Nippon Budokan shortened to Budokan, is an indoor arena located in Chiyoda, Japan. Budokan was built for the judo competition in the 1964 Summer Olympics, hence its name, which translates in English as Martial Arts Hall, its primary purpose is to host martial arts contests and for a time was a popular venue for Japanese professional wrestling. It has hosted numerous other sporting events such as the 1967 Women's Volleyball World Championship and other events such as musical concerts. A number of famous rock music acts have played at Budokan; the Beatles were the first rock group to play there, in a series of concerts held between June 30 and July 2, 1966. Several live albums were recorded at Budokan, including releases by Bryan Adams, Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton, Cheap Trick, Dream Theater, John Hiatt, Kiss, Mr. Big, Ozzy Osbourne, Journey; the Nippon Budokan is located in Kitanomaru Park in the center of Tokyo, two minutes' walking distance from Kudanshita Subway Station, near the Imperial Palace and Yasukuni Shrine.
The 42 m high octagonal structure holds 14,471 people. The building is modeled after Yumedono in Hōryū-ji in Nara. Although it functions as a venue for big musical events, its primary purpose is for Japanese martial arts; the national championships of the different branches of the martial arts are held annually at the Budokan. The Budokan has been associated with professional wrestling's big shows from All Japan Pro Wrestling and Pro Wrestling Noah. However, due to declining business following the death of Mitsuharu Misawa and the retirement of Kenta Kobashi, professional wrestling has ceased running regular shows in the Budokan. During Wrestle Kingdom 12, New Japan Pro Wrestling announced that its yearly G1 Climax tournament's finals would be held at the Budokan; the Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki hybrid rules fight held at the Budokan in 1976 is seen as a forerunner to mixed martial arts. K-1, Shooto and Pride Fighting Championships have all held events at the arena; the Beatles were the first rock group to perform at Budokan in a series of five shows held between June 30 and July 2, 1966.
Their appearances were met with opposition from those who felt the appearance of a western pop group would defile the martial arts arena. In July 1973 Japanese television recorded the Santana performance at Budokan; the Budokan gained worldwide fame when American artists Cheap Trick and Bob Dylan used the arena to record their performances, Cheap Trick at Budokan and Bob Dylan at Budokan. In explaining the popularity of the venue for live albums, Eric Clapton described the Tokyo audience as "almost overappreciative" in interviews promoting Just One Night, his own live album recorded at the Budokan; the record for the most Budokan music concerts is held by Eikichi Yazawa, 142 times as of December 19, 2017. Artists that have released live recordings from the venue include: Led Zeppelin. Chicago. Uriah Heep; the Carpenters. Rainbow. Fleetwood Mac. Kiss. Cheap Trick. Eric Clapton. Diana Ross. Eikichi Yazawa. Bob Dylan. Sadao Watanabe. ABBA; the Police. Michael Schenker Group. Toto. Dave Grusin. Michael Schenker Group.
Asia. Frank Sinatra. Iron Maiden. Skid Row Skid Row - Live at Budokan, Tokyo 1992. Diana Ross, Tokyo 1992. Yngwie Malmsteen. Blur. Chic; this was bassist Bernard Edwards's last performance. Diana Ross. Mr. Big. Oasis.
Edo Castle known as Chiyoda Castle, is a flatland castle, built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan. It is today part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace and is in Chiyoda, Tokyo known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate here, it was the residence of the shōgun and location of the shogunate, functioned as the military capital during the Edo period of Japanese history. After the resignation of the shōgun and the Meiji Restoration, it became the Tokyo Imperial Palace; some moats and ramparts of the castle survive to this day. However, the grounds were more extensive during the Edo period, with Tokyo Station and the Marunouchi section of the city lying within the outermost moat, it encompassed Kitanomaru Park, the Nippon Budokan Hall and other landmarks of the surrounding area. The warrior Edo Shigetsugu built his residence in what is now the Honmaru and Ninomaru part of Edo Castle, around the end of the Heian or beginning of the Kamakura period; the Edo clan perished in the 15th century as a result of uprisings in the Kantō region, Ōta Dōkan, a retainer of the Ogigayatsu Uesugi family, built Edo Castle in 1457.
