required by EUROCAE ED-112.
They have been a mandatory requirement in commercial aircraft in the United States since 1967. After the unexplained disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in 2014, commentators have called for live streaming of data to the ground, as well as extending the battery life of the underwater locator beacons. One of the earliest and proven attempts was made by François Hussenot and Paul Beaudouin in 1939 at the Marignane flight test center, with their "type HB" flight recorder; the latent image was made by a thin ray of light deviated by a mirror tilted according to the magnitude of the data to record. A pre-production run of 25 "HB" recorders was ordered in 1941 and HB recorders remained in use in French flight test centers well into the 1970s. In 1947, Hussenot founded the Société Française des Instruments de Mesure with Beaudouin and another associate, so as to market his invention, known as the "hussenograph"; this company went on to become a major supplier of data recorders, used not only aboard aircraft but trains and other vehicles.
SFIM is still present on the flight recorder market. The advantage of the film technology was that it could be developed afterwards and provides a durable, visual feedback of the flight parameters without needing any playback device. On the other hand, unlike magnetic tapes or flash memory-based technology, a photographic film cannot be erased and recycled, so it must be changed periodically; as such, this technology was reserved for one-shot uses during planned test flights. The cockpit conversation was not recorded. Another form of flight data recorder was developed in the UK during World War II. Len Harrison and Vic Husband developed a unit that could withstand a crash and fire to keep the flight data intact; this unit used copper foil as the recording medium with various styli indicating various instruments / aircraft controls which indented the copper foil. The copper foil was periodically advanced at set periods of time therefore giving a history of the instruments / control settings of the aircraft.
This unit was developed at Farnborough for the Ministry of Aircraft Production. At the war's end the Ministry got Harrison and Husband to sign over their invention to it and the Ministry patented it under British patent 19330/45; this unit was the forerunner of today's recorders being able to withstand conditions that aircrew could not. The first modern flight data recorder, called "Mata Hari", was created in 1942 by Finnish aviation engineer Veijo Hietala; this black high-tech mechanical box was able to record all important details during test flights of fighter aircraft that the Finnish army repaired or built in its main aviation factory in Tampere, Finland. During World War II both British and American air forces experimented with aircraft voice recorders. In August 1943 the USAAF conducted an experiment with a magnetic wire recorder to capture the inter-phone conversations of a B-17 bomber flight crew on a combat mission over Nazi-occupied France; the recording was broadcast back to the United States by radio two days afterwards.
In 1953, while working at the Aeronautical Research Laboratories of the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, in Melbourne, Australian research scientist David Warren conceived a device that would record not only the instrument readings, but the voices in the cockpit. In 1954 he published a report entitled "A Device for Assisting Investigation into Aircraft Accidents". Warren built a prototype FDR called "The ARL Flight Memory Unit" in 1956, in 1958 he built the first combined FDR/CVR prototype, designed with civilian aircraft in mind, for explicit post-crash examination purposes. Aviation authorities from around the world were uninterested at first, but this changed in 1958 when Sir Robert Hardingham, the Secretary of the British Air Registration Board, visited the ARL and was introduced to David Warren. Hardingham realised the significance of the invention and arranged for Warren to demonstrate the prototype in the UK; the ARL assigned an engineering team to help Warren develop the prototype to airborne stage.
The team, consisting of electronics engineers Lane Sear, Wally Boswell and Ken Fraser, developed a working design that incorporated a fire-resistant and shockproof case, a reliable system for encoding and recording aircr
The Pentagon, in Arlington County, across the Potomac River from Washington, D. C. is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense. As a symbol of the U. S. military, the phrase The Pentagon is used as a metonym for the Department of Defense and its leadership. The building was designed by American architect George Bergstrom and built by contractor John McShain. Ground was broken on September 11, 1941, the building was dedicated on January 15, 1943. General Brehon Somervell provided the major motivating power behind the project. S. Army; the Pentagon is the world's largest office building, with about 6,500,000 sq ft of space, of which 3,700,000 sq ft are used as offices. Some 23,000 military and civilian employees, another 3,000 non-defense support personnel, work in the Pentagon, it has five sides, five floors above ground, two basement levels, five ring corridors per floor with a total of 17.5 mi of corridors. The central five-acre pentagonal plaza is nicknamed "ground zero" on the presumption that it would be a prime target in a nuclear war.
