Todor Khristov Zhivkov was a Bulgarian communist dictator who served as the de facto leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1954 until 1989 as General Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party. The youngest and second longest-serving leader in the Eastern Bloc, he became First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1954–General Secretary from April 1981–and from 1978 concurrently as President of the Republic remained on this position for 35 years, until 1989, thus becoming the second longest-serving leader of any Eastern Bloc nation after World War II, one of the longest ruling non-royal leaders in modern history. His rule marked a period of unprecedented political and economic stability for Bulgaria, marked both by complete submission of Bulgaria to Soviet directives and a desire for expanding ties with the West, his rule remained unchallenged until the deterioration of east–west relations in the 1980s, when a stagnating economic situation, a worsening international image and growing careerism and corruption in the BCP weakened his positions.
He resigned on 10 November 1989, under pressure by senior BCP members due to his refusal to recognize problems and deal with public protests. Within a month of Zhivkov's ouster, Communist rule in Bulgaria had ended, within nearly a year the People's Republic of Bulgaria had formally ceased to exist. Zhivkov was born in the Bulgarian village of Pravets into a peasant family, to Hristo Todorov Zhivkov and Maruza Gergova Zhivkova. In 1928, he joined the Bulgarian Communist Youth Union, an organisation linked with the Bulgarian Workers Party – the Bulgarian Communist Party; the following year he obtained a post at the Darzhavna pechatnitsa, the official government publisher in Sofia. In 1932, he joined the BWP proper serving as secretary of its Second Borough Committee and as a member of its Sofia County Committee. Although the BWP was banned along with all other political parties after the uprising of 19 May 1934, it continued fielding a handful of non-party National Assembly Deputies and Zhivkov retained his posts at its Sofia structure.
During World War II, Zhivkov participated in Bulgaria's resistance movement against the country's alignment with Nazi Germany and was sympathetic to the country's 50,000 Jews. In 1943, he was involved in organising the Chavdar partisan detachment in and around his place of birth, becoming deputy commander of the Sofia operations area in the summer of 1944. Under his rule, many fellow former combatants with Chavdar were to rise to positions of prominence in Bulgarian affairs, he is said to have coordinated partisan movements with those of pro-Soviet army units during the 9 September 1944 uprising. After 9 September 1944, Zhivkov became head of the Sofia police force, restyled as the Narodna Militsiya, he was elected to the BCP Central Committee as a candidate member in 1945 and a full member in 1948. In the run-up to the 1949 treason trial against Traicho Kostov, Zhivkov criticised the Party and judicial authorities for what he claimed was their leniency with regard to Kostov; this placed him in the Stalinist hardline wing of the Party.
In 1950, Zhivkov became a candidate member of the BCP Politburo led by Vulko Chervenkov, leading to a full membership in 1951. In the years which followed, he was involved in countering countryside resistance to forced farm collectivisation in northwestern Bulgaria. After Joseph Stalin's death, an emphasis on shared leadership emerged; the hardline Stalinist Chervenkov gave up his post as General Secretary of the BCP in 1954. Zhivkov took his place. Bulgarian opinion at the time interpreted this as a self-preservation move by Chervenkov, since Zhivkov was a less well known figure in the party. After Nikita Khrushchev delivered his famous secret speech against Stalin at the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 20th Congress, a BCP Central Committee plenary meeting was convened in April 1956 to agree to adopt a new Krushchevite line. At that plenum, Zhivkov criticized Chervenkov as a disciple of Stalin, had him demoted from prime minister to a cabinet post, promoted former Committee for State Security head Anton Yugov to the post of prime minister.
