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Tofu known as bean curd, is a food prepared by coagulating soy milk and pressing the resulting curds into solid white blocks of varying softness. Beyond these broad categories, there are many varieties of tofu, it has a subtle flavor, so it can be used in savory and sweet dishes. It is seasoned or marinated to suit the dish and its flavors, due to its spongy texture it absorbs flavors well, it is most treated as a meat substitute. It is a traditional component of East Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines, has been consumed in China for over 2,000 years. Nutritionally, tofu is low in calories, while containing a large amount of protein, it is high in iron, can have a high calcium or magnesium content depending on the coagulants used in manufacturing. The English term "tofu" comes from Japanese tōfu; the Japanese word is itself borrowed from the original Chinese equivalent "bean" + "curdled" or "fermented". A reference to the word towfu exists in a letter dated 1770 from the English merchant James Flint to American statesman and scientist Benjamin Franklin.

This is believed to be the first documented use of the word in English. The term "bean curd" for tofu has been used in the United States since at least 1840, it is used outside of the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, New Zealand, USA. Tofu-making was first recorded during the Chinese Han dynasty some 2,000 years ago. Chinese legend ascribes its invention to Prince Liu An of Anhui province. Tofu and its production technique were introduced to Japan during the Nara period; some scholars believe tofu arrived in Vietnam during the 11th centuries. It spread to other parts of Southeast Asia as well; this coincided with the spread of Buddhism as it is an important source of protein in the vegetarian diet of East Asian Buddhism. Li Shizhen, during the Ming Dynasty, described a method of making tofu in the Compendium of Materia Medica. Since tofu has become a staple in many countries, including Vietnam and Korea, with regional variations in production methods, texture and usage; the most held of the three theories of tofu's origin maintains that tofu was discovered by Lord Liu An, a Han Dynasty prince.

While plausible, the paucity of reliable sources for this period makes this difficult to conclusively determine. In Chinese history, important inventions were attributed to important leaders and figures of the time. In 1960, a stone mural unearthed from an Eastern Han dynasty tomb provided support for the theory of Han origin of tofu. Another theory suggests that the production method for tofu was discovered accidentally when a slurry of boiled, ground soybeans was mixed with impure sea salt; such sea salt would have contained calcium and magnesium salts, allowing the soy mixture to curdle and produce a tofu-like gel. The last group of theories maintains that the ancient Chinese learned the method for curdling soy milk by emulating the milk curdling techniques of the Mongolians or East Indians. Despite their advanced culture, no technology or knowledge of culturing and processing milk products existed within ancient Chinese society; the primary evidence for this theory is the etymological similarity between the Chinese term for Mongolian fermented milk and the term doufu or tofu.

Although intriguing and possible, there is no evidence to substantiate this theory beyond academic speculation. A form of tofu may have been discovered during the Han dynasty, but it did not become a popular food in China until the Song dynasty. In China, tofu is traditionally used as a food offering when visiting the graves of deceased relatives, it is claimed that the spirits have long lost their chins and jaws, so that only tofu is soft enough for them to eat. Before refrigeration was available in China, tofu was only sold during winter, since tofu did not spoil as in cold weather. During the warmer months, once made, spoiled if stored for more than a day. Chinese war hero Guan Yu used to be a tofu maker. Chinese martial arts expert and hero Yim Wing-chun was a celebrated tofu maker in her village. Tofu was introduced to Japan during the Nara period by Zen Buddhist monks, who called it "Chinese curd". Much of tofu's early use in Asia was as a vegetarian substitute for meat and fish by Buddhist monks those following Zen Buddhism.

The earliest Japanese document concerning tofu refers to the dish being served as an offering at the Kasuga Shrine in Nara in 1183. The book Tofu Hyakuchin, published in the Edo period, lists 100 recipes for cooking tofu. In Southeast Asia, tofu was introduced to the region by Chinese immigrants from Fujian province, as evidenced by many countries in Southeast Asia referring to tofu using the Min Nan Chinese pronunciations for either soft and firm tofu, or "tāu-hū" and "tāu-goan" respectively. In Indonesia, Singapore, Cambodia and the Philippines, tofu is available and used in many local dishes. Tofu is called tahu in Indonesia, Indonesian dishes such as tahu sumbat, taugeh tahu, asinan and some curries add slices of tofu. Tahu goreng, tahu isi and tahu sumedang are popular fried tofu snacks. Tofu is called tauhu in Malaysia and Singapore

2008–09 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup

The 2008/09 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup was the 30th World Cup season in ski jumping and the 12th official World Cup season in ski flying. It began on 29 November 2008 at the Rukatunturi ski jumping hill in Kuusamo and finished on 22 March 2009 at Planica, Slovenia; the overall winner of the 2008/09 World Cup was Gregor Schlierenzauer of Austria, who won 13 of the 27 individual competitions, breaking Janne Ahonen's single-season record of 12 wins in a season. Schlierenzauer's 20 podiums in a single season is a new record. Early leader Simon Ammann of Switzerland finished second in the overall standings, while Four Hills champion Wolfgang Loitzl of Austria finished third. Harri Olli of Finland finished fourth in the overall standings after a late-season run that gave him the first three World Cup wins of his career. Russia's Dimitry Vassiliev rounded out the top five, while defending champion Thomas Morgenstern of Austria finished in a, by his standards, disappointing 7th place overall, failing to win a single individual competition this season.

