The Tokyo Stock Exchange, called Tōshō or TSE/TYO for short, is a stock exchange located in Tokyo, Japan. It is the third largest stock exchange in the world by aggregate market capitalization of its listed companies, largest in Asia, it had 2,292 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of US$5.67 trillion as of February 2019. In July 2012, a planned merger with the Osaka Securities Exchange was approved by the Japan Fair Trade Commission; the resulting entity, the Japan Exchange Group, was launched on January 1, 2013. The TSE is incorporated as a kabushiki gaisha with nine directors, four auditors and eight executive officers, its headquarters are located at 2-1 Nihonbashi-Kabutochō, Chūō, Tokyo, the largest financial district in Japan. Its operating hours are from 8:00 to 11:30 a.m. and from 12:30 to 5:00 p.m. From April 24, 2006, the afternoon trading session started at its usual time of 12:30 p.m.. Stocks listed on the TSE are separated into the First Section for large companies, the Second Section for mid-sized companies, the Mothers section for high-growth startup companies.
As of October 31, 2010, there are 1,675 First Section companies, 437 Second Section companies and 182 Mothers companies. The main indices tracking the TSE are the Nikkei 225 index of companies selected by the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, the TOPIX index based on the share prices of First Section companies, the J30 index of large industrial companies maintained by Japan's major broadsheet newspapers. Ninety-four domestic and 10 foreign securities companies participate in TSE trading. See: Members of the Tokyo Stock Exchange Other TSE-related institutions include: The exchange's press club, called the Kabuto Club, which meets on the third floor of the TSE building. Most Kabuto Club members are affiliated with the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Kyodo News, Jiji Press, or business television broadcasters such as Bloomberg LP and CNBC; the Kabuto Club is busiest during April and May, when public companies release their annual accounts. On 15 June 2007, the TSE paid $303 million to acquire a 4.99% stake in Singapore Exchange Ltd.
The Tokyo Stock Exchange was established on May 15, 1878, as the Tokyo Kabushiki Torihikijo under the direction of then-Finance Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu and capitalist advocate Shibusawa Eiichi. Trading began on June 1, 1878. In 1943, the exchange was combined with ten other stock exchanges in major Japanese cities to form a single Japanese Stock Exchange; the combined exchange was reorganized shortly after the bombing of Nagasaki. The Tokyo Stock Exchange reopened under its current Japanese name on May 16, 1949, pursuant to the new Securities Exchange Act; the TSE runup from 1983 to 1990 was unprecedented, in 1990 it accounted for over 60% of the world's stock market capitalization before falling precipitously in value and rank one of the 4th largest exchange in the world by market capitalization of listed shares. The current TSE building was opened on May 23, 1988, replacing the original TSE building from 1931, the trading floor of the TSE was closed on April 30, 1999, so that the exchange could switch to electronic trading for all transactions.
A new facility, called TSE Arrows, opened on May 9, 2000. In 2010, the TSE launched its Arrowhead trading facility. In 2001, the TSE restructured itself as a kabushiki gaisha: before this time, it was structured as an incorporated association with its members as shareholders; the exchange was only able to operate for 90 minutes on November 1, 2005, due to bugs with a newly installed transactions system, developed by Fujitsu, supposed to help cope with higher trading volumes. The interruption in trading was the worst in the history of the exchange. Trading was suspended for four-and-a-half hours. During the initial public offering of advertising giant Dentsu, in December 2001, a trader at UBS Warburg, the Swiss investment bank, sent an order to sell 610,000 shares in this company at ¥1 each, while he intended to sell 1 share at ¥610,000; the bank lost £71 million. During yet another initial public offering, that of J-Com, on December 8, 2005, an employee at Mizuho Securities Co. Ltd. mistakenly typed an order to sell 600,000 shares at ¥1, instead of an order to sell 1 share at ¥600,000.
