Eddie Fisher (singer)
Edwin John "Eddie" Fisher was an American singer and actor. He was one of the most popular artists during the first half of the 1950s, selling millions of records and hosting his own TV show. Fisher divorced his first wife, actress Debbie Reynolds, to marry Reynolds' best friend, actress Elizabeth Taylor, after Taylor's husband, film producer Mike Todd, was killed in a plane crash; the scandalous affair was reported, bringing unfavorable publicity to Fisher. He married Connie Stevens. Fisher fathered Carrie Fisher and Todd Fisher with Reynolds, Joely Fisher and Tricia Leigh Fisher with Stevens. Fisher was born in Philadelphia, the fourth of seven children born to Gitte and Joseph Tisch, who were Russian-Jewish immigrants, his father's surname was Tisch, but was changed to Fisher by the time of the 1940 census. To his family, Fisher was always called "Sonny Boy", a nickname derived from the song of the same name in Al Jolson's film The Singing Fool. Fisher attended Thomas Junior High School, South Philadelphia High School, Simon Gratz High School.
It was known at an early age that he had talent as a vocalist, he started singing in numerous amateur contests, which he won. He made his radio debut on a local Philadelphia radio station, he performed on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, a popular radio show that moved to television. Because he became a local star, Fisher dropped out of high school in the middle of his senior year to pursue his career. By 1946, Fisher was crooning with the bands of Charlie Ventura, he was heard in 1949 by Eddie Cantor at Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel in the Borscht Belt. Cantor's so-called discovery of Fisher was described as a contrived, "manipulated' arrangement by Milton Blackstone, Grossinger's publicity director. After performing on Cantor's radio show he gained nationwide exposure, he signed a recording contract with RCA Victor. Fisher was drafted into the U. S. Army in 1951, sent to Fort Hood, Texas for basic training, served a year in Korea. From 1952 to 1953, he was the official vocal soloist for The United States Army Band and a tenor section member in the United States Army Band Chorus assigned at Fort Myer in the Washington, D.
C. Military District. During his active duty period, he made occasional guest television appearances, in uniform, introduced as "PFC Eddie Fisher". After his discharge, he began to sing in top nightclubs and had a variety television series, Coke Time with Eddie Fisher on NBC. Fisher appeared on The Perry Como Show, Club Oasis, The Martha Raye Show, The Gisele MacKenzie Show, The Chesterfield Supper Club and The George Gobel Show, starred in another series, The Eddie Fisher Show. Fisher's strong and melodious tenor made him a teen idol and one of the most popular singers of the early 1950s, he had 17 songs in the Top 10 on the music charts between 1950 and 1956 and 35 in the Top 40. In 1956, Fisher costarred with then-wife Debbie Reynolds in the musical comedy Bundle of Joy, he played a dramatic role in the 1960 drama Butterfield 8 with second wife Elizabeth Taylor. His best friend was showman and producer Mike Todd, who died in a plane crash in 1958. Fisher's affair, divorce from Reynolds, subsequent marriage to Taylor, Todd's widow, caused a show business scandal.
Due to the unfavorable publicity surrounding the affair and divorce, NBC canceled Fisher's television series in March 1959. Beginning in fall 1959, he established two scholarships at Brandeis University, one for classical and one for popular music, in the name of Eddie Cantor. In 1960, he was dropped by RCA Victor and recorded on his own label, Ramrod Records, he recorded for Dot Records. During this time, he had the first commercial recording of "Sunrise, Sunset" from Fiddler on the Roof; this technically counts as the biggest standard Fisher can claim credit for introducing, although it is associated with him. He recorded the albums Eddie Fisher Today and Young and Foolish; the Dot contract was not successful in record sales terms, he returned to RCA Victor and had a minor single hit in 1966 with the song "Games That Lovers Play" with Nelson Riddle, which became the title of his best selling album. When Fisher was at the height of his popularity, in the mid-1950s, rather than albums, were the primary medium for issuing recordings.