It was at this point. Subsequently, Zhivkov was associated with the "April Line,". At the BCP 8th Congress in late 1962, Zhivkov accused Yugov of anti-Party activity, expelled him from the BCP and had him placed under house arrest. With the strengthening positions of Zhivkov as the country's and Communist party's leader, former partisan leaders and active military took a critical stance on the revisionist policies of the communist leadership. In the events described as the "April Conspiracy" of 1965 or the "Plot of Gorunia," general Ivan Todorov-Gorunia, general Tzviatko Anev and Tzolo Кrastev organized a group of high-ranking military officers planning to overthrow the regime, their plan was to establish a pro-Chinese leadership in the country. The coup was exposed and between 28 March and 12 April 1965 and most of the plotters were arrested; as prime minister, Zhivkov held both of Bulgaria's leading political and government posts. Though the post of head of state was traditionally reserved for the leader of the surviving pro-Communist faction of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, the "Zhivkov Constitution" adopted by referendum in July 1971 promoted him to chairman of the new State Council.
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Wii Sports Resort is a sports video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Wii video game console, is a direct sequel to Wii Sports. It is one of the first titles to require the Wii MotionPlus accessory, bundled with the game. Wii Sports Resort was first announced at E3 2008 and was released in Japan on June 25, 2009 and in nearly all other regions in the following month. While the game was released only as a stand-alone title, as of 2009 the game was bundled with newer Wii consoles, along with Wii Sports; the game was well received by game critics, praising the improved controls and graphics, gaining an aggregate score of 82.94% on GameRankings and 80% on Metacritic. As of September 30, 2019, the game is the third best-selling game on the Wii, after its predecessor Wii Sports and Mario Kart Wii, with 33.11 million copies sold worldwide. Wii Sports Resort is a sports video game set in a beach resort on an archipelago named Wuhu Island; the first time a player starts the game, several instructional videos will play the strap usage screen and the Wii MotionPlus test, the player will skydive to Wuhu Island.
Twelve different sports are available to play. Most notably, in archery, the player holds the Wii Remote vertically to hold the bow, pulls back the Nunchuk to pull back the bow's string; the new feature that Wii Sports Resort brings is Wii MotionPlus compatibility, which enables 1:1 control and allows the games to be played with greater accuracy. For example, the game's new variation, table tennis, gives the player greater control over adding spin to the ball by twisting the Wii Remote while swinging. In golf, the player can spin the ball by twisting the Wii Remote while swinging. Most sports with up to three or four players will allow one Wii Remote to be shared among players while taking turns; the only sports in this game returning from the original Wii Sports are Bowling and Golf, while Table Tennis was a game in Wii Play. The other nine sports are new and original to the game. * Sports that have returned from Wii Sports # This sport was featured in Wii Play Some of these sports are one-player, some of them have a different version of the sport, two-player.
The idea for a sequel to Wii Sports was considered well before the advent of the Wii MotionPlus peripheral, but development only moved forward when the new possibilities in control were realized. The game was first revealed at Nintendo's 2008 E3 presentation. Fishing and a water slide were considered for inclusion in the game. A prototype kendama minigame was created, but did not fit into the resort theme. Wuhu Island appeared in Wii Fit, but was modified to fit the profile of a resort island in Wii Sports Resort. Hotels, sport arenas, a castle, ruins of an older civilization and some new rock formations were added; the island appears in Wii Fit Plus, its Wii U counterpart Wii Fit U and the 3DS game Pilotwings Resort with the changes from Wii Sports Resort. Two racetracks and a battle stage based on Wuhu Island appear in Mario Kart 7. Two fighting stages based on its appearance in Wii Sports Resort and Pilotwings Resort appear in Super Smash Bros. for Wii U. These same stages reappear in Super Smash Bros.