Mizuho failed to catch the error. Both companies are now trying to deal with their troubles: lack of error checking, lack of safeguards, lack of reliability, lack of transparency, lack of testing, loss of confidence, loss of profits. On 11 December, the TSE acknowledged. On 21 December, Takuo Tsurushima, chief executive of the TSE, two other senior executives resigned over the Mizuho affair. On January 17, 2006, the Nikkei 225 fell 2.8%, its fastest drop in nine months, as investors sold stocks across the board in the wake of a raid by prosecutors on internet company livedoor. The Tokyo Stock Exchange closed early on January 18 due to the trade volume threatening to exceed the exchange's computer system's capacity of 4.5 million trades per day. This was called the "livedoor shock"; the exchange increased its order capacity to five million trades a day. The exchange's normal trading sessions are from 9:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. and from 12:30 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on all days of the week except Saturdays and holidays declared by the Exchange in advan
Gustav Tornier was a German zoologist and herpetologist. Tornier was born in Kingdom of Prussia. Nothing is known about his adolescence, he studied at Heidelberg University, from which he received his doctorate in 1892. In 1891 he had accepted a post as an assistant in the zoological museum of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-University in Berlin, he occupied himself with preparing anatomical specimens, but from 1893 he worked in the herpetological department. When its curator, Paul Matschie, took over the mammal collection in 1895, Tornier succeeded him. In 1902, he became professor of zoology at the university, whilst also accepting the post of head librarian at the museum, assistant director of the museum, director ad interim of the museum, he died in 1938 in Berlin. He was interred in the Luisenfriedhof-III in Berlin-Charlottenburg. Tornier's research interests focused on amphibians and reptiles, developmental anatomy, systematics, he became the leading authority on the amphibian fauna of German East Africa.
Tornier's frog, Litoria tornieri, an Australian endemic, was named after him, as was a large sauropod dinosaur found around 1910 in the Tendaguru formations of German East Africa, Tornieria africanus. Tornier is commemorated in the scientific names of two species of African reptiles: a snake, Crotaphopeltis tornieri. Unfairly, Tornier's legacy has been determined by his position in the controversy surrounding the posture of the sauropod dinosaur Diplodocus carnegiei. Following the 1899 discovery of the animal in Wyoming, it had traditionally been depicted and mounted in an elephant-like stance. However, In 1909, Oliver P. Hay imagined two Diplodocus, being reptiles after all, with splayed lizard-like limbs on the banks of a river. Hay argued that Diplodocus had a sprawling, lizard-like gait with splayed legs. Tornier had independently arrived at the same conclusion and forcefully supported Hay's argument, but the hypothesis was contested by W. J. Holland, who maintained that a sprawling Diplodocus would have needed a trench to pull its belly through.
Tornier's acerbic and sometimes sarcastic reply to Holland led to a minor spat, with German authorities coming down on the former's side and considering re-mounting the Berlin copy of Diplodocus, placed there only a few years before by Holland, in a more "reptilian" fashion. In the end, finds of sauropod footprints in the 1930s put Hay and Tornier's theory to rest. Tornier, Gustav. Der Kampf mit der Nahrung: Ein Beitrag zum Darwinismus. Berlin: W. Ißleib. Tornier, Gustav. Die Reptilien und Amphibien Ost-Afrikas. Berlin: Reimer. Tornier, Gustav. "Neues über Chamaeleons ". Zoolischer Anzeiger 22: 408–414. Tornier, Gustav. "Drei Reptilien aus Afrika ". Zoologischer Anzeiger 22: 258–261. Tornier, Gustav. "Beschreibung eines neuen Chamaeleons ". Zoologischer Anzeiger 23: 21–23. Tornier, Gustav. "Neue Liste der Crocodilen, Schildkröten und Eidechsen Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas ". Zoologisches Jahrbuch für Systematik 13: 579–681. Tornier, Gustav. "Die Reptilien und Amphibien der Deutschen Tiefseeexpedition 1898/99 ". Zoologischer Anzeiger 24: 61–66.