His last album for RCA Victor was an Al Jolson tribute, You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet, released in 1968. In 1983 he attempted a comeback tour but this was not a success. Eddie Fisher's last released album was recorded around 1984 on the Bainbridge record label. Fisher tried to stop the album from being released; the album was arranged by Angelo DiPippo. DiPippo, a world-renowned arranger, worked with Eddie countless hours to better his vocals but it became useless, his final recordings were made in 1995 with the London Philharmonic Orchestra. According to arranger-conductor Vincent Falcone in his 2005 autobiography, Frankly: Just Between Us, these tracks were "the best singing of his life." Fisher performed in top concert halls all over the United States and headlined in major Las Vegas showrooms. He headlined at the Palace Theater in New York City as well as London's Palladium. Fisher created interest as a pop culture icon. Betty Johnson's "I Want Eddie Fisher For Christmas", containing references to a number of hit songs, reached #28 in the Music Vendor national survey during an 11-week chart run in late 1954.
Fisher has two stars on
English Americans are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or in England. In the 2017 American Community Survey, English Americans are of the total population; the term is distinct from British Americans, which includes not only English Americans but Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Welsh Americans, Cornish Americans and Manx Americans from the whole of the United Kingdom. However, demographers regard this as a serious under count, as the index of inconsistency is high and many if not most Americans from English stock have a tendency to identify as "Americans" or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group. In the 1980 Census, over 49 million Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. Scotch-Irish Americans are for the most part descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English settlers who colonized Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.
In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country." The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%. Ben J. Wattenberg argues that this poll demonstrates a general American bias against Hispanics and other recent immigrant populations; the majority—57%--of the Founding Fathers of the United States were of English extraction. English immigrants in the 19th century, as with other groups, sought economic prosperity, they began migrating in large numbers without 1840s to 1890s. Americans of English heritage are seen, identify, as "American" due to the many historic cultural ties between England and the U. S. and their influence on the country's population. Relative to ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements.
Since 1776, English-Americans have been less to proclaim their heritage in the face of the upsurge of cultural and ethnic pride by African Americans, Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Italian Americans or other ethnic groups. A leading specialist, Charlotte Erickson, found them to be ethnically "invisible," dismissing the occasional St. George Societies as ephemeral elite clubs that were not in touch with the larger ethnic community. In Canada, by contrast, the English organized far more ethnic activism, as the English competed with the well-organized French and Irish elements. In the United States the Scottish immigrants were much better organized than the English in the 19th century, as are their descendants in the late 20th century; the original 17th century settlers were overwhelmingly English. From the time of the first permanent English presence in the New World until 1900, these immigrants and their descendants outnumbered all others establishing the English cultural pattern as predominant for the American version.
According to the United States Historical Census, the ethnic populations in the British American Colonies of 1700, 1755 and 1775 were: The category'Irish' represents immigrants from Ireland outside the Province of Ulster, the overwhelming majority of whom were Protestant and not ethnically Irish, though from Ireland. The distinction between Scots-Irish and Irish came about in the mid-19th century: prior to this time all Irish persons whatever religion were identified as'Irish.' In 1790 the U. S. conducted its first national population census. The ancestries of the population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources, first in 1932 again in 1980 and 1984 by sampling distinctive surnames in the census and assigning them a country of origin. There is debate over the accuracy between the studies with individual scholars and the Federal Government using different techniques and conclusion for the ethnic composition. A study published in 1909 titled A Century of Population Growth by the Government Census Bureau estimated the English were 83.5% of the white population.
The states with the highest percentage by the same Census Bureau data in 1909 of English ancestry were Connecticut 96.2%, Rhode Island 96.0%, Vermont 95.4%, Massachusetts 95.0%, New Hampshire 94.1%, Maine 93.1%, Virginia 85.0%, Maryland 84.0%, North Carolina 83.1%, South Carolina 82.4%, New York 78.2%, Pennsylvania 59.0%. Another source by Thomas L. Purvis in 1984 estimated that people of English ancestry made up about 47.5% of the total population or 60.9% of the white or European American population. Some 80.7% of the total United States population was of European origin. Around 757,208 were of African descent with 697,624 being slaves. In 1980, 23,748,772 Americans claimed only English ancestry and another 25,849,263 claimed English along with another ethnic ancestry, it must be noted that 13.3 million or 5.9% of the total U. S. population chose to identify as "American" as seen in censuses that followed. Below shows the persons. At a national level the ancestry response rate was high with 90.4% of the total United States population choosing at least
Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o
Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live is an American late-night live television variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol. The show premiered on NBC on October 1975, under the original title NBC's Saturday Night; the show's comedy sketches, which parody contemporary culture and politics, are performed by a large and varying cast of repertory and newer cast members. Each episode is hosted by a celebrity guest, who delivers the opening monologue and performs in sketches with the cast as with featured performances by a musical guest. An episode begins with a cold open sketch that ends with someone breaking character and proclaiming, "Live from New York, it's Saturday Night!", properly beginning the show. In 1980, Michaels left the series to explore other opportunities, he was replaced by Jean Doumanian, replaced by Ebersol after a season of bad reviews. Ebersol ran the show until 1985. Since Michaels' return he has held the job of show-runner. Many of SNL's cast found national stardom while appearing on the show, achieved success in film and television, both in front of and behind the camera.