On September 11, 2001 60 years after the building's construction began, American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked and flown into the western side of the building, killing 189 people, according to the 9/11 Commission Report. It was the first significant foreign attack on Washington's governmental facilities since the city was burned by the British during the War of 1812; the Pentagon is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a National Historic Landmark. The Pentagon building spans 28.7 acres, includes an additional 5.1 acres as a central courtyard. Starting with the north side and moving clockwise, its five façades are the Mall Terrace Entrance façade, the River Terrace Entrance façade, the Concourse Entrance façade, the South Parking Entrance façade, the Heliport façade. On the north side of the building, the Mall Entrance, which features a portico, leads out to a 600 ft long terrace, used for ceremonies; the River Entrance, which features a portico projecting out 20 ft, is on the northeast side, overlooking the lagoon and facing Washington.
A stepped terrace on the River Entrance leads down to the lagoon. The main entrance for visitors is on the southeast side, as are the Pentagon Metro station and the bus station. There is a concourse on the southeast side of the second floor of the building, which contains a mini-shopping mall; the south parking lot adjoins the southwest facade, the west side of the Pentagon faces Washington Boulevard. The concentric rings are designated from the center out as "A" through "E". "E" Ring offices are the only ones with outside views and are occupied by senior officials. Office numbers go clockwise around each of the rings, have two parts: a nearest-corridor number followed by a bay number, so office numbers range from 100 to 1099; these corridors radiate out from the central courtyard, with corridor 1 beginning with the Concourse's south end. Each numbered radial corridor intersects with the corresponding numbered group of offices. There are a number of historical displays in the building in the "A" and "E" rings.
Floors in the Pentagon are lettered "B" for Basement and "M" for Mezzanine, both of which are below ground level. The concourse is on the second floor at the Metro entrance. Above ground floors are numbered 1 to 5. Room numbers are given as the floor, concentric ring, office number. Thus, office 2B315 is on the second floor, B ring, nearest to corridor 3. One way to get to this office would be to go to the second floor, get to the A ring, go to and take corridor 3, turn left on ring B to get to bay 15, it is possible for a person to walk between any two points in the Pentagon in less than seven minutes. The complex includes eating and exercise facilities, meditation and prayer rooms. Tours for the public were suspended after the 2001 attack. Just south of the Pentagon are Pentagon City and Crystal City, extensive shopping and high-density residential districts in Arlington. Arlington National Cemetery is to the north; the Pentagon is surrounded by the complex Pentagon road network. The Pentagon has six Washington, DC ZIP Codes.
The Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the four service branches each have their own ZIP Code. Before the Pentagon was built, the United States Department of War was headquartered in the Munitions Building, a temporary structure erected during World War I along Constitution Avenue on the National Mall; the War Department, a civilian agency created to administer the U. S. Army, was spread out in additional temporary buildings on the National Mall, as well as dozens of other buildings in Washington, D. C. Maryland and Virginia. In the late 1930s, a new War Department Building was constructed at 21st and C Streets in Foggy Bottom but, upon completion, the new building did not solve the department's space problem and ended up being used by the Department of State; when World War II broke out in Europe, the War Department expanded in anticipation that the United States would be drawn into the conflict. Secretary of War H
Poughkeepsie, New York
Poughkeepsie the City of Poughkeepsie, is a city in the state of New York, United States, the county seat of Dutchess County. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 32,736. Poughkeepsie is in the Hudson Valley midway between New York City and Albany, is part of the New York metropolitan area; the name derives from a word in the Wappinger language U-puku-ipi-sing, meaning "the reed-covered lodge by the little-water place", referring to a spring or stream feeding into the Hudson River south of the present downtown area. Poughkeepsie is known as "The Queen City of the Hudson", it was settled in the 17th century by the Dutch and became New York's second capital shortly after the American Revolution. It was chartered as a city in 1854. Major bridges in the city include the Walkway over the Hudson, a former railroad bridge, which re-opened as a public walkway on October 3, 2009. S. Route 44 over the Hudson; the city of Poughkeepsie lies in New York's 18th congressional district. The site of Poughkeepsie was purchased from the Indians in 1686 by Robert Sanders, an Englishman, Myndert Harmense Van Den Bogaerdt, a New Netherland-born Dutchman.