Ultimate for the Nintendo Switch. A remake of the Mario Kart 7 battle stage set in Wuhu Island appears in Mario Kart 8 Deluxe; the tennis courts from the training section of Wii Sports appear on Wuhu Island. Wii Sports Resort has received favorable reviews, with an average score on Metacritic of 80%. IGN gave it a 7.7 out of 10, citing the impressive fidelity of the controls and how the graphics, as compared to the majority of Wii games, were superb. GameTrailers gave an 8.6 out of 10. GameSpot gave it an 8.0 out of 10. Edge magazine gave it a 6 out of 10. On 1UP.com, the average score between the editors reviews and users was an'A-.' GamesRelay gave the game a score of 8.2. SPOnG.com's Tim Smith awarded the game 90%, calling Wii Sports Resort and the MotionPlus peripheral "simple but welcome additions to the Wii's line-up". In May 2010 the American Heart Association endorsed the Wii to encourage sedentary people to take the first step toward fitness; the AHA heart icon covers the console itself along with two of its more active games, Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports Resort.
Nintendo Power listed Wii Sports Resort along with its predecessor Wii Sports as being two of the greatest multi-player experiences in Nintendo history, stating that everyone can have fun with them, ranging from young children to grandparents. They cite the wide range of sports available. In Japan, Wii Sports Resort sold 150,000 copies within its first day of release and over 514,000 copies in two weeks. In North America it sold over 500,000 copies in its first week; as of August 8, 2009, the game had sold over 2 million copies worldwide, with 600,000 copies sold in Europe and 828,000 in Japan. Nintendo announced on August 25, 2009 that they had sold over one million units of the game in the United States and Europe individually. In September 2009, Wii Sports Resort sold 442,900 units, as of September it had sold 1.25 million units in the US. In 2009, it sold 7.57 million copies, making it the world's second biggest selling game of that year. As of September 30, 2019, Wii Sports Resort has sold 33.11 million copies worldwide.
TIDY Northern Ireland is a non-profit environmental organisation that runs the "Keep Northern Ireland Tidy Campaign", manages a number of local environmental quality programmes such as Blue Flag, Seaside Awards, Green Coast Awards, Borough Cleanliness Survey, Northern Ireland Litter Survey, BIG Spring Clean, Coast Care, River Care and Lough Care, TIDY Business, Young Reporters on the Environment and Eco-Schools. Many of these programmes operate beyond Northern Ireland. TIDY Northern Ireland produces information on the cleanliness of Northern Ireland, used to direct resources to prominent environmental quality issues. TIDY Northern Ireland has conducted campaigns and public information on litter including car litter, gum deposition, drug related litter, fast food litter, youth litter, they have campaigned on a number of other anti-social behaviour issues such as fly-tipping, dog fouling and neighbourhood noise. TIDY Northern Ireland endorses the government’s wider aim to deliver sustainable development.
This work falls into three main areas: campaigning to get public action, the delivery of programmes to enable partners to deliver action in the community and the production of research and survey results to measure the quality of the local environment. There are various key factors to the continuing development of TIDY Northern Ireland’s activities; the growing momentum of the sustainable development agenda, its links to local environmental quality and the anti-social behaviour agenda, demonstrating the connection and benefits of high quality local environments. The development of civic pride is seen as a key requirement of long term success in driving down the spiralling costs of street cleansing which are approaching £40m and rising, despite increasing financial constraints faced by councils. One of TIDY Northern Ireland’s primary aims is to enable the public and private sector agencies to deliver more on Local Environmental Quality, relate it to the needs of their community. Much of their work is pertinent to Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2011, The Litter Order 1994 and The Waste and Contaminated Land Order 1997 with more added amendments.