Others associated with the show, such as writers, have gone on to successful careers creating and starring in television and film. Broadcast from Studio 8H at NBC's headquarters in the Comcast Building at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, SNL has aired 868 episodes since its debut, began its forty-fourth season on September 29, 2018, making it one of the longest-running network television programs in the United States; the show format has been developed and recreated in several countries, meeting with different levels of success. Successful sketches have seen life outside the show as feature films including The Blues Brothers and Wayne's World; the show has been marketed in other ways, including home media releases of "best of" and whole seasons, books and documentaries about behind-the-scenes activities of running and developing the show. Throughout four decades on air, Saturday Night Live has received a number of awards, including 65 Primetime Emmy Awards, four Writers Guild of America Awards, two Peabody Awards.
In 2000, it was inducted into the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame. It was ranked tenth in TV Guide's "50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time" list, in 2007 it was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME"; as of 2018, the show has received 252 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, the most received by any television program. The live aspect of the show has resulted in several controversies and acts of censorship, with mistakes and intentional acts of sabotage by performers as well as guests. From 1965 until September 1975, NBC ran The Best of Carson reruns of The Tonight Show, airing them on either Saturday or Sunday night at local affiliates' discretion. In 1974, Johnny Carson announced that he wanted the weekend shows pulled and saved so that they could be aired during weeknights, allowing him to take time off. In 1974, NBC president Herbert Schlosser approached his vice president of late night programming, Dick Ebersol, asked him to create a show to fill the Saturday night time slot.
At the suggestion of Paramount Pictures executive Barry Diller and Ebersol approached Lorne Michaels. Over the next three weeks and Michaels developed the latter's idea for a variety show featuring high-concept comedy sketches, political satire, music performances that would attract 18- to 34-year-old viewers. By 1975, Michaels had assembled a talented cast, including Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi, Chevy Chase, Jane Curtin, Garrett Morris, Laraine Newman, Michael O'Donoghue, Gilda Radner, George Coe; the show was called NBC's Saturday Night, because Saturday Night Live was in use by Saturday Night Live with Howard Cosell on the rival network ABC. After the cancellation of the Cosell show, NBC purchased the rights to the name in 1976 and adopted the new title on March 26, 1977. Debuting on October 11, 1975, the show developed a cult following becoming a mainstream hit and spawning "Best of Saturday Night Live" compilations that reached viewers who could not stay awake for the live broadcasts, but during the first season in 1975 and 1976, according to a book about the show authored by Doug Hill and Jeff Weingrad, some NBC executives were not satisfied with the show's Nielsen ratings and shares.
Lorne Michaels pointed out to them that Nielsen's measurement of demographics indicated that baby boomers constituted a large majority of the viewers who did commit to watching the show, many of them watched little else on television. In 1975 and 1976, they were the most desirable demographic for television advertisers though Generation X was the right age for commercials for toys and other children's products. Baby boomers far outnumbered Generation X in reality but not in television viewership with the exception of Michaels' new show and major league sports, advertisers had long been concerned about baby boomers' distaste for the powerful medium. NBC executives understood Michaels' explanation of the desirable demographics and they decided to keep the show on the air despite many angry letters and phone calls that the network received from viewers who were offended by certain sketches, they included a Weekend Update segment on April 24, 1976, the 18th episode, that ridiculed Aspen, Colorado murder suspect Claudine Longet and warranted an on-air apology by announcer Don Pardo during the following episode.
