Tok Pisin is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea. It is an official language of Papua New Guinea and the most used language in the country. However, in parts of Western, Central, Oro Province and Milne Bay Provinces, the use of Tok Pisin has a shorter history, is less universal among older people. While it developed as a trade pidgin, Tok Pisin has become a distinct language in its own right, it is referred to by Anglophones as "New Guinea Pidgin" or "Pidgin English". Between five and six million people use Tok Pisin to some degree. Many now learn it as a first language, in particular the children of parents or grandparents who spoke different vernaculars. Urban families in particular, those of police and defence force members communicate among themselves in Tok Pisin, either never gaining fluency in a vernacular, or learning a vernacular as a second language, after Tok Pisin. One million people now use Tok Pisin as a primary language. Tok Pisin is "slowly crowding out" other languages of Papua New Guinea.
Tok is derived from English "talk", but has a wider application meaning "word", "speech", or "language". Pisin derives from the English word pidgin. While Tok Pisin's name in the language is Tok Pisin, it is called New Guinea Pidgin in English. Papua New Guinean anglophones invariably refer to Tok Pisin as "Pidgin" when speaking English. However, professional linguists prefer to use the term Tok Pisin, as this is considered a distinct language in its own right; the language can no longer be considered a pidgin speaking: it is now a first language for numerous people not a lingua franca to facilitate communication with speakers of other languages, as such is more rightly called a creole. The Tok Pisin language is a result of Pacific Islanders intermixing, when people speaking numerous different languages were sent to work on plantations in Queensland and various islands; the labourers began to develop a pidgin, drawing vocabulary from English, but from German, Malay and their own Austronesian languages.
This English-based pidgin evolved into Tok Pisin in German New Guinea. It became a used lingua franca – and language of interaction between rulers and ruled, among the ruled themselves who did not share a common vernacular. Tok Pisin and the related Bislama in Vanuatu and Pijin in the Solomon Islands, which developed in parallel, have traditionally been treated as varieties of a single Melanesian Pidgin English or "Neo-Melanesian" language; the flourishing of the English-based Tok Pisin in German New Guinea is to be contrasted with Hiri Motu, the lingua franca of Papua, derived not from English but from Motu, the vernacular of the indigenous people of the Port Moresby area. Along with English and Hiri Motu, Tok Pisin is one of the three official languages of Papua New Guinea, it is the language of debate in the national parliament. Most government documents are produced in English, but public information campaigns are partially or in Tok Pisin. While English is the main language in the education system, some schools use Tok Pisin in the first three years of elementary education to promote early literacy.
There are considerable variations in vocabulary and grammar in various parts of Papua New Guinea, with distinct dialects in the New Guinea Highlands, the north coast of Papua New Guinea, islands outside of New Guinea. For example, Pidgin speakers from Finschhafen speak rather and have difficulty making themselves understood elsewhere; the variant spoken on Bougainville and Buka is moderately distinct from that of New Ireland and East New Britain but is much closer to that than it is to the Pijin spoken in the rest of the Solomon Islands. The Tok Pisin alphabet contains 22 letters, five of which are vowels, four digraphs; the letters are: a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, yThe four digraphs note diphthongs, as well as certain consonants: ⟨ai⟩, ⟨au⟩, ⟨oi⟩ and ⟨ng⟩ Tok Pisin, like many pidgins and creoles, has a simpler phonology than the superstrate language. It has 5 vowels. However, this varies with the level of education of the speaker; the following is the "core" phonemic inventory, common to all varieties of Tok Pisin.