The first settlers were the families of Hendrick Jans van Oosterom. The settlement grew and the Reformed Church of Poughkeepsie was established by 1720; the community was set off from the town of Poughkeepsie when it became an incorporated village on 27 March 1799. The city of Poughkeepsie was chartered on 28 March 1854. Outside of municipal designations, the city and town of Poughkeepsie are viewed as a single place and are referred to collectively as "Poughkeepsie", with a combined population of 75,000. Spared from battle during the American Revolution, Poughkeepsie became the second capital of New York. In 1788, the Ratification Convention for New York State, which included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, George Clinton, assembled at the courthouse on Market Street and ratified the United States Constitution. With its ratification, New York entered the new union as the eleventh of the original thirteen colonies to join together as the United States of America. In 1799, a new seal was created for Poughkeepsie.
Early on, Poughkeepsie was a major center for whale rendering, during the 19th century, the industry flourished through shipping, paper mills, several breweries along the Hudson River, including some owned by Matthew Vassar, founder of Vassar College. Due to the area's natural beauty and proximity to New York City, families such as the Astors and Vanderbilts built palatial weekend homes nearby; the Vanderbilt mansion, located several miles up the Hudson from Poughkeepsie in the town of Hyde Park, is registered as a National Historic Site. The city is home to the oldest continuously operating entertainment venue in the state, the Bardavon 1869 Opera House; the city is located on the western edge of Dutchess County, bordered by Lloyd across the Hudson River to the west and by the town of Poughkeepsie on the north and south. There are two crossings of the Hudson River in Poughkeepsie: the Mid-Hudson Bridge for motor vehicles and pedestrians, the pedestrian "Walkway over the Hudson". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 5.7 square miles.
5.1 square miles of it is land, 0.23 square miles of it is water. It is in southeastern New York State. Academy Street Historic District Balding Avenue Historic District Dwight-Hooker Avenue Historic District Garfield Place Historic District Mill Street-North Clover Street Historic District Mount Carmel District Union Street Historic District Poughkeepsie has a humid continental climate with hot summers and cold winters, it receives 44.12 inches of precipitation per year, much of, delivered in the late spring and early summer. Due to its inland location, Poughkeepsie can be cold during the winter, with temperatures dropping below zero a few times per year. Poughkeepsie can be hit by powerful nor'easters, but it receives less snow or rain from these storms compared to locations towards the south and east; as of the census of 2010, there were 32,736 people. The population density was 5,806.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,153 housing units at an average density of 2,556.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 52.8% White, 35.7% Black or African American, 10.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 1.6% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 5.3% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. There were 12,014 households, out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.8% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.4% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. The median household income in the city was $29,389, the median income for a family wa
Wheaton is a suburban city in Milton and Winfield Townships and is the county seat of DuPage County, Illinois. It is located 30 miles west of Chicago; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 52,894, estimated to have increased to 53,469 by July 2012. The city dates its founding to the period between 1831 and 1837, following the Indian Removal Act, when Erastus Gary laid claim to 790 acres of land near present-day Warrenville; the Wheaton brothers arrived from Connecticut, in 1837, Warren L. Wheaton laid claim to 640 acres of land in the center of town. Jesse Wheaton made claim to 300 acres of land just west of Warren's, it was not long. In 1848, they gave the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad three miles of right-of-way, upon which railroad officials named the depot Wheaton. In 1850, ten blocks of land were platted and anyone, willing to build was granted free land. In 1853, the lots were surveyed and a formal plat for the community was filed with the county; the community was incorporated as a village on February 24, 1859, with Warren serving as its first President.