Herminio Traviesas, a censor, vice president of the network's Standards and Practices department, objected to cast member Laraine Newman's use of the term "pissed off" in the March 13, 1976 episode with host Anthony Per
Connie Stevens is an American actress, screenwriter, cinematographer and singer. She played the role of "Cricket" Blake in the television series Hawaiian Eye. Stevens was born Concetta Rosalie Ann Ingoglia in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of musician Peter Ingoglia and singer Eleanor McGinley, her mother was of half half Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Stevens is of Italian, German-Jewish and Polish-Jewish descent, she adopted her father's stage name of Stevens as her own. Her parents divorced and she lived with her grandparents and attended Catholic boarding schools. Actor John Megna was her half-brother. At the age of 12, she witnessed a murder in Brooklyn and was sent to live with family friends in Boonville, Missouri. Coming from a musical family, Stevens joined the singing group called The Fourmost with Tony Butala, who went on to fame as founder of The Lettermen. Stevens moved to Los Angeles with her father in 1953; when she was 16, she replaced the alto in The Three Debs. She enrolled at a professional school, sang professionally, appeared in local repertory theater.
Her first notable film role was in Dangerous with Mark Damon, a low budget teen movie. She could be seen in Eighteen and Anxious. Stevens' big break came when Jerry Lewis saw her in the latter and recommended her for Rock-A-Bye Baby as the young girl who loves Lewis, made at Paramount. In December 1957 she signed a seven year contract with Paramount starting at $600 a week going up to $1,500 a week. Stevens made another film with Damon, The Party Crashers at Paramount. Paramount dropped her. Like many Warners contract players, Stevens was kept busy guest-starring on their regular TV shows like The Ann Sothern Show, Tenderfoot, 77 Sunset Strip and Cheyenne. In May 1959 she signed a seven year contract with Warners starting at $300 a week. Stardom came when she was cast as Cricket Blake in the popular television detective series Hawaiian Eye from 1959 to 1963, a role that made her famous. First televised on December 23, 1960, she appeared in "The Dresden Doll", Episode 15 of Season 3 of "77 Sunset Strip" as her character from "Hawaiian Eye," Cricket Blake.
In a televised interview on August 26, 2003, on CNN's Larry King Live, Stevens recounted that while on the set of Hawaiian Eye she was told she had a telephone call from Elvis Presley. "She didn't believe it, but in fact it was Elvis, who invited her to a party and said that he would come to her house and pick her up personally". Stevens' first album was titled Concetta, she had minor single hits with the standards "Blame It On My Youth", "Looking For A Boy", "Spring Is Here". She appeared opposite James Garner in a comedy episode of the TV Western series Maverick entitled "Two Tickets to Ten Strike," and after making several appearances on the Warner Bros. hit TV series 77 Sunset Strip, she recorded the hit novelty song "Kookie, Kookie", a duet with one of the stars of the program, Edd Byrnes, that reached #4 on the Billboard Hot 100. She and Byrnes appeared together on ABC's The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom, she had hit singles as a solo artist with "Sixteen Reasons", her biggest hit, reaching #3 on the Billboard Hot 100, a minor #71 hit "Too Young to Go Steady".
Other single releases were "Apollo","Why'd You Wanna Make Me Cry?", "Something Beautiful," "Mr. Songwriter," "Now That You've Gone," and "Keep Growing Strong". Stevens' popularity on the small screen and as a recording star encouraged Warners to try her in films, she starred in three films for all opposite Troy Donahue: Parrish, as a rural girl. In 1962 Warners suspended her for refusing to go on a publicity tour, she performed in Wizard of Ozon stage in Kansas. When Hawaiian Eye ended Stevens guest-starred on The Red Skelton Show, she played the lead in Two on a Guillotine, for Warners. Stevens starred as Wendy Conway in the television sitcom Wendy and Me with George Burns, who produced the show with Warners and played an older man who watched Wendy's exploits upstairs on the TV in his apartment, she had a percentage of the show, had three and a half years left on her contract with Warners. She said, "I've done the teenage epics... and want to move up into something like Virginia Woolf or Any Wednesday.
I want to be a big star but do I have to throw tantrums and behave badly to get there? Can't I just be talented and work hard and be married?"Stevens had the juvenile lead in Never Too Late, released by Warners. She signed a new contract with Warners to make one film a year for six years, she made reprised her stage performance of Wizard of Oz at Carousel Theatre, California followed it with Any Wednesday, at Melodyland, Anaheim California. Stevens was reunited with Lewis in Way... Way Out. Stevens starred in the Broadway production of Neil Simon's The Star-Spangled Girl with Anthony Perkins and Richard Benjamin in 1966. Stevens continued to ap
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif
Rene Marie Russo is an American actress and former model. Russo began her career as a fashion model in the 1970s, appearing on several magazine covers such as Vogue and Cosmopolitan, she made her film debut in the 1989 comedy film Major League, rose to international prominence in a number of thrillers and action films throughout the 1990s, including Lethal Weapon 3, In the Line of Fire, Get Shorty, Lethal Weapon 4, The Thomas Crown Affair. After headlining the family comedy Yours and Ours, Russo took a six-year break from acting, she returned to the screen as Frigga, the mother of the titular hero, in the superhero films Thor and Thor: The Dark World. In 2014, Russo starred in the acclaimed crime thriller Nightcrawler, for which she won the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress and was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role, she has since appeared in The Intern, Just Getting Started, Velvet Buzzsaw. Russo was born in Burbank, the daughter of Shirley, a factory worker and barmaid, Nino Russo, a sculptor and car mechanic who left the family when Russo was two.