More educated speakers, and/or those where the substrate language have larger phoneme inventories, may have as many as 10 distinct vowels. Nasal plus plosive offsets lose the plosive element in Tok Pisin e.g. English hand becomes Tok Pisin han. Furthermore, voiced plosives become voiceless at the ends of words, so that English pig is rendered as pik in Tok Pisin. Where symbols appear in pairs the one to the left represents a voiceless consonant. Voiced plosives are pronounced by many speakers as prenasalized plosives. /t/, /d/, /l/ can be either dental or alveolar consonants, while /n/ is only alveolar. In most Tok Pisin dialects, the phoneme / r / is pronounced as flap. Tok Pisin has five vowels, similar to the vowels of Spanish and many other five-vowel lang
The Daniel Carter Beard Bridge, is a yellow twin span steel bowstring arch bridge crossing the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio. It carries Interstate 471 between Cincinnati and Newport, Kentucky; as to the origin of this nickname, its yellow arches are said to be similar to the "Golden Arches" logo of McDonald's restaurant. The nickname was coined by local residents. In the 1980s, McDonald's considered opening a floating restaurant at the base after the nickname caught on, but never went to construction; this bridge has a total span of 2100 feet. It is named in honor of Daniel Carter Beard, the founder of the Sons of Daniel Boone and one of the founders of the Boy Scouts of America; the bridge was designed by Hazelet + Erdal, now URS Corporation. The bridge was configured with three lanes and an emergency shoulder on each span. In December 2000, with the completion of a reconstruction project on the 3rd Street Viaduct approach, the bridge was reconfigured to four lanes on each span. Transport portal Engineering portal United States portal Ohio portal List of crossings of the Ohio River List of longest arch bridge spans Daniel Carter Beard Bridge at Bridges & Tunnels Daniel Carter Beard Bridge at Cincinnati Transit Daniel Carter Beard Bridge at Structurae
The Roman Villa of Sendim is located in Lugar do Agrelo, a village in Sendim, in the municipality of Felgueiras, in the district of Porto, Portugal. It was built in the fourth century, located on a platform overlooking a small valley, near the Vizela River basin. Villa Romana de Sendim is a villa rustica; the dwellings have opus signinum floors and polychrome mosaics with geometric motifs. The archaeological material from excavations is varied, consisting of thousands of common use ceramic fragments for the kitchen and table, luxurious ceramics, glass and bronze coins. In December 1994, it was classified as Property of Public Interest. Arqueologia Patrimoniocultural Portugal VV. AA. Archaeological heritage of Felgueiras. In Plano Municipal Director of the City Hall of Felgueiras. Felgueiras: Felgueiras Town Hall
Secret Millionaires Club is an American animated series that aired on The Hub / Hub Network from October 23, 2011 to October 12, 2014. The series features famed investor Warren Buffett as a secret mentor to a group of kids who learn practical life lessons during fun-filled adventures in business; the series aired reruns on Qubo from December 26, 2016 to September 29, 2019. The series follows adventures in business with Radley, Jones, their robot Starty, Warren Buffett as their wise mentor; every episode focuses on different business situations that kids might encounter in their own lives like having to raise money for something they want, or helping a local merchant understand why their business isn't working. The kids are smart and enterprising, come to realize that the best investment they can make is an investment in themselves. Warren Buffett – Warren Buffett is a millionaire who serves as the wise mentor of Elena, Jones and Lisa. Elena Ramirez – Elena is an eternal optimist with an upbeat personality who takes a positive approach to life.
In her brown eyes, the world awash in many shades. Her thinking is concise, she is the swing vote between Radley when neither can see the others' point of view. If Elena were a stockbroker, she'd be both a bear depending on market conditions. David Allan Jones – Jones is funny, the daredevil of the group, a sports fanatic. In fact, his clothing attire has one piece of sporting equipment attached to one of his hands. He's a risk-taker and his impulsiveness gets him into trouble. If the world is a chess game, Jones is off playing checkers, he looks before he leaps nor does he think ahead to examine the consequences of his actions. His friends have to do that for him. Radley Hemming – Radley is all intellectual, a "techie" supreme, the kid who would shower with his computer if he could. Conservative in nature, he balances his emotions with a practical and well thought out approach to life, he never makes a move without first examining every possible result. His slow and methodical deliberations drives Jones to distraction.
In the world of investing, they make a winning pair, Elena has a small crush on him in some episodes. Starty – Radley's robot. D. E. B. – An application, on Radley's tablet computer. Radley would consult D. E. B. about any word definitions. Hou "Lisa" Lihua – Lisa is a Beijing student who never leaves without her Parisian purse. Lisa would do nearly anything to join the United Nations. Warren Buffett – Himself Guy Pinkham – Warren Buffett Chris Jai Alex – Starty, Radley Hemming Ogie Banks – Radley Hemming Debbie Bosanek – D. E. B. Julie Maddalena – Elena Ramirez Stephanie Sheh – Hou "Lisa" Lihua Steve Staley – David Allan Jones, Sir Lancelot, David Beeks Odell Atkinson – Ian Graham, Atan Seth O. Atkinson – Tough Teen Johnny Yong Bosch – Bohai Kevin Brief – Warren Buffett Christine Marie Cabanos – Elena Ramirez's Brothers Nick Cannon – Himself Gisele Bundchen – Herself Bill Gates – Himself Dre Gordon – Principal Erika Harlacher – Girl Player, Hayley Kyle Hebert – Enzo Jay-Z – Himself Mela Lee – Becky, Millie Wendee Lee – Hostess Amanda C. Miller – Skateboarder, Flower Shop Owner, Mrs. Ramirez, Millie's Mom Jake O'Connor – Skateboarder, Truffles the Pig John D. Olivas – Himself Shaquille O'Neal – Himself Kelly Rowland – Herself Victor Sgroi – Pete Jr.
