Counts of Toggenburg
The counts of Toggenburg ruled the Toggenburg region of today’s canton of St. Gallen and adjacient areas during the 13th to 15th centuries. A baronial family of Toggenburg is mentioned in the 11th and 12th centuries and they are named for their ancestral seat, now known as Alt-Toggenburg, near Kirchberg, St. Gallen. The family is attested from the early 13th century, as Toccanburg, Diethelm I was followed by Diethelm II. Either of these was the beneficiary of the inheritance of a number of noble families in c.1200. In 1187, one Werner of Toggenburg became abbot of Einsiedeln, the legend of a Saint Idda of Toggenburg is recorded in 1481, making her the wife of a count of Toggenburg, possibly either Diethelm, or one Heinrich. According to the legend, the husband defenestrated his innocent wife on suspicion of adultery and she survived and lived as an anchoress in Fischingen. Her veneration there is attested for 1410, the early counts were in competition with St. Gallen Abbey, the bishops of Constance and the counts of Kyburg.
The inheritance disputes motivated the donation of religious establishments in Bubikon, Rüti, Oberbollingen and Wurmsbach in the 1190s, in 1436, the death of the last count, Frederick VII, Count of Toggenburg, led to the Old Zurich War over the succession. Friedrich VII was buried in a chapel, the so-called Toggenburger Kapelle given by his wife, Elisabeth Countess of Toggenburg. Elisabeth spent her last days in the Rüti Abbey, writing on 20 June 1442 that she had retreated there,14 members of the family were buried in the Toggenburg vault in the church of the Rüti Abbey
Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools associated primarily with Neanderthals. They date to the Middle Paleolithic, the part of the European Old Stone Age. The culture was named after the site of Le Moustier. Similar flintwork has been all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East. Handaxes and points constitute the industry, sometimes a Levallois technique or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes, Mousterian tools that have been found in Europe were made by Neanderthals and date from around 160,000 BP and 40,000 BP. In North Africa and the Near East, Mouseterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans, possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B. The industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45, Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa.
Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton, located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, gorhams Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites of Mousterian culture, including Teshik-Tash, siberia has many sites with Mousterian style implements, eg Denisova Cave. Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Synoptic table of the old world prehistoric cultures Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
Wattwil is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of Toggenburg in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. On 1 January 2013 the municipality of Krinau merged into Wattwil, since the merger, the new municipality has an area of 51.17 km2. Before the merger, Wattwil had an area, as of 2006, of this area,52. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 37. 3% is forested. Of the rest of the land,8. 3% is settled, Krinau had an area, as of 2006, of 7.3 km2. Of this area,57. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,2. 8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. It consisted of the village of Krinau and the hamlets of Altschwil, Au, Gurtberg, Krinäuli, Kapf, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or, two Unicorns Heads couped addorsed Azure. Wattwil has a population of 8,581, Krinau had a population of 260. As of 2007, about 23. 1% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Of the foreign population,192 are from Germany,335 are from Italy,717 are from ex-Yugoslavia,29 are from Austria,388 are from Turkey, over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -2. 6%.
Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, of the Swiss national languages,7,182 speak German,28 people speak French,238 people speak Italian, and 3 people speak Romansh. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Wattwil is,1,056 children or 12. 8% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 1,155 teenagers or 14. 0% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,1,001 people or 12. 1% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 1,209 people or 14. 6% are between 30 and 39,1,087 people or 13. 2% are between 40 and 49, and 1,015 people or 12. 3% are between 50 and 59. In 2000 there were 1,049 persons who were living alone in a private dwelling, there were 1,760 persons who were part of a couple without children, and 4,632 who were part of a couple with children. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 37. 5% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SP. In Wattwil about 63. 1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, the remainder did not answer this question.
The villages of Wattwil and Lichtensteig are designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites, there are several notable buildings in the municipality, including a church, a former abbey, and Burg Iberg. The Neoclassical Reformed church of Wattwil was built in 1845-48 and restored in 1969, the former Capuchin abbey, St. Mary of the Angels, was built as a walled monastery
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Kirchberg, St. Gallen
Kirchberg is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of Toggenburg in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. Kirchberg is first mentioned in 1222 as Kilchberc, Kirchberg has an area, as of 2006, of 42.6 km2. Of this area,59. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land, 9% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is located in the Toggenburg Wahlkreis and it is the most north-western municipality in the Wahlkreis and in bordered in the west by canton Thurgau and in the east by the Thur river. It consists of the village of Kirchberg on a plateau in the center of the municipality, the village of Gähwil south of Kirchberg. Additionally, scattered around the municipality, there are the hamlets of Müselbach, Dietschwil, Ötwil, Rupperswil, Bräägg, Wolfikon, Lütenriet, Buomberg, Bäbikon and Husen. The blazon of the coat of arms is Per pall Or a Lion rampant Gules crowned Argent and Or a Semi Eagle displayed issuant Azure langued Gules. Kirchberg has a population of 8,874, as of 2007, about 22. 9% of the population was made up of foreign nationals.
Of the foreign population,102 are from Germany,187 are from Italy,1,002 are from ex-Yugoslavia,34 are from Austria,284 are from Turkey, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 2. 3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common, of the Swiss national languages,6,829 speak German,15 people speak French,134 people speak Italian, and 7 people speak Romansh. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Kirchberg is,1,148 children or 14. 5% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 1,235 teenagers or 15. 6% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,901 people or 11. 4% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 1,286 people or 16. 3% are between 30 and 39,1,170 people or 14. 8% are between 40 and 49, and 792 people or 10. 0% are between 50 and 59. In 2000 there were 709 persons who were living alone in a private dwelling, there were 1,447 persons who were part of a couple without children, and 5,004 who were part of a couple with children.