They aim to achieve their objectives by: enabling others to improve and own their local environment encouraging the proper disposal and recycling of material, which could become litter deterring gum deposition deterring graffiti, fly posting, dog fouling, anti-social behaviour and other activities that have a negative impact of the quality of our local environmentAs part of this work, they help local authorities and other agencies to deliver better local environmental services, which are tailored to meet the differing needs of the communities that they serve. Clean Up Australia Clean Up the World Don't Mess with Texas Keep America Beautiful Keep Britain Tidy National Cleanup Day Roads Beautifying Association Take Care of Texas ENCAMS: TIDY Northern Ireland
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Beresford Seymour Sewell CIE FRS FLS FZS was a British military doctor who served with the Indian Medical Service and an amateur naturalist, editor of The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma 1933-1963. Sewell was born in 1880 in Warwickshire, his father was the reverend Arthur Sewell, his mother was Mary Lee. His grandfather was Robert Burleigh Sewell, who had a number of notable siblings, including Richard Clarke Sewell, William Sewell, Henry Sewell, James Edwards Sewell, Elizabeth Missing Sewell, he studied at London. He received a B. A. from Cambridge in 1902 and qualified M. C. R. S. & L. R. C. P. in 1907. He was commissioned into the Indian Medical Service as a Lieutenant 1 February 1908 and was promoted Captain 1 February 1911, he served during the First World War and was Mentioned in Dispatches in the London Gazette 6 July 1917. He was promoted Major 1 August 1919 and Lieutenant-Colonel 1 August 1927, his last appointment was as Director of the Zoological Survey of India from 17 July 1925 to his retirement.
He retired 5 March 1935. He was a freemason, having been initiated in 1912. Http://www.ias.ac.in/jarch/currsci/1/339.pdf http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7149/1/silas_357-359.pdf "Obituary Notices". BMJ. 1: 505–506. 1964. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5381.505
Elections in Montserrat take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a parliamentary system. The Legislative Assembly is directly elected, a Chief Minister is selected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Assembly. Elections were held in Montserrat in the 19th century, but with a limited franchise; the elected Legislative Assembly dissolved itself in 1866 and was replaced with a wholly appointed body, which remained in place until 1937 when constitutional reforms reintroduced elected members. The reorganised legislature had nine seats; the first elections in Montserrat in the 20th century took place in the same year. Universal suffrage was introduced in 1951, the 1952 elections were the first in which all adults on the island could vote, they saw. The MLP subsequently won elections in 1955, 1958, 1961 and 1966; the 1970 elections saw. The PDP won the 1973 elections, but was defeated in 1978 when the People's Liberation Movement won all seven seats; the PLM went on to win the 1987 elections.
The 1991 elections were won by the National Progressive Party. The 1996 elections resulted in a hung parliament, with the People's Progressive Alliance and Movement for National Reconstruction holding two seats, the NPP holding one, the remaining seats taken by two independents; the island's first coalition government was formed by the MNR, NPP and an independent MP. A new electoral system was introduced for the 2001 elections as a result of the volcanic eruptions rendering four of the seven constituencies uninhabitable; the seven single-member constituencies were replaced with one nine-member constituency in which voters could vote for nine candidates. The elections were won by the New People's Liberation Movement; the 2006 elections resulted in another hung parliament, although the Movement for Change and Prosperity emerged as the largest party with four seats, the NPLM and the Montserrat Democratic Party formed a coalition government together with the sole independent MP. Although the NPLM held three seats and the MDP one, MDP leader Lowell Lewis became Chief Minister.
The 2009 elections were won by the MCAP. In 2011 the Legislative Council was replaced by the Legislative Assembly. In the first elections to the new body in 2014, the MCAP was defeated by the new People's Democratic Movement, which won seven seats; the nine members of the Legislative Assembly are elected for five-year terms in a single constituency in which voters can vote for nine candidates. The island is split into six polling divisions for vote counting. Election Commission
Ouest Side is the third album by French rapper Booba released on February 13, 2006 on Tallac Records, via the major Barclay Records / Universal Music Group. The cover realized by Armen is inspired by a famous photograph of Malcolm X where he held a weapon while looking out a window; the name Ouest Side is a reference to the fact that Booba comes from the western suburbs of Paris, for his roots in Senegal, found in the west of Africa. Samples "Pitbull" contains a sample of "Mistral gagnant" by Renaud. "Au bout des rêves" contains a sample of "Drop Leaf" Riddim. Outro" contains a sample of "Babaji" by Supertramp, "Intro" by Lunatic & "Tallac" by Booba. MySpace