The Tokyo National Museum or TNM is an art museum in Ueno Park in the Taitō ward of Tokyo, Japan. It is considered the oldest national museum in Japan, is the largest art museum in Japan, is one of the largest art museums in the world; the museum collects and displays a comprehensive collection of artwork and cultural objects from Asia, with a focus on ancient and medieval Japanese art and Asian art along the Silk Road. There is a large collection of Greco-Buddhist art; the museum holds over 110,000 objects, including 87 National Treasures of Japan, 319 Horyuji Treasures, 610 Important Cultural Properties. The museum conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection; the facilities consist of the Honkan. There are restaurants and shops within the museum's premises, as well as outdoor exhibitions and a garden where visitors can enjoy seasonal views; the museum went through several name changes. The original 1872 exhibition was known as the "Museum of the Ministry of Education".
The compound in Uchiyamashita-chō was known as "the Museum" before becoming the "Sixth Bureau of the Home Ministry", after which it was again known as the Museum and the "Museum of the Museum Bureau". It was renamed the Imperial Museum in 1888, reflecting its change of ownership of the imperial household; as other museums opened, this changed to the more specific Tokyo Imperial Household Museum in 1900. Following the government reforms imposed after World War II, it was renamed the "National Museum" in 1947 and the "Tokyo National Museum" in 2001; the museum is sometimes known as the "Ueno Museum". The Tokyo National Museum is the oldest national museum in Japan, it considers its origin to have been the Yushima Seido or Shoheizaka Exhibition, a public exhibition of imperial artwork and scientific specimens held by the Ministry of Education's Museum Department from 10 March to 30 April 1872 during the 5th year of the Meiji Era. The items' authenticity had been ascertained by the recent Jinshin Survey, which catalogued and verified various imperial and temple holdings around the country.
Directed by Shigenobu Okuma, Tsunetami Sano, others, the 1872 exhibition expanded on an 1871 exhibit at the Tokyo Kaisei School in order to prepare for an international exhibition at the 1873 Vienna World's Fair celebrating Franz Joseph I's 25th year as emperor. Japan decided to honor their invitation in order to raise the international standing of Japanese manufactures and boost exports; the most important products of each province were listed and two specimens of each were collected, one for display in Vienna and the other for preservation and display at a new museum. The 1872 exhibition, held at the Taiseiden Hall of the former Confucian temple at Yushima Seido in the Shoheizaka neighborhood, was open daily 9 am to 4 pm and admitted about 150,000 people; the 1873 exhibition in Vienna, apart from the collection of regional objects included a full Japanese garden with shrine, a model of the former pagoda at Tokyo's imperial temple, the female golden shachi from Nagoya Castle, a papier-maché copy of the Kamakura Buddha.
The next year, Sano compiled a report on the fair in 96 volumes divided into 16 parts. Gottfried Wagener, a German scientist working in Tokyo, wrote its reports on "The Art Museum in Respect to Arts and Various Crafts" and "The Establishment of the Tokyo Museum", arguing for the creation of a museum on western lines in the Japanese capital. While the Vienna World Fair was going on, the locally-held objects were organized by the Exposition Bureau into a temporary display at a compound in Uchiyamashita-chō southeast of the Imperial Palace, in March 1873, it opened on 15 April and was open to the public for the next 3½ months, after which it opened on the days in each month ending with the numbers 1 or 6. A special exhibition in 1874 focused on new technology in medicine and physics. On 30 March 1875, the museum was moved under the Home Ministry. By this time, it included seven buildings—including a greenhouse—with displays covering Japanese antiques and the natural sciences; the museum continued to be connected to industry and was involved with the national industrial exhibitions held in Ueno Park in 1877, 1881, 1890.
Ueno Park was founded in 1873 on land, held by the metropolitan government since the destruction of most of the Kaneiji Temple during the Boshin War that established the Meiji Restoration following the example set by the American government at Yellowstone the preceding year. Hisanari Machida, the museum's first director, had advocated the use of the spacious park for a wide-ranging museum as early as 1873 but parts of it were used for the military and education ministries until 1875, when the Home Ministry acquired complete control; the museum's early conception was based on the South Kensington Museum in London, but important changes were made. The museum collections were divided into the eight categories of fine arts, agriculture & forestry, law, education
The Rivalry is the tenth album by German band Running Wild. It is the second in a trilogy of a theme of good versus evil, which began with Masquerade and concluded with Victory, it is their last album with drummer Jörg Michael. The album has sold over 200,000 copies worldwide. All songs by written by Rolf Kasparek except where noted The limited edition CD release features the album's cover in 3D Rolf Kasparek – vocals, guitar Thilo Hermann – guitars Thomas Smuszynski – bass guitar Jörg Michael – drums Peter Lohde – Graphic design Gerhard Woelfe – Engineering, Mixing Rainer Holst – Mastering Rock'n' Rolf – Producer Andreas Marschall – Cover art
The Medical Research Council is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom. It is part of United Kingdom Research and Innovation, which came into operation 1 April 2018, brings together the UK's seven research councils, Innovate UK and Research England. UK Research and Innovation is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the MRC focuses on high-impact research and has provided the financial support and scientific expertise behind a number of medical breakthroughs, including the development of penicillin and the discovery of the structure of DNA. Research funded by the MRC has produced 32 Nobel Prize winners to date; the MRC was founded as the Medical Research Committee and Advisory Council in 1913, with its prime role being the distribution of medical research funds under the terms of the National Insurance Act 1911. This was a consequence of the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Tuberculosis, which recommended the creation of a permanent medical research body.
The mandate was not limited to tuberculosis, however. In 1920, it became the Medical Research Council under Royal Charter. A supplementary Charter was formally approved by the Queen on 17 July 2003. In March 1933, MRC established the first scientific published medical patrol named British Journal of Clinical Research and Educational Advanced Medicine, as a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science by reporting new research, it contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, scientific validity, allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field and direct their own research. In August 2012, the creation of the MRC-NIHR Phenome Centre, a research centre for personalised medicine, was announced; the MRC-NIHR National Phenome Centre is based at Imperial College London and is a combination of inherited equipment from the anti-doping facilities used to test samples during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. and additional items from the Centre's technology partners Bruker and Waters Corporation.
The Centre, led by Imperial College London and King's College London, is funded with two five-year grants of £5 million from the Medical Research Council and the National Institute for Health Research and was opened in June 2013. Important work carried out under MRC auspices has included: the identification of the dietary cause of rickets by Sir Edward Mellanby. Mellanby carried out human experimentation regarding vitamin A and C deficiencies on volunteers at the Sorby Research Institute. Three would receive the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their discovery; this would lead to the 2003 Nobel Prize. Scientists associated with the MRC have received a total of 32 Nobel Prizes, all in either Physiology or Medicine or Chemistry The MRC is one of seven Research Councils which are part of UK Research and Innovation, in turn part of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. In the past, the MRC has been answerable to the Office of Science and Innovation, part of the Department of Trade and Industry.
The MRC is advised by a council which directs and oversees corporate policy and science strategy, ensures that the MRC is managed, makes policy and spending decisions. Council members are drawn from industry, academia and the NHS. Members are appointed by the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. Daily management is in the hands of the Executive Chair. Members of the council chair specialist boards on specific areas of research. For specific subjects, the council convenes committees; as Chief Executive Officers (orig