In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 37. 9% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SP and the FDP. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Kirchberg about 63. 1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, the remainder did not answer this question. The historical population is given in the table, The catholic parish and pilgrimage church of St. Peter
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity. The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD and this somewhat ambiguously defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. Although there is no consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end, nor exactly when Medieval Latin should begin. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin, the latter during those centuries served as proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains to a large extent classical in overall features, some are more literary and classical, some more inclined to the vernacular. Nor is Late Latin identical to Christian or patristic Latin, the writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote much Late Latin, serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary.
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern terms or concepts, instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century. The term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then, Imperial Latin went on into English literature, Fowlers History of Roman Literature mentions it in 1903. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin, politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, and yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed, subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works. The Silver Age was extended a century and the four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and often pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author.
Its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, the multi-volume set had many editions and expansions by other authors subsequently. The title varies somewhat, most commonly used was Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis and it has been translated by expressions of widely different meanings. The uncertainty is understanding what media and infima, the media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Canges own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, writers of the middle age. Canges Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, in the former case the infimae appears extraneous, it recognizes the corruptio of the corrupta Latinitas Cange said his Glossary covered. The two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero
Switzerland as a federal state
The constitution represents the first time that the Swiss were governed by a strong central government instead of being simply a collection of independent cantons bound by treaties. In 1847, the period of Swiss history known as Restoration ended with the out of a war between the conservative Roman Catholic and the liberal Protestant cantons. The conflict between the Catholic and Protestant cantons had existed since the Reformation, and in the 19th century the Protestant population now had a majority, when Lucerne, in retaliation, recalled the Jesuits the same year, groups of armed radicals invaded the canton. This caused a revolt, mostly because rural cantons were strongholds of ultramontanism, the confederate army was raised against the members of the Sonderbund. The army was composed of soldiers of all the states except Neuchâtel. Ticino, while a Catholic canton, did not join the Sonderbund, the war lasted for less than a month, causing fewer than 100 casualties. Apart from small riots, this was the last armed conflict on Swiss territory, at the end of the Sonderbund War, the Diet began to debate a new federal constitution drawn up by Johann Conrad Kern of Thurgau and Henri Druey of Vaud.
In the summer of 1848 this constitution was accepted by fifteen, the new constitution was declared on 12 September 1848. The new constitution created, for the first time, Swiss citizenship in addition to cantonal citizenship, a federal central government was set up to which the cantons gave up certain parts of their sovereign rights, retaining the rest. The Federal Council or executive consisted of seven elected by the Federal Assembly. In the 1848 Constitution, the entire Federal Council was granted the supreme executive, each member of the Federal Council heads one of seven executive departments. The chairman of the Council holds the title of President of the Swiss Confederation for a one-year term, the judiciary was made up of eleven members elected for three years by the Federal Assembly. The Bundesgericht was chiefly confined to cases in which the Confederation was a party. All constitutional questions are however reserved for the Federal Assembly, a Federal university and a polytechnic school were to be founded.
All military capitulations were forbidden in the future, all cantons were required to treat Swiss citizens who belonged to one of the Christian confessions like their own citizens. Previously, citizens of one canton regarded citizens of the others as the citizens of foreign countries, all Christians were guaranteed the exercise of their religion but the Jesuits and similar religious orders were not to be received in any canton. German and Italian were recognized as national languages, although there was now a fully organized central government, Switzerland was a very decentralized federation. Most authority remained with the cantons, including all powers not explicitly granted to the federal government, one of the first acts of the Federal Assembly was to exercise the power given them of determining the home of the Federal authorities, and on 28 November 1848 Bern was chosen
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered with Italy to the west, Hungary to the north and Romania to the east and Albania and Greece to the south. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia and Vojvodina, the SFRY traces back to 29 June 1943 when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposal of King Peter II thus ending the monarchy. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, rising ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s led to dissidence among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics. This led to the federation collapsing along the borders, followed by the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992. The term former Yugoslavia is now commonly used retrospectively, the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made-up of jug and slavija. The Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian word jug means south, while slavija denotes a land of the Slavs, thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be South-Slavia or Land of the South Slavs.
The term is intended to denote the lands occupied by the six South Slavic nations, Croats, Montenegrins, the full official name of the federation varied significantly between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, the name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced, the state is most commonly referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity, particularly by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany, by 17 April 1941, Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army and the Yugoslav Partisans. The Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, and under his command the movement soon began establishing liberated territories which attracted the attentions of the occupying forces.
The coalition of parties and prominent individuals behind the movement was the Peoples Liberation Front. The Front formed a political body, the Anti-Fascist Council for the Peoples Liberation of Yugoslavia. The AVNOJ, which met for the first time in Partisan-liberated Bihać on 26 November 1942, during 1943, the Yugoslav Partisans began attracting serious attention from the Germans. In two major operations of Fall Weiss and Fall Schwartz, the Axis attempted to stamp-out the Yugoslav resistance once, on both occasions, despite heavy casualties, the Group succeeded in evading the trap and retreating to safety. The Partisans emerged stronger than before and now occupied a significant portion of Yugoslavia
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats