A tokamak is a device which uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus. The tokamak is one of several types of magnetic confinement devices being developed to produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power; as of 2016, it is the leading candidate for a practical fusion reactor. Tokamaks were conceptualized in the 1950s by Soviet physicists Igor Tamm and Andrei Sakharov, inspired by a letter by Oleg Lavrentiev. Meanwhile, the first working tokamak was attributed to the work of Natan Yavlinskii on the T-1, it had been demonstrated that a stable plasma equilibrium requires magnetic field lines that wind around the torus in a helix. Devices like the z-pinch and stellarator demonstrated serious instabilities, it was the development of the concept now known as the safety factor that guided tokamak development. The first tokamak, the T-1, began operation in 1958. By the mid-1960s, the tokamak designs began to show improved performance. Initial results were ignored. A second set of results was published in 1968, this time claiming performance far in advance of any other machine, was considered unreliable.
This led to the invitation of a delegation from the United Kingdom to make their own measurements. These confirmed the Soviet results, their 1969 publication resulted in a stampede of tokamak construction. By the mid-1970s, dozens of tokamaks were in use around the world. By the late 1970s, these machines had reached all of the conditions needed for practical fusion, although not at the same time nor in a single reactor. With the goal of breakeven now in sight, a new series of machines were designed that would run on a fusion fuel of deuterium and tritium; these machines, notably the Joint European Torus, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and JT-60, had the explicit goal of reaching breakeven. Instead, these machines demonstrated new problems. Solving these would require a much larger and more expensive machine, beyond the abilities of any one country. After an initial agreement between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev in November 1985, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor effort emerged and remains the primary international effort to develop practical fusion power.
Many smaller designs, offshoots like the spherical tokamak, continue to be used to investigate performance parameters and other issues. As of 2019, JET remains the record holder for fusion output, reaching 16 MW of output for 24 MW of input heating power; the word tokamak is a transliteration of the Russian word токамак, an acronym of either: "тороидальная камера с магнитными катушками" – toroidal chamber with magnetic coils. The term was created in 1957 by Igor Golovin, the vice-director of the Laboratory of Measuring Apparatus of Academy of Science, today's Kurchatov Institute. A similar term, "tokomag", was proposed for a time. In 1934, Mark Oliphant, Paul Harteck and Ernest Rutherford were the first to achieve fusion on Earth, using a particle accelerator to shoot deuterium nuclei into a metal foil containing deuterium or other atoms; this allowed them to measure the nuclear cross section of various fusion reactions, determined that the deuterium-deuterium reaction occurred at a lower energy than other reactions, peaking at about 100,000 electronvolts.
Accelerator-based fusion is not practical. These scatterings cause the particles to lose energy to the point where they can no longer undergo fusion; the energy put into these particles is thus lost, it is easy to demonstrate this is much more energy than the resulting fusion reactions can release. To maintain fusion and produce net energy output, the bulk of the fuel must be raised to high temperatures so its atoms are colliding at high speed. In 1944, Enrico Fermi calculated the reaction would be self-sustaining at about 50,000,000 K. During the Manhattan Project, the first practical way to reach these temperatures was created, using an atomic bomb. In 1944, Fermi gave a talk on the physics of fusion in the context of a then-hypothetical hydrogen bomb. However, some thought had been given to a controlled fusion device, Jim Tuck and Stanislaw Ulam had attempted such using shaped charges driving a metal foil infused with deuterium, although without success; the first attempts to build a practical fusion machine took place in the United Kingdom, where George Paget Thomson had selected the pinch effect as a promising technique in 1945.
After several failed attempts to gain funding, he gave up and asked two graduate students, Stan Cousins and Alan Ware, to build a device out of surplus radar equipment. This was operated in 1948, but showed no clear evidence of fusion and failed to gain the interest of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment. In 1950, Oleg Lavrentiev a Red
The 2001 Vuelta a España was the 56th edition of the Vuelta a España, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Vuelta began in Salamanca, with an individual time trial on 8 September, Stage 12 occurred on 20 September with a stage from Ordino; the race finished in Madrid on 30 September. 20 September 2001 — Ordino to Estació d'Esquí d'Ordino-Alcalís, 17.1 km 21 September 2001 — Andorra to Universal Studios Port Aventura, 206 km 22 September 2001 — Tarragona to Vinaròs, 170.5 km 23 September 2001 — Valencia to Alto de Aitana, 207.2 km 24 September 2001 — Province of Valencia 25 September 2001 — Alcoy to Murcia, 153.3 km 26 September 2001 — Murcia to Albacete, 159.5 km 27 September 2001 — Albacete to Cuenca, 154.2 km 29 September 2001 — Cuenca to Guadalajara, 168 km 29 September 2001 — Guadalajara to Alto de Abantos, 176.3 km 30 September 2001 — Madrid to Madrid, 38 km
The Waverly East Bremer Avenue Commercial Historic District is a nationally recognized historic district located in Waverly, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. At the time of its nomination it contained 53 resources, which included 41 contributing buildings, 12 non-contributing buildings; the historic district covers a portion of the city's central business district between the Cedar River on the west and the former right-of-way for the Chicago Great Western Railway on the east. The buildings are brick and two stories in height, but there are one- and three-story buildings as well; the first floors continue to house commercial retail stores, while the upper floors house offices, apartments or are vacant. The exceptions are the Chicago Great Western Railway Depot, the Waverly Municipal Hydroelectric Powerhouse, the US Post Office building, the Lutheran Mutual Aid Society Home Office Building; the powerhouse is individually listed on the National Register.