The castle came under the control of the Later Hōjō clan in 1524 after the Siege of Edo. The castle was vacated in 1590 due to the Siege of Odawara. Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo Castle his base after he was offered eight eastern provinces by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he defeated Toyotomi Hideyori, son of Hideyoshi, at the Siege of Osaka in 1615, emerged as the political leader of Japan. Tokugawa Ieyasu received the title of Sei-i Taishōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of Tokugawa's administration. Parts of the area were lying under water; the sea reached the present Nishinomaru area of Edo Castle, Hibiya was a beach. The landscape was changed for the construction of the castle. Most construction started in 1593 and was completed in 1636 under Ieyasu's grandson, Tokugawa Iemitsu. By this time, Edo had a population of 150,000; the existing Honmaru and Sannomaru areas were extended with the addition of the Nishinomaru, Nishinomaru-shita and Kitanomaru areas. The perimeter measured 16 km; the shōgun required the daimyōs to supply building materials or finances, a method shogunate used to keep the powers of the daimyōs in check.
Large granite stones were moved from afar, the size and number of the stones depended on the wealth of the daimyōs. The wealthier ones had to contribute more; those who did not supply stones were required to contribute labor for such tasks as digging the large moats and flattening hills. The earth, taken from the moats was used as landfill for sea-reclamation or to level the ground, thus the construction of Edo Castle laid the foundation for parts of the city where merchants were able to settle. At least 10,000 men were involved in the first phase of the construction and more than 300,000 in the middle phase; when construction ended, the castle had 38 gates. The ramparts were 20 meters high and the outer walls were 12 meters high. Moats forming concentric circles were dug for further protection; some moats reached as far as Ichigaya and Yotsuya, parts of the ramparts survive to this day. This area is bordered by either the Kanda River, allowing ships access. Various fires over the centuries damaged or destroyed parts of the castle and the majority of its buildings being made of timber.
On April 21, 1701, in the Great Pine Corridor of Edo Castle, Asano Takumi-no-kami drew his short sword and attempted to kill Kira Kōzuke-no-suke for insulting him. This triggered the events involving the forty-seven rōnin. After the capitulation of the shogunate in 1867, the inhabitants and shōgun had to vacate the premises; the castle compound was renamed Tokyo Castle in October, 1868, renamed Imperial Castle in 1869. In the year Meiji 2, on the 23rd day of the 10th month of the Japanese calendar the emperor moved to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. A fire consumed the old Edo Castle on the night of May 5, 1873; the area around the old donjon, which burned in the 1657 Meireki fire, became the site of the new Imperial Palace Castle, built in 1888. Some Tokugawa-period buildings which were still standing were destroyed to make space for new structures for the imperial government; the imperial palace building itself, was constructed in Nishinomaru Ward, not in the same location as the shōgun's palace in Honmaru Ward.
The site suffered substantial damage during World War II and in the destruction of Tokyo in 1945. Today the site is part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace; the government declared the area an historic site and has undertaken steps to restore and preserve the remaining structures of Edo Castle. The plan of Edo Castle was not only large but elaborate; the grounds citadels. The Honmaru was with the Ninomaru, Sannomaru extending to the east; the different wards were divided by moats and large stone walls, on which various keeps, defense houses and towers were built. To the east, beyond the Sannomaru was an outer moat, enclosing the Otomachi and Daimyō-Kōji districts. Ishigaki stone walls were constructed around the eastern side of the Nishinomaru; each ward could be reached via wooden bridges. The circumference is subject to debate, with estimates ranging from 6 to 10 miles. With the enforcement of the sankin-kōtai system in the 17th century, it became expedient for the daimyōs to set up residenc
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
Privy Council of Japan
The Privy Council of Japan was an advisory council to the Emperor of Japan that operated from 1888 to 1947. Modeled in part upon the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, this body advised the throne on matters of grave importance including: proposed amendments to the Constitution of the Empire of Japan proposed amendments to the 1889 Imperial Household Law matters of constitutional interpretation, proposed laws, ordinances proclamations of martial law or declaration of war treaties and other international agreements matters concerning the succession to the throne declarations of a regency under the Imperial Household Law. On the advice of the cabinet; the Privy Council had certain executive functions. However, the council had no power to initiate legislation; the Privy Council of Japan was established by an imperial ordinance of Emperor Meiji dated 28 April 1888, under the presidency of Itō Hirobumi, to deliberate on the draft constitution. The new constitution, which the emperor promulgated on 11 February 1889 mentioned the Privy Council in Chapter 4, Article 56: "The Privy Councilors shall, in accordance with the provisions for the organization of the Privy Council, deliberate upon important matters of State when they have been consulted by the Emperor."