The Nations Cup, determined by adding all points gained by the participants of a country, in both individual and team competitions, was won overwhelmingly by Austria with 7331 points, more than three thousand points ahead of second-placed Finland. Lower competitive circuits this season included the Continental Grand Prix; the jumper highlighted in yellow was the leader of the World Cup at the time of the competition and wore the yellow jersey. The jumper highlighted in azure was the leader of the Nordic Tournament at the time of the competition and wore the blue jersey; the jumper highlighted in gold was the leader of the Four Hills Tournament at the time of the competition and wore the gold jersey. HS142 Rukatunturi, Finland29 November 2008 Notes: Thomas Morgenstern wore the yellow jersey as the reigning champion. HS131 Granåsen, Norway6 December 2008 Notes: Ville Larinto finished on the podium for the first time in his career. Gregor Schlierenzauer's jump of 140 meters is a new hill record.

HS131 Granåsen, Norway7 December 2008 Notes: Simon Ammann tied Gregor Schlierenzauer's hill record, set the day before. HS140 Stadio del Trampolino, Italy13 December 2008 Notes: Simon Ammann's jump of 144 meters is a new hill record. Gregor Schlierenzauer's 25th career podium finish. HS140 Stadio del Trampolino, Italy14 December 2008 Notes: The second round was cancelled because of heavy snow. Fumihisa Yumoto's first career World Cup victory. Fumihisa Yumoto and Johan Remen Evensen finished on the podium for the first time in their careers. HS137 Gross-Titlis-Schanze, Switzerland20 December 2008 HS137 Gross-Titlis-Schanze, Switzerland21 December 2008 Notes: Simon Ammann's 25th career podium finish. HS137 Schattenbergschanze, Germany29 December 2008 Notes: Simon Ammann's first-ever victory in a Four Hills event. HS140 Große Olympiaschanze, Germany1 January 2009 Notes: Simon Amman was the leader of both the World Cup and the Four Hills Tournament. Due to him wearing the yellow World Cup-leader shirt, no one wore the golden FHT-leader shirt.

Wolfgang Loitzl's first career World Cup victory, his 10th podium finish. Harri Olli's first podium finish in the World Cup. HS130 Bergiselschanze, Austria4 January 2009 Notes: World Cup leader Simon Ammann finished outside the top five for the first time this season. Martin Schmitt finished on the podium for the first time since 11 March 2007 at Lahti. HS140 Paul-Ausserleitner-Schanze, Austria6 January 2009 Notes: With his third straight victory, Wolfgang Loitzl secured overall victory in the 2008-09 Four Hills Tournament. HS200 Kulm, Austria10 January 2009 Notes: Gregor Schlierenzauer's jump of 215.5 meters is a new hill record at Kulm. HS200 Kulm, Austria11 January 2009 HS134 Wielka Krokiew, Poland16 January 2009 HS134 Wielka Krokiew, Poland17 January 2009 HS140 Whistler Olympic Park, Canada24 January 2009 Notes: Gregor Schlierenzauer set a new hill record at Whistler with his jump of 142.0 meters. Gregor Schlierenzauer overtook Simon Ammann in the World Cup standings to gain the overall lead.

Anders Jacobsen had the second-longest jump of the first round, but was disqualified for violating weight regulations. HS140 Whistler Olympic Park, Canada25 January 2009 Notes: Gregor Schlierenzauer broke his hill record, set the day before, with a jump of 149.0 meters. Ville Larinto jumped 149.0 meters, but fell – meaning his jump did not count as a hill record. Defending World Cup champion Thomas Morgenstern finished on the podium for the first time this season. HS134 Mt. Okura Ski Jump Stadium, Japan31 January 2009 Notes: Due to variable wind conditions, there were many short jumps in this competition. HS134 Mt. Okura Ski Jump Stadium, Japan1 February 2009Competition cancelled due to strong winds and heavy snow. HS145 Mühlenkopfschanze, Germany8 February 2009 Notes: Gregor Schlierenzauer's 20th career World Cup victory. Noriaki Kasai finished on the podium for the first time since 1 January 2007 at Garmisch-Partenkirchen and is the oldest jumper to reach a world cup podium, aged 36. HS140 Vogtlandarena, Germany11 February 2009 HS213 Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze, Germany14 February 2009 Notes: Harri Olli's first career World Cup victory.

