Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain. Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive monumental and cultural heritage. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" because it was the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Spain, as the "City of the Three Cultures" for the cultural influences of Christians and Jews reflected in its history, it was the capital from 542 to 725 AD of the ancient Visigothic kingdom, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo. The city has a grand Gothic Cathedral, the Catedral Primada de España, a long history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now common souvenirs of the city. People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, El Greco; as of 2015, the city had a population of 83,226 and an area of 232.1 km2.
The town was granted arms in the 16th century, which by special royal privilege was based on the royal of arms of Spain. Toledo is mentioned by the Roman historian Livy as sed loco munita. Roman general Marcus Fulvius Nobilior fought a battle near the city in 193 BC against a confederation of Celtic tribes including the Vaccaei and Celtiberi, defeating them and capturing a king called Hilermus. At that time, Toletum was a city of the Carpetani tribe, part of the region of Carpetania, it was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a civitas stipendiaria, that is, a tributary city of non-citizens, by Flavian times it had achieved the status of municipium. With this status, city officials of Carpetani origin, obtained Roman citizenship for public service, the forms of Roman law and politics were adopted. At this time, a Roman circus, city walls, public baths, a municipal water supply and storage system were constructed in Toletum; the Roman circus in Toledo was one of the largest in Hispania, at 423 metres long and 100 metres wide, with a track dimension of 408 metres long and 86 metres wide.
Chariot races were held on special holidays and were commissioned by private citizens to celebrate career achievements. A fragmentary stone inscription records circus games paid for by a citizen of unknown name to celebrate his achieving the sevirate, a kind of priesthood conferring high status. Archaeologists have identified portions of a special seat of the sort used by the city elites to attend circus games, called a sella curulis; the circus could hold up to 15000 spectators. During Roman times, Toledo was never a provincial capital nor a conventus iuridicus, but it started to gain importance in late antiquity. There are indications that large private houses within the city walls were enlarged, while several large villas were built north of the city through the third and fourth centuries. Games were held in the circus into the late fourth and early fifth centuries C. E. an indication of active city life and ongoing patronage by wealthy elites. A church council was held in Toledo in the year 400 to discuss the conflict with Priscillianism.
A second council of Toledo was held in 527. The Visigothic king Theudis was in Toledo in 546; this is strong though not certain evidence. King Athanagild died in Toledo in 568. Although Theudis and Athangild based themselves in Toledo, Toledo was not yet the capital city of the Iberian peninsula, as Theudis and Athangild's power was limited in extent, the Suevi ruling Galicia and local elites dominating Lusitania and Cantabria; this changed with Liuvigild. The Visigoths ruled from Toledo until the Moors conquered the Iberian peninsula in the early years of 8th century. Today in the historic center basements, wells and ancient water pipes are preserved that since Roman times have been used in the city. A series of church councils was held in Toledo under the Visigoths. A synod of Arian bishops was held in 580 to discuss theological reconciliation with Nicene Christianity. Liuvigild's successor, hosted the Third Council of Toledo, at which the Visigothic kings abandoned Arianism and reconciled with the existing Hispano-Roman episcopate.
A synod held in 610 transferred the metropolitanate of the old province of Carthaginensis from Cartagena to Toledo. At that time, Cartagena was ruled by the Byzantines, this move ensured a closer relation between the bishops of Spain and the Visigothic kings. King Sisebut forced Jews in the Visigothic kingdom to convert to Christianity; the Fifth and Sixth Councils of Toledo placed church sanctions on anyone who would challenge the Visigothic kings. The Seventh Council of Toledo instituted a requirement that all bishops in the area of a royal city, that is, of Toledo, must reside for one month per year in Toledo; this was a stage in "the elevation of Toledo as the primatial see of the whole church of the Visgothic kingdom". In addition, the seventh council declared that any clergy fleeing the kingdom, assisting conspirators against the king, or aiding conspirators, would be excommunicated and no one should remove this sentence; the ban on lifing these sentences of excommunication was lifted at the Eighth Council of Toledo i
Kiss Me Once is the twelfth studio album by Australian singer Kylie Minogue, released on 14 March 2014 by Parlophone. It is her first studio release since 2010's Aphrodite, marks Minogue's first and only album with Roc Nation, handled by American rapper and businessman Jay-Z, they both enlisted several songwriters and producers such as Sia, Greg Kurstin, Pharrell Williams, MNEK. Musically, it was recognised by music critics as Minogue's return to contemporary pop music, incorporating musical elements of dance-pop, electropop, R&B. Lyrically, the songs focus on themes such as romance, self-empowerment, having fun. Upon its release, Kiss Me Once received favorable reviews from most music critics; the majority of them complimented Minogue's charm and vocal delivery, alongside her return to contemporary pop music. However, critics were polarised towards the production. Commercially, the album performed moderately worldwide, reaching the top 10 in regions such as Australia, the United Kingdom, Ireland and France.