Mr. Evans Joe J. Thomas – Sid, Millie's Dad, Mr. Graham Liu Yang – Herself Jo Young – Sebastian Ken Duer – Executive in Charge of Production Jim E. Lara – Executive in Charge of Production Mami Okada – Casting Director Kaeko Sakamoto – Casting Director Eric P. Sherman – Voice Director Mark Young – Story Editor, Executive in Charge of Production Secret Millionaires Club at Internet Movie Database
Ian Frederick Adukwei Hesse is a Ghanaian academic, physician and a Presbyterian minister. He is an associate professor at the Department of Physiology at the University of Ghana Medical School, a consultant physician and the Vice President of Accra Medical College, he was Assistant Secretary and Vice-President of the Ghana Medical Association. He is an ordained minister of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana, he is involved in prison reform in Ghana. A member of the notable Hesse family, Hesse had his secondary education at Achimota School from 1965 to 1971, where he obtained his GCE Ordinary and Advanced Level certificates, he entered the University of Ghana Medical School directly without a pre-medical course due to his superior performance in the final examinations. He obtained his bachelor of science in physiology in 1975, his bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery certificate in 1978. While at the University of Ghana Medical School, he served as secretary of the Ghana Medical School Students Association and participated in demonstrations organised by student bodies opposing the "unigov" concept of governance during the Acheampong regime.
He enrolled at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom in 1980 and was awarded his doctorate degree in 1983. He returned to Ghana after his stint in the United Kingdom and joined the staff of the University of Ghana Medical School as a lecturer in the Physiology department and the department of Medicine and Therapeutics. In 1995 he was promoted to senior lecturer status at the departments of Physiology, Medicine and Therapeutics. A year he was made head of the Physiology department of the University of Ghana Medical School, he served in that capacity for two years. He became an associate professor of Physiology, Medicine and Therapeutics from 2002 until 2005 when he became a chief executive of the executive health care and consult, he subsequently became a part-time lecturer at the Physiology, Medicine and Therapeutics department of the University of Ghana Medical School. He is the Vice-President of the Accra Medical College, he worked in various hospitals after completing his graduate studies at the University of Birmingham until 1987 when he became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London.
Upon his return to Ghana in 1988 he joined the Department of Medicine at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital as a consultant physician. A year he was made assistant secretary of the Ghana Medical Association, he served in that capacity until 1992. In 1995 he was vice-president of the association and head of the chest department at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, a position he held for three years; that same year, he joined the National Tuberculosis Program as a member of its advisory board. In 1999 he became a member of the Technical Working Group of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. In 2005 he became the Chief Executive of the Executive Health Consult, he is the founder of the Ghana Asthma Society. Adukwei trained as a pastor at the Ramseyer Training Centre in Kwahu, he was ordained a minister by the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. He is the national leader of the Prison Ministry of Ghana, He pastors a Presbyterian church in Accra, he was a member of the Accra Ridge Church. His research interests encompass areas of hypertension and tuberculosis and has authored and co-authored various articles that have been published in journals such as the Ghana Medical Journal and the West African Medical Journal concerning these topics.
Some of his works include. 2010 First Nationwide Survey of the Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Ghana, 2018 For his services to the Ghana Medical Association, the medical profession and the Ghana at large. He is married to Dr. Afua Adwo Jectey Hesse, she was the chief executive officer of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Some of Adukwei's interests include music, he played viola for the Achimota School Ochestra. He was a member of the Aggrey Memorial Chapel Choir at Achimota School, the Accra Ridge Church Choir
Widerstehe doch der Sünde, BWV 54, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the solo cantata for alto in Weimar between 1711 and 1714, performed it on the seventh Sunday after Trinity, 15 July 1714, it is Bach's first extant church cantata for a solo voice. The text of the short work was written by Georg Christian Lehms, for two arias and a connecting recitative; the topic is to resist sin, based on the Epistle of James. The text was published in a 1711 collection, dedicated to the Sunday Oculi, it is not known when Bach composed the work but is assumed that he performed it as part of his monthly cantata productions in 1714 on the seventh Sunday after Trinity, 15 July. The solo voice is accompanied by strings: two viola parts and continuo; the composition begins with a striking dissonant chord. The history of the composition is not clear; the text was written by Georg Christian Lehms for Oculi, the third Sunday in Lent, published in 1711 in Gottgefälliges Kirchen-Opffer. It concentrates on avoiding sin, based on the Epistle of James.