Tornier, Gustav. "Bau und Betätigung der Kopflappen und Halsluftsäcke bei Chamäleonen ". Zoologisches Jahrbuch für Anatomie 21: 1–40. Tornier, Gustav. "Wie war der Diplodocus carnegii wirklich gebaut? ". Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1909: 193–209. Tornier, Gustav. "Ernstes und lustiges aus Kritiken über meine Diplodocusarbeit / War der Diplodocus Elefantenfüssig? ". Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1909: 505–556. Online version of Tornier's Der Kampf mit der Nahrung: Ein Beitrag zum Darwinismus Short biography in German Species named by Tornier in The Reptile Database
Al Sakhama is a village in Qatar, located in the municipality of Al Daayen. It is situated near the border with Umm Salal Municipality. In Qatari Arabic dialect, the word "sakhama" translates to "coal", it received this name due to the coal mining operations that were based in the village. In J. G. Lorimer's Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Al Sakhama is reported as a town 5 miles west of Lusail typified by a 4-acre garden containing 300 date palms in 1908; the garden, said to have been established by Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani, is described as being enclosed by a mud wall and surrounded on all sides by rows of tamarix trees. It was irrigated by eight large masonry wells. Additionally, it had a rest quarters for the gardeners and a tower which served as a rest place for Jassim bin Mohammed. Lorimer noted. After Jassim bin Mohammed's departure, ownership of the village was transferred to Jassim bin Sultan Al Thani, who planted several additional palm trees in the area. Although the village was typified by a rawda where small amounts of water would collect, had masonry wells constructed in its vicinity, the water was high in salinity.
This caused many inhabitants to abandon the village in the early-to-mid 20th century. The following school is located in Al Sakhama
Nyctemera baulus is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is found from India to Samoa. Records include Queensland and New Guinea; the wingspan is 45–48 mm. It is a day-flying species. Larvae have been recorded on Brassica, Senecio scandens and Crassocephalum. Nyctemera baulus baulus Nyctemera baulus alba Pagenstecher, 1901 Nyctemera baulus aluensis Butler, 1887 Nyctemera baulus fasciata Walker, 1856 Nyctemera baulus integra Walker, 1866 Nyctemera baulus nigrovena Nyctemera baulus nisa Nyctemera baulus mundipicta Walker, 1859 Nyctemera baulus moluccana Roepke, 1957 Nyctemera baulus samoensis Tams, 1935 Nyctemera baulus tertiana Meyrick, 1886 Nyctemera baulus pullatus Nyctemera baulus pratti Species info at papua-insects The Moths of Borneo Australian Insects
Terence Zuber is an American military historian specializing in the First World War. He received his doctorate from the University of Würzburg in 2001 after serving for twenty years as an infantry officer in the United States Army, he has advanced the controversial thesis that the Schlieffen Plan as understood was a post-World War I fabrication. He first described his views about the Schlieffen Plan in a 1999 article in War in History, further developed them in his 2002 book Inventing the Schlieffen Plan; some scholars, such as Hew Strachan, have accepted his ideas, while others including Terence M. Holmes and Holger Herwig have dismissed them. In a review of Zuber's 2002 book for H-Net, Kelly McFall wrote: "Zuber's argument persuasively demolishes the accepted version of the Schlieffen Plan, but his claim that the Schlieffen Plan itself never existed is more speculative and rests on a reading of evidence, plausible but not conclusive. Military historians interested in the outbreak of the First World War will need to read this book and decide for themselves.