The Privy Council consisted of a chairman, a vice chairman, twelve councilors, a chief secretary, three additional secretaries. All privy councilors including the president and the vice president were appointed by the emperor for life, on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet. In addition to the twenty-four voting privy counselors, the prime minister and the other ministers of state were ex officio members of the council; the princes of the imperial household over the age of majority were permitted to attend meetings of the Privy Council and could participate in its proceedings. The president had extraordinary power, as it was he who called and controlled the meetings of the Council; the Council always met in secret at the Tokyo Imperial Palace, with the emperor in attendance on important occasions. The Council was empowered to deliberate on any matters upon. Assessments on the importance of the Privy Council vary from claims that it was the single most powerful agency in the Meiji government, to allegations that it was insignificant in terms of national politics.
During its early years, many members of the Privy Council were members of the elected government. After the Privy Council challenged the government by attempting to reject several government decisions, by attempting to assert itself on certain foreign policy issues, it became clear that the balance of power was with the elected government; the Privy Council was thenceforth ignored, it was not consulted when Japan decided to attack the United States in 1941. The Privy Council was abolished with the enforcement of the current postwar Constitution of Japan on 3 May 1947. Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan Beasley, William G.. The Rise of Modern Japan. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23373-6. Colgrove, Kenneth W.. The Japanese Privy Council. ASIN: B00086SR24. Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511061-7. Jansen, Marius B.. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674003347; the Japan Yearbook.
Tokyo: The Japan Year Book Office..
Japanese asset price bubble
The Japanese asset price bubble was an economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991 in which real estate and stock market prices were inflated. In early 1992, this price bubble burst and Japan's economy stagnated; the bubble was characterized by rapid acceleration of asset prices and overheated economic activity, as well as an uncontrolled money supply and credit expansion. More over-confidence and speculation regarding asset and stock prices were associated with excessive monetary easing policy at the time. By August 1990, the Nikkei stock index had plummeted to half its peak by the time of the fifth monetary tightening by the Bank of Japan. By late 1991, asset prices began to fall. Though asset prices had visibly collapsed by early 1992, the economy's decline continued for more than a decade; this decline resulted in a huge accumulation of non-performing assets loans, causing difficulties for many financial institutions. The bursting of the Japanese asset price bubble contributed to. Japan's annual land prices averaged nationwide have risen since the asset bubble collapse, though only mildly at 0.1%, a process that has taken 26 years to show up statistically.
Early research has found that the rapid increase in Japanese asset prices was due to the delayed action by the BOJ to address the issue. At the end of August 1987, the BOJ signaled the possibility of tightening the monetary policy, but decided to delay the decision in view of economic uncertainty related to Black Monday in the US. More recent research supports an alternate view, that BOJ reluctance to tighten the monetary policy was in spite of the fact that the economy went into expansion in the second half of 1987; the Japanese economy had just recovered from the endaka recession, which occurred from 1985 to 1986. The endaka recession has been linked to the Plaza Accord of September 1985, which led to the strong appreciation of the Japanese yen; the term endaka fukyō would in the future be used to describe the many times the yen surged and the economy went into recession, posing a conundrum for business and government, trade partners, anti-monetary interventionists. The strong appreciation of the yen eroded the Japanese economy, since the economy was led by exports and capital investment for export purpose.