The village was incorporated as a city on April 24, 1890, when the first mayor of the city was selected, Judge Elbert Gary, son of Erastus Gary and founder of Gary, Indiana. In 1857, the Illinois state legislature authorized an election to be held to decide the question of whether the DuPage county seat should remain in Naperville or be moved to the more centrally located Wheaton, on the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad. Naperville won the election by a vote of 1,542 to 762. Hostility between the two towns continued for the next decade and another election was held in 1867, in which Wheaton narrowly won by a vote of 1,686 to 1,635. At a cost of $20,000, the City of Wheaton built a courthouse to house a courtroom, county offices, a county jail; the building was dedicated on July 4, 1868. However, animosity between the two towns continued, in 1868, as records were moved from the old Naperville courthouse to the new one in Wheaton, Naperville refused to turn over the remaining county records, prompting a band of Civil War veterans from Wheaton to conduct what came to be known as the "Midnight Raid" on the Naperville courthouse.
As Wheatonites fled back on Wheaton-Naperville Road, Napervillians were able to secure some of the last remaining records, which were taken to the Cook County Recorder in Chicago for safekeeping. During this time, Naperville was mounting a lawsuit against Wheaton accusing election judges of leaving their posts for lunch during the vote when duplicate ballot stuffing occurred; as the courts deliberated the fate of the county seat, the records were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Shortly thereafter, Wheaton was proclaimed the county seat; as demand for space increased, the courthouse was rebuilt in 1887 at a cost of $69,390, modeled after the courthouse in Aledo. This structure was used for the next 94 years until the county's rapid growth prompted the building of a brand new complex; the old courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was used by National Louis University until National Louis moved to Lisle in 2004. It is being developed into luxury condominiums.
On November 2, 1990, the courthouse moved to a building about two miles west in a new 57-acre complex at the corner of County Farm Road and Manchester Road. It includes a 300,000-square-foot judicial building. In 1992, the county sued the architect and contractor for $4 million after several employees became ill from the ventilation system. In the end, the county received only $120,000 for minor repairs and the jury sided with the defendants, finding that the alleged problems were caused by the county's negligent operation and maintenance of the ventilation system. Wheaton has expanded since the 1950s, although population growth has slowed since the early 1990s, as the city has become landlocked. Downtown lost much business after the county courthouse facility moved two miles west in 1990, but in the decade since, the downtown has seen a renaissance of sorts, with the creation of several significant condominium and business developments. One of the most recognizable landmarks of the city is Wheaton Center, a 758-unit apartment complex on 14 acres in downtown Wheaton.
The six building complex includes two twenty-story high-rise buildings built in 1975. In 1887, Wheaton prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages, a ban which lasted until 1985 and applied to all supermarkets, convenience stores and other establishments. Wheaton is located at 41°51′22″N 88°06′30″W. According to the 2010 census, Wheaton has a total area of 11.436 square miles, of which 11.25 square miles is land and 0.186 square miles is water. Wheaton is the sister city of Sweden. Karlskoga Street, located along the southern edge of Memorial Park in downtown Wheaton, is named after the Swedish City; as of the census of 2000, there were 55,416 people, 19,377 households and 13,718 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,938.5 people per square mile. There were 19,881 housing units at an average density of 1,771.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.85% White, 4.85% Asian, 2.82% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 3.65% of the population. There were 19,377 households