It is her third highest-charting album on the US Billboard 200, peaking at number 31. However, the overall lack of success for Kiss Me Once prompted Minogue to leave Parlophone, citing artistic differences. "Into the Blue" and "I Was Gonna Cancel" were released as the album's main singles. The album tracks: "Million Miles", "Sexercize", "Les Sex", "Beautiful" were promoted as radio tracks in different worldwide regions. To further promote the album, Minogue commenced her Kiss Me Once Tour in September 2014, finished in March 2015. Following the release of Minogue's orchestral compilation album The Abbey Road Sessions, she parted ways with her long-term manager Terry Blamey and his team, announced a musical hiatus. In February 2013, she announced via Instagram and Twitter that she signed a management contract with American rapper and businessman Jay-Z's imprint Roc Nation. Following the announcement that same month, British publications reported about Minogue's 12th studio album and commented that she had been collaborating with Australian musician Sia, which Minogue confirmed.
Throughout March–July, Minogue announced collaborations with Norwegian team Stargate, American producer Darkchild, American rapper Brooke Candy, MNDR, will.i.am via Twitter. On May 27, one day before Minogue's 45th birthday, she teased information about an "interesting" collaboration revealed as a duet with Spanish singer Enrique Iglesias; that same month, Minogue commented to American magazine Rolling Stone that the album was "bringing out something different..., cool". She recognised that she had to "do something different", but added that the album "will maintain the DNA of what a Kylie track is, because I'm on it. I like to try and move the goalpost and experiment with different sounds."On May 28, Minogue's 45th birthday, she announced the buzz single "Skirt", it was made available on Beatport on June 24. Whilst the track attracted positive commentary from critics for Minogue's newly experimented sound of electronic dance music, she revealed that it would not feature on the then-upcoming studio album.
In February 2014, Minogue confirmed. Minogue stated in an interview with American website Idolator that "I got on with her so well... I asked her. I was hoping. I didn't know if it was something she had done or was interested in, or if maybe she just preferred writing and doing her own music." That same month, she commented to American Billboard magazine. So far the support has been great, it's just another part of this amalgamation of'new' that I had wished for and was struck by." Minogue enlisted several songwriters and producers to create the album, including Sia, Greg Kurstin, Pharrell Williams, MNEK amongst others. Minogue recorded majority of the album in Los Angeles and New York City, with additional recording and mixing handled in London. In an interview with The Huffington Post, Minogue revealed that she and Furler had recorded several tracks that didn't appear on the final cut in comparison to her previous album Aphrodite. Minogue recalled that the amount of tracks that didn't appear collated into "three albums" in "three genres": a "pure pop" album, a "dancy-urban" album, an "indie" album.
She said both she and Furler selected tracks from each they felt represented Kiss Me Once at the time. Regarding the recording process, she revealed to Colleen Quill at Radio.com, "Compared to the early days for me, I'm comfortable in the studio. I record fast, my leads, my backing vocals and the harmonies. I'm kind of like a machine doing that."Musically Kiss Me Once has been described by critics from publications such as Timeout.com, The Guardian, Clash Magazine as Minogue's return to contemporary pop music. According to Quill, she stated that the album was a form of return to "pure pop" that incorporated elements of dance music. Tim Sendra, writing for AllMusic, categorised the album as "an intoxicating blend of uptempo dance tracks, funky club cuts, sexy midtempo jams, the occasional ballad." NME's Ben Cardew noted elements of contemporary R&B and dubstep in some of the tracks, including "Sexercize" and "If Only". Kitty Empire from Th
The 1967 Detroit Riot known as the 12th Street Riot, was the bloodiest incident in the "Long, hot summer of 1967". Composed of confrontations between black residents and the Detroit Police Department, it began in the early morning hours of Sunday July 23, 1967, in Detroit, Michigan; the precipitating event was a police raid of an unlicensed, after-hours bar known as a blind pig, on the city's Near West Side. It exploded into one of the deadliest and most destructive riots in American history, lasting five days and surpassing the violence and property destruction of Detroit's 1943 race riot 24 years earlier. Governor George W. Romney ordered the Michigan Army National Guard into Detroit to help end the disturbance. President Lyndon B. Johnson sent in the United States Army's 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions; the result was 43 dead, 1,189 injured, over 7,200 arrests, more than 2,000 buildings destroyed. The scale of the uprising was the worst in the United States since the 1863 New York City draft riots during the American Civil War, was not surpassed until the 1992 Los Angeles riots 25 years later.