Others will want to follow the debate but may prefer to wait for a consensus to emerge."Rebuttals to his ideas include: Annika Mombauer, "Of War Plans and War Guilt: The Debate Surrounding the Schlieffen Plan," Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 28, No. 5, 857-885 Terence M. Holmes, "The Reluctant March on Paris: A Reply to Terence Zuber's'The Schlieffen Plan Reconsidered,'" War in History, 8, 208–232 Terence M. Holmes, "The Real Thing: A Reply to Terence Zuber's'Terence Holmes Reinvents the Schlieffen Plan,'" War in History 9/1, 111-20 Robert T. Foley, "The Origins of the Schlieffen Plan," War in History 12/3: 222-32 Robert T. Foley, "The Real Schlieffen Plan," War in History 13/1, 366-90 chapters by Gerhard Gross, Robert Foley, Annika Mombauer in Hans Ehlert, Michael Epkenhans and Gerhard Gross, Der Schlieffenplan. Analyse und Dokumente Holger Herwig, "Germany and the Short War Illusion: Toward a New Interpretation?" Journal of Military History, 66, 683. Most in 2006, Germany’s Military History Research Office published Der Schlieffenplan: Analysen und Dokumente, edited by Michael Epkenhans, Hans Ehlert and Gerhard P. Groß.
This volume contains a copy of Schlieffen's 1905 Memorandum misfiled in the German Military Archives at Freiburg, German deployment plans from the year 1893/94 to 1914/15, most of, lost otherwise. These documents, not yet available in English translation, are said to support the traditional ideas of a "Schlieffen Plan" that Zuber disputed. "The Schlieffen Plan Reconsidered," War in History, 6, pp. 262–305 Inventing the Schlieffen Plan: German War Planning, 1871–1914. Oxford University Press, 2002. "The Schlieffen Plan - Fantasy or Catastrophe?", History Today. German War Planning, 1891-1914: Sources and Interpretations. Boydell Press, 2004; the Battle of the Frontiers. Ardennes 1914. Tempus, 2007; the Moltke Myth. Prussian War Planning 1857-1871 UPA, 2008; the Mons Myth. A Reevaluation of the Battle. 2010. The Real German War Plan 1904–1914 The History Press Ltd 2011. Ten Days in August, The Siege of Liege 1914 The History Press Ltd 2014. Personal website
Neo-Aristotelianism is a view of literature and rhetorical criticism propagated by the Chicago School — Ronald S. Crane, Elder Olson, Richard McKeon, Wayne Booth, others — which means. "A view of literature and criticism which takes a pluralistic attitude toward the history of literature and seeks to view literary works and critical theories intrinsically" Neo-Artistotelianism was one of the first rhetorical methods of criticism. Its central features were first suggested in Herbert A. Wichelns' "The Literary Criticism of Oratory" in 1925, it focused on analyzing the methodology behind a speech's ability to convey an idea to its audience. In 1943, Neo-Aristotelianism was further publicized, gaining popularity after William Norwood Brigance published A History and Criticism of American Public Address. Unlike rhetorical criticism, which concentrates on the study of speeches and the immediate effect of rhetoric on an audience, Neo-Aristotelianism "led to the study of a single speaker because the sheer number of topics to cover relating to the rhetor and the speech made dealing with more than a single speaker impossible.
Thus, various speeches by different rhetors related by form of topic were not included in the scope of rhetorical criticism." Wichelns' work was one of the first. It narrowed down speech to 12 key topics to be studied, similar to many of the topics discussed by Aristotle in the Rhetoric, his topics for speech critique include: Speaker's personality Character of the speaker Audience Major ideas Motives to which the speaker appealed Nature of the speaker's proof Speaker's judgment of human nature in the audience Arrangement Mode of expression Speech preparation Delivery Effect of the discourse on the immediate audience and long-term effectsAccording to Mark S. Klyn, author of Towards a Pluralistic Rhetorical Criticism, "The Literary Criticism of Oratory" provided "substance and structure to a study which heretofore had been formless and ephemeral it created the modern discipline of rhetorical criticism." Thus regardless of the lack of detail on these topics, it provided a modern structure of critiquing and analyzing speech via Neo-Aristotelianism, according to Donald C.
Bryant. New rhetorics