The period of significance is from 1855 to 1964, the buildings are constructed during that time frame. Most of the buildings are second generation structures. Architectural influence came from Queen Anne and Neoclassical styles. Most of the buildings line both sides of East Bremer Avenue, with a few on First Avenue SE
Patrick Bernard Kavanagh was a senior British police officer. Kavanagh was educated at Glasgow, he served in the Rifle Brigade from 1941 to 1943 and the Parachute Regiment from 1943 to 1946, ending his service as a Lieutenant. In 1946, he joined the Manchester City Police as a Constable, he rose through the ranks to Superintendent, in 1964 was appointed Assistant Chief Constable of Cardiff City Police. When it amalgamated to form South Wales Constabulary in 1969 he became ACC of the new force and was promoted Deputy Chief Constable in 1972. On 1 January 1974, he was appointed Assistant Commissioner "B" in the Metropolitan Police and was awarded the Queen's Police Medal in the 1974 New Year Honours. Kavanagh was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1977 New Year Honours. On 1 August 1977, he was promoted to Deputy Commissioner, he retired in 1983 and died in 2013, aged 90. Biography, Who Was Who
The Institute of Asset Management is a UK-based not-for-profit professional body for those involved in acquisition and care of physical assets critical infrastructure. It was instrumental in the development of the international standard ISO 55000 for asset management; the IAM was incorporated on 26 February 2004. It led the production that year of the initial draft document PAS 55, its substantial revision to develop PAS 55:2008, contributed to ISO Project Committee 251 between 2010 and 2013 before three international standards were launched in London on 5 February 2014. Babcock International and Scottish Water were the first two companies to be independently certified by BSI to the new asset management systems standard ISO 55001; the IAM aims to advance the science and practice of asset management, by promoting and enabling the generation and application of knowledge and good practice, help individuals become demonstrably competent. The Institute developed endorsement schemes for recommending competent assessors and training providers.
Membership grade is dependent on the individual member's experience and / or formal qualification, whilst a Corporate Membership is available. Affiliate Member Associate Member Member Fellow IAM Asset Management Academy
Li Daoguang, courtesy name Taiqiu, formally Marquess Cheng of Jincheng, was an official of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor for about two years. It is not known. HIs family was from what would become Hua Prefecture, but by Li Daoguang's time had moved to the Tang Dynasty capital Chang'an; the family claimed to be descended from the Han Dynasty general Li Ling, who had surrendered to Xiongnu after being surrounded. According to their claims, an ancestor of theirs and descendant of Li Ling became a subject of Northern Wei and, as he met the Northern Wei emperor at Bing Hall, was given the family name of Bing. Li Daoguang's great-grandfather Bing Ming served as a commandant during Sui Dynasty and was created the Duke of Longju. Li Daoguang's grandfather Bing Can became a subject of Tang Dynasty, as he was an acquaintance of Tang's founder Emperor Gaozu. In order to observe naming taboo for Emperor Gaozu's father Li Bing, Emperor Gaozu had the Bing family's name changed to Li. Li Daoguang's father Li Kuan served as the minister of worship during the reign of Emperor Gaozu's grandson Emperor Gaozong, carried the title of Duke of Longxi.
During the reign of Emperor Gaozong's wife Wu Zetian, Li Daoguang served as the prefect of Bian Prefecture. During successive Khitan and Eastern Tujue incursions in 696, all of the prefectures south and north of the Yellow River were panicking, but under Li's governance, Bian Prefecture was not disturbed; that year, he was recalled to serve as director of palace affairs, Wu Zetian gave him the designation Tong Fengge Luantai Pingzhangshi, making him a chancellor de facto. He was created the Marquess of Jincheng. In 697, he was made the acting secretary general of the capital prefecture Luo Prefecture. In 698, he was removed from his chancellor position and again made prefect of Bian Prefecture; that was the last reference to Li Daoguang in history, it is not known when he died, although it is known that he was given posthumous honors. His son Li Yuanhong served as a chancellor during the reign of Wu Zetian's grandson Emperor Xuanzong. Old Book of Tang, vol. 98. New Book of Tang, vol. 126. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 205