Her father was of Italian descent, while her mother had Italian and English ancestry. Russo grew up with her mother and her sister and attended Burroughs High School, where her classmates included director Ron Howard, she had to wear a full-torso brace. Her tall height earned her the nickname "Jolly Green Giant" from her classmates. In a 2019 interview with Financial Times, she indeed described herself as a "geek", admitted that the bullying she endured during high school made her drop out in the tenth grade. Growing up, Russo did not have any "ambitions", remarking that she "was too busy just trying to survive, along with my sister and my mom —money was tight, my mom worked two jobs", she began taking a variety of part-time jobs to help her family, including working in an eyeglass factory and as a movie theater cashier. She got scouted for modelling and went to New York City, which she described as a "scary place compared to where I grew up". After being spotted at a 1972 Rolling Stones concert by John Crosby, an agent from International Creative Management, Russo began her career as a model.
With Crosby's encouragement, Russo applied to, was signed by, Ford Modeling Agency. She became one of the top models of the 1970s and early 1980s, appearing on magazine covers for Vogue and Cosmopolitan, as well as advertisements for perfume and cosmetics. Vogue in a 2016 article, wrote: "In the ’70s, Russo stood for a sexiness, both accessible and aspirational: She could vamp it up with the best of them, posing for Francesco Scavullo in decadent furs, or swathed in Versace for Richard Avedon, but Russo wasn’t your average pinup; the poise she brought to her images made her the first choice for editorial shoots that demanded models with tenacity, whether she was bound for the boardroom in a power suit or posing on a beach with Tony Spinelli". As she entered her 30s, demand for her as a model began to dwindle, she did a few more commercials and turned her back on modeling for a period of time. She studied theater and acting, began appearing in theater roles at small theaters in Los Angeles and elsewhere in California.
At one point, she took acting lessons from veteran actor Allan Rich, whom she credits with introducing her to the craft of acting. Russo made her debut in a television series in 1987, with a supporting role in the short-lived ABC production Sable, based on the comic book, Jon Sable: Freelance by Mike Grell, she made her feature film debut as the girlfriend of a former baseball star turned drunk who had spent the last few years playing in the Mexican League in Major League, a comedy written and directed by David S. Ward; the film made US$49.8 million in North America. In 1990, Russo appeared in the fantasy comedy film Mr. Destiny, with James Belushi, playing the wife in what would be an alternate reality of an ordinary guy's life. In 1991, she had her first leading film role in One Good Cop, as the wife of a New York City Police Department detective. In 1992, Russo achieved breakout success with her role as internal affairs detective Lorna Cole, opposite Mel Gibson and Danny Glover, in the action film Lethal Weapon 3.
The film made US$320 million worldwide, becoming the fifth highest-grossing film of 1992 and the highest-grossing film in the Lethal Weapon film series. Her other 1992 film release was the science fiction film Freejack, which despite an overall negative response, earned Russo a nomination for the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress. Throughout the 1990s, Russo took on major roles in a number of commercially and critically successful films. In 1993, she starred with Clint Eastwood in the thriller film In the Line of Fire, directed by Wolfgang Petersen, playing a federal agent involved with the sole active-duty Secret Service agent remaining from the detail guarding John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, at the time of his assassination in 1963; the film made US$176.9 million globally, received three Academy Awards nominations. In 1995, Petersen cast her as a medical doctor, who uncovers a newly discovered Ebola-like virus which came to the United States from Africa in an infected monkey, in the medical disaster film Outbreak, with Dustin Hoffman.
The film grossed over US$189 million worldwide. She starred as a B movie actress, opposite John Travolta, in the crime comedy Get Shorty, directed by Barry Sonnenfeld. Upon its release, Get Shorty opened atop at