In fact, in order to overcome the endaka recession and stimulate the local economy, an aggressive fiscal policy was adopted through expansion of public investment. The BOJ declared that curbing the yen's appreciation was a national priority. To prevent the yen from appreciating further, monetary policy makers pursued aggressive monetary easing and slashed the official discount rate to as low as 2.5% by February 1987. The move failed to curb further appreciation of the yen, which rose from 200.05 ¥/U$ to 128.25 ¥/U$. The course only reversed by the spring of 1988, when the US dollar began to strengthen against the yen; some researchers have pointed out that "with exception of the first discount rate cut, the subsequent four are influenced by the US: second and the third cut was a joint announcement to cut the discount rate while the fourth and fifth was due to joint statement either Japan-US or the G-7". It has been suggested that the US exerted influence to increase the strength of the yen, which would help with the ongoing attempts to reduce the US-Japan current account deficit.
All discount rate cuts announced by the BOJ explicitly expressed the need to stabilize the foreign exchange rate, rather than to stabilize the domestic economy. BOJ hinted at the possibility of tightening the policy due to inflationary pressures within the domestic economy. Despite leaving the official discount rate unchanged during the summer of 1987, the BOJ expressed concern over excessive monetary easing after the money supply and asset prices rose sharply. Nonetheless, Black Monday in the US triggered a delay for the BOJ to switch to a monetary tightening policy; the BOJ increased the discount rate on March 31, 1989. The table below demonstrates the monthly average of the U. S. dollar/Yen spot rate at 17:00 JST. The 1985-1991 asset price bubble affected the entire nation, though the differences in the impact depended on three main factors: the size of the city, the geographical distance from Tokyo metropolis and Osaka, the historical importance of the city in the central government's policy.
Cities within prefectures closer to the Tokyo metropolis experienced far greater pressure in the asset prices compared to cities located in prefectures further from the Tokyo metropolis. For definition purposes, Japan Real Estate Institute has classified Tokyo metropolis, Nagoya, Kyoto and Kobe as the six major cities most impacted by the price bubble; these six major cities experienced far greater asset price inflation compared to other urban land nationwide. By 1991, commercial land prices rose 302.9% compared to 1985, while residential land and industrial land price jumped 180.5% and 162.0% compared to 1985. Nationwide, statistics showed that commercial land, residential land, industrial land prices were up by 80.9%, 51.1%, 51.7%, respectively. By the early 1980s, Tokyo was an important commercial city due to a high concentration of international financial corporations and interests; the demand for office space continued to soar as more economic activities flooded Tokyo commercial districts, resulting in demand outstripping the sup
Kitanomaru Park is a public park in Chiyoda, Japan located North of the Tokyo Imperial Palace. The park is the location of both the Nippon Budokan, an indoor sports and performance venue, the Science Museum and the National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo; as of May 1, 2008, the Kitanomaru Park area had a registered population of 598, of which 361 are male and 237 are female, although this population exclusively consists of serving members and dependents of the Imperial Guard of the National Police Agency. Kitanomaru Park was the location of the northernmost section of Edo Castle, known as the Kitanomaru, it was used as both a medicinal garden and a secure residential compound for members of the Tokugawa extended family. The park is encircled by deep moats and defensive fortifications from the original castle. Prior to 1969, when Kitanomaru Park was opened, this district had been called Daikanchō because many daikan lived in the place soon after the construction of Edo Castle. Today, the name Daikanchō is known more as the name of an interchange of the Inner Circular Route of the Shuto Expressway.
Two gated entrances survive from time of Edo Castle the Shimizu-mon and further north the Tayasu-mon. The Tayasu-mon was the northernmost gate of Edo Castle and consists of both a Korai-mon style outer gate and a Yagura-mon style fortified inner gatehouse with stacked stone walls forming a narrow defensive courtyard between the two. An inscription on the outer side of the Tayasu-mon states the gate was constructed in 1685, making it one of the oldest surviving structures of the original castle