The first line of movement 3 quotes 1 John 3:8. Bach may have composed the cantata before taking up regular cantata compositions in Weimar, he was appointed concertmaster of the Weimar court capelle of the co-reigning dukes Wilhelm Ernst and Ernst August of Saxe-Weimar, on 2 March 1714. As concertmaster, he assumed the principal responsibility for composing new works cantatas for the Schlosskirche, on a monthly schedule; the Bach scholar Alfred Dürr suggested that Bach performed the cantata for the Seventh Sunday after Trinity of 1714. The prescribed readings for the Sunday are from the Epistle to the Romans, "the wages of sin is death; the cantata text shows no connection to either Gospel. While Dürr assumes that Bach first performed the cantata on 15 July 1714, other scholars arrive at different dates. John Eliot Gardiner and others assume Oculi that year which would make it the earliest cantata performed after the promotion, it is his first extant church cantata for a solo voice, followed by Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut, BWV 199, for soprano.
The cantata is the first of four written for a single alto soloist, the others, all composed in 1726, being Geist und Seele wird verwirret, BWV 35, Vergnügte Ruh, beliebte Seelenlust, BWV 170, Gott soll allein mein Herze haben, BWV 169, two of which have texts by Lehms. There is some debate what sort of singer might have been the intended or actual first performer of "Widerstehe doch der Sünde" given its low range and tessitura compared with other alto solo writing by Bach such as Geist und Seele wird verwirret, BWV 35 or Vergnügte Ruh, beliebte Seelenlust, BWV 170. If the cantata was written early in Bach's Weimar period perhaps the soloist could have been Adam Immanuel Weldig, the only falsettist in the Weimar court chapel in 1708. However, Weldig's designation as "falsettist" may indicate. Weldig left Weimar in 1713 so could not have sung if the first performance was as late as 1714 as suggested by Dürr. Nowadays the solo part in this cantata is taken by a contralto or countertenor; the cantata, structured in three movements, is scored as chamber music for a solo alto voice, two violins, two violas, basso continuo.
The duration is given as 14 minutes. The manuscript title page reads: "Cantata.à 2 Violini, 2 Viole, Solo, è Cont.: del J. S. B.". In the following table of the movements, the scoring follows the Neue Bach-Ausgabe; the keys and time signatures are taken from Alfred Dürr, using the symbols for common time and alla breve. The continuo, playing throughout, is not shown; the first movement, "Widerstehe doch der Sünde" is a da capo aria, which opens with a surprising dissonance and leaves its key of E-flat major open until a cadence in measure 8. Dürr describes it as a call to resistance and compares it to the beginning of the recitative "Siehe, ich stehe vor der Tür", a call to be ready, in the cantata for Advent Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61, composed in 1714. Gardiner comments: "It is a deliberate shock tactic to rouse his listeners to the need to'stand firm against all sinning, or its poison will possess you'". Bach used the first aria again in his St Mark Passion; the recitative "Die Art verruchter Sünden" is secco, accompanied by the continuo.
The words "So zeigt sich nur ein leerer Schatten und übertünchtes Grab" are expressed in "pale" harmonies. The final lines are arioso and illustrate in Sie ist als wie ein scharfes Schwert, das uns durch Leib und Seele fährt the movement of the sword by fast runs in the continuo; the final aria "Wer Sünde tut, der ist vom Teufel" is again a da capo aria, but shows elements of a four-part fugue for the voice, the violins in unison, the violas in unison and the continuo. Gardiner describes the theme as "insinuating chromatic" and the "contorted counter-subject to portray the wily shackles of the devil"; the sortable listing is taken from the selection provided by Aryeh Oron on the Bach-Cantatas website. The sortable table is based on the listing on the Bach Cantatas website; the type of orchestra is shown as a large group by red background, as an ensemble playing period instruments in informed performance by green background. Widerstehe doch der Sünde, BWV 54: Scores at the Intern