His jump of 225.5 meters is a new hill record. The Nordic Ski World Championship was held between 18 February and 1 March 2009 in Liberec, Czech Republic, it does not count in the World Cup standings. HS130 HS97 Salpausselkä, Finland8 March 2009 Notes: Due to poor wind conditions the competition was moved to the Normal hill. HS127 Puijo, Finland10 March 2009 As both World Cup leader and Nordic Tournament leader, Gregor Schlierenzauer wore only the yellow jersey. Takanobu Okabe's 5th World Cup victory and his first since 1 March 1998, at


Gnomz is a single-screen platform fighting video game developed and published by Polish studio QubicGames. It was released for the WiiWare on November 2011 to mixed reviews from video game journalists. Critics praised its fun and choatic gameplay, but found the amount of content too little for a ten-dollar WiiWare game. Writers compared the gameplay to that of Super Mario War. Gnomz is a tribute to Poland, a country, the location of QubicGames and is well known for making garden gnomes. Michael Dys of QubicGames said that the developers planned players to be able to do attacks like shooting socks and throwing rocks to kill enemies. However, they decided to go for a more simple gameplay style and have the players jumping on other characters to kill them instead, reasoning, "In the end it’s the simplicity that’s most entertaining and challenging. Can you imagine Bomberman with shotguns? I’m sorry but we can’t". Numerous reviewers compared the gameplay of Gnomz to that of Super Mario War, one critic from Nintendo Life describing it as an extended WarioWare minigame due to its "wacky" feel.

Gnomz was released worldwide for the WiiWare on November 3, 2011. It was originally planned to be made and distributed for the Nintendo DSi, but due to the small screen size, not big enough to handle many gnomes, this plan was dropped. Gnomz garnered mixed reviews from video game journalists upon its release. Critics praised its choatic and fun gameplay, but felt its price was too high given the little amount of content it had to offer. However, QubicGames worker Michał Dys said the game was worth 1000 points, saying that "This is the kind of game you can’t complete or get bored of."Jacob Crites of Nintendo Life praised the gameplay as "beautiful choas". He called Gnomz an enjoyable family game with colorful visuals. However, he wrote that the game should've sold for 800 points instead of 1000, found it to be "unoriginal". While considering Gnomz fun in multiplayer, Nintendojo's Kevin Knezevic felt the game's amount of content was not enough to justify it being a ten-dollar WiiWare title, given that there were other titles in the library with much more to do like Bomberman Blast that were sold at the same price.

GamesMaster said the game should've sold for 500 points, described its art as "pretty lifeless". IGN's Lucas M. Thomas only mildly recommended Gnomz due to its small amount of content for a ten-dollar product, wrote that the control felt "like it's missing something, as matches against opponents always seem to descend into chaos and force multiple deaths upon you before you respawn in a favorable enough position to be able to reasonably retaliate." He wrote that Gnomz had much less charm than the title it was inspired by, Super Mario War: "Mario defeating enemies by stomping on their heads has always been a key part of his character – it makes a lot less sense to see a bunch of garden gnomes trying to do the same thing."


Homoisoflavonoids are a type of phenolic compounds occurring in plants. Chemically, they have the general structure of a 16-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings and heterocyclic ring. Homoisoflavones can be synthetized from 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcones. Homoisoflavanones can be synthetized from 3,5-methoxy phenols via chroman-4-one in three steps or from phloroglucinol. ConversionHomoisoflavanes can be obtained from the conversion of homoisoflavonoids; the homoisoflavonoids portulacanones B, C and D can be found in Portulaca oleracea. The 3,4-dihydroxyhomoisoflavans sappanol, episappanol, 3'-deoxysappanol, 3'-O-methylsappanol and 3'-O-methylepisappanol can be found in Caesalpinia sappan; the homoisoflavones scillavones B can be isolated from the bulbs of Scilla scilloides. Homoisoflavanones can be found in various plants, notably in Hyacinthaceae. Sappanone A can be found in Caesalpinia sappan. C-Methylated homoisoflavanones can be found in the rhizomes of Polygonum odoratum.5,7-Dihydroxy-3--chroman-4-one, a homoisoflavanone extracted from Cremastra appendiculata, has anti-angiogenic activities and inhibits UVB-induced skin inflammation through reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and NF-?

B nuclear localization. 3--7,8-methylenedioxy-chroman-4-one, a homoisoflavanone with antimycobacterial activity, can be isolated from Chlorophytum inornatum.5,7-Dihydroxy-3--chroman-4-one, 7-hydroxy-3--chroman-4-one and 4’-demethyl-3,9-dihydro-punctatin can be isolated from Agave tequilana. in Scilloideae 7-O-α-Rhamnopyranosyl--β-glucopiranosyl-5-hydroxy-3--chroman-4-one, 7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl--β-glucopiranosyl-5-hydroxy-3--chroman-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-3--chroman-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3--chroman-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy 3--chroman-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-3--6-methoxy-chroman-4-one and 7-hydroxy-3--5-methoxy-chroman-4-one can be isolated from the bulbs of Ledebouria floribunda. Other compounds can be found in Ledebouria revoluta, a plant used as an ethnomedicinal in southern Africa; the homoisoflavanone glycosides -7-O-methyleucomol 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, -7-O-methyleucomol 5-O-beta-rutinoside and -7-O-methyleucomol 5-O-beta-neohesperidoside can be isolated from the bulbs of Ornithogalum caudatum.

Scillascillin-type homoisoflavanones can be isolated from Drimiopsis maculata. Eucomin, eucomol, -7-O-methyl-eucomin, -7-O-methyleucomol, -3,9-dihydro-eucomin and 7-O-methyl-3,9-dihydro-eucomin can be isolated from the bulbs of Eucomis bicolor. 4′-o-Methyl-punctatin, autumnalin and 3,9-dihydro-autumnalin can be found in Eucomis autumnalis. Five homoisoflavanones, 3,5-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-3--4-chromanone, 3,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3--4-chromanone, 3,5-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-3--4-chromanone, 3,5,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-3--4-chromanone and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-3--4-chromanone, can be isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the bulbs of Pseudoprospero firmifolium. A homoisoflavanone can be found in Albuca fastigiata; the same molecule, 5,6-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-3--4-chromanone, can be found in the bulbs of Resnova humifusa and Eucomis montana. The homoisoflavonoids portulacanones A, B, C and D show in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Flavonoids and isoflavonoids, related chemicals with a 15-carbon skeleton

Isis Pogson

Isis Pogson was a British astronomer and meteorologist, one of the first women to be elected as a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. Pogson was born in Oxford, the eldest daughter of Norman Pogson by his first marriage to Elizabeth Jane Ambrose, she was named after the River Isis, the part of the River Thames that flows through Oxford. Norman Pogson was an assistant at Radcliffe Observatory and at Hartwell Observatory, he discovered the asteroid 42 Isis on 23 May 1856, for. The asteroid was named by Professor Manuel John Johnson, director of the Radcliffe Observatory in honour of Pogson's daughter Isis; when her father became director of the Madras Observatory in Madras, India, in October 1860, he travelled to his new post with his first wife and three of his 11 children, including Isis. His wife died in 1869, he relied upon Isis to look after his other children, she worked in India as her father's assistant. She was given the post of computer at the observatory in 1873 with the salary of 150 rupees, equivalent to a "cook or coach-man", worked there for 25 years until she retired with a pension of 250 rupees in 1898, when the observatory closed.

She served as the meteorological superintendent and reporter for the Madras government from 1881. Pogson was the first woman to attempt to be elected a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, being nominated by her father in 1886. Although the society had elected a few women as honorary members, all the fellows had been male up to this time, her nomination was withdrawn when two attorneys deemed female fellows illegal under the provisions of the society's royal charter dating from 1831, which referred to fellows only as he. She was nominated in 1920 by Oxford professor H. H. Turner, five years after the Royal Astronomical Society first opened its doors to women. After retiring from astronomy, she married Herbert Clement Kent, a captain in the Merchant Navy, on 17 August 1902 in Red Hill, Australia; the couple returned to England, living in Bournemouth and London. Pogson died in Croydon

Joenal Castma

Joenal Castma is a retired Haitian-American soccer player who played professionally in the United States and Poland. Castma began his college soccer career at St. John's University in 1994. In 1996, he transferred to the University of Massachusetts Amherst, playing on the men’s soccer team in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, Castma played for the Long Island Rough Riders U-23 team. In 1998, he turned professional with the Worcester Wildfire of the USISL A-League. In April 1999, Castma signed with the Minnesota Thunder; the Thunder traded Castma to the Pittsburgh Riverhounds where he played until 2001. Castma played one game for during the 1999-2000 season. In 2000, the Haiti national football team called up Castma, he played for the team in both 2000 and 2002. On April 17, 2006, the University of Pittsburgh hired Castma as an assistant with the women’s soccer team. On January 5, 2008 Allegheny Force FC hired Castma as the Director of Coaching and Player development, based out of the east part of Pittsburgh.

In this role he has sent numerous players to Div 1, 2, 3 schools, many of which who received scholarships at these programs. In June 2018 Beadling Soccer Club hired Castma as the New Executive Director of Coaching and Player development Pittsburgh Panthers: Joenal Castma