The rebellion was prominently featured in the news media, with live television coverage, extensive newspaper reporting, extensive stories in Time and Life magazines. The staff of the Detroit Free Press won the 1968 Pulitzer Prize for general local reporting for its coverage; the crimes reported to police included looting and sniping, took place in many different areas of Detroit: on the west side of Woodward Avenue, extending from the 12th Street neighborhood to Grand River Avenue and as far south as Michigan Avenue and Trumbull, near Tiger Stadium. East of Woodward, the area around East Grand Boulevard, which goes east/west north/south to Belle Isle, was involved. However, the entire city was affected between Sunday, July 23, Thursday, July 27. In the early hours of Sunday, July 23, 1967, Detroit Police Department officers raided an unlicensed weekend drinking club in the office of the United Community League for Civic Action, above the Economy Printing Company, at 9125 12th Street, they expected a few revelers inside, but instead found a party of 82 people celebrating the return of two local GIs from the Vietnam War.
The police decided to arrest everyone present. While they were arranging for transportation, a sizable crowd of onlookers gathered on the street, having witnessed the raid. In a memoir, William Walter Scott III, a doorman whose father was running the raided Blind Pig, took responsibility for starting the rebellion by inciting the crowd and throwing a bottle at a police officer. After the DPD left, the crowd began looting an adjacent clothing store. Shortly thereafter, full-scale looting began throughout the neighborhood; the Michigan State Police, Wayne County sheriffs, the Michigan Army National Guard were alerted, but because it was Sunday, it took hours for Police Commissioner Ray Girardin to assemble sufficient manpower. Meanwhile, witnesses described seeing a "carnival atmosphere" on 12th Street; the DPD, inadequate in number and wrongly believing that the rioting would soon expire, just stood there and watched. Police did not make their first arrest until 7 a.m. three hours after the raid on the blind pig.
To the east, on Chene Street, reports said. The pastor of Grace Episcopal Church along 12th Street reported that he saw a "gleefulness in throwing stuff and getting stuff out of buildings" The police conducted several sweeps along 12th Street, which proved ineffective because of the unexpectedly large numbers of people outside; the first major fire broke mid-afternoon in a grocery store at the corner of 12th Street and Atkinson. The crowd prevented firefighters from extinguishing it, soon more smoke filled the skyline; the local news media avoided reporting on the disturbance so as not to inspire copy-cat violence, but the rioting started to expand to other parts of the city, including looting of retail and grocery stores elsewhere. By Sunday afternoon, news had spread, people attending events such as a Fox Theater Motown revue and Detroit Tigers baseball game were warned to avoid certain areas of the city. Motown's Martha Reeves was on stage at the Fox, singing "Jimmy Mack," and was asked to ask people to leave as there was trouble outside.
After the game, Tigers left fielder Willie Horton, a Detroit resident who had grown up not far from 12th Street, drove to the riot area and stood on a car in the middle of the crowd while still in his baseball uniform. Despite Horton's impassioned pleas, he could not calm the crowd. Mayor Jerome Cavanagh stated that the situation was "critical" but not yet "out of control." At 7:45 p.m. that first night, Cavanagh enacted a citywide 9:00 p.m. – 5:30 a.m. curfew, prohibited sales of alcohol and firearms, business activity was informally curtailed in recognition of the serious civil unrest engulfing sections of the city. A number of adjoining communities enacted curfews. There was significant white participation in the rioting and looting, raising questions as to whether the event fits into the classical race riot category. Michigan State Police and the Wayne County Sheriff's Department were called in to Detroit to assist an overwhelmed Detroit police force; as the violence spread, the police began to make numerous arrests to clear rioters off the streets, housing the detainees in makeshift jails.
Beginning Monday, people were detained without being brought to Recorder's Court for arraignment. Some gave false names, making the process of identifying those arrested difficult because of the need to take and check fingerprints. Windsor Police were asked to help check fingerprints. Police began to take pictures of looters arrested, the arresting offic