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Tolmin

Tolmin is a small town in northwestern Slovenia. It is the administrative centre of the Municipality of Tolmin. Tolmin is situated on the southern rim of the Julian Alps, the largest settlement in the Upper Soča Valley, close to the border with Italy, it is located on a terrace above the confluence of the Soča and Tolminka rivers, positioned beneath steep mountainous valleys. The old town gave its name to the entire Tolmin area as its economic and administrative centre; the area is located in the historic Goriška region, itself part of the larger Slovene Littoral, about 41 km north of Nova Gorica and 87 km west of the Slovene capital Ljubljana. In the north, the road leads further up the Soča River to Bovec, with an eastern branch-off to Škofja Loka and Idrija. Early inhabitants were Illyrians in Tolmin area, it was ruled successively by the Roman Empire, the Ostrogoths, the Eastern Roman Empire and part of the Lombard Duchy of Friuli until it was conquered by the Frankish king Charlemagne in 774 and replaced by the Carolingian March of Friuli.

Ancestors of Slovenes had come to this area during the Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps from about 600 onwards, embattled by Avar raids. It was passed to Middle Francia in 843 after the Treaty of Verdun and in 952 passed to the vast March of Verona, ruled by the Dukes of Bavaria, from 976 by the Carinthian dukes. King Henry IV of Germany ceded it to the newly established Patria del Friuli in 1077, before it was occupied by the Republic of Venice in 1420; the Tolmin area was conquered by the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I during the War of the League of Cambrai in 1509. Tolmin was ruled with the possessions of the extinct Counts of Gorizia as part of the Inner Austrian territories of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1713 it was the centre of a peasant revolt against increased taxation and the local Count Coronini, it was part of the Illyrian Provinces, which were part of Napoleonic French Empire between 1809 and 1814 before returning to Austrian rule. Until 1918, the town was part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and head of the district of the same name, one of the 11 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Austrian Littoral province.

A post-office was opened in October 1850 under the German name. After World War I it was ruled by the Kingdom of Italy between 1918 and 1943, it was a county center in Province of Gorizia between 1918 and 1923 and again between 1927 and 1943 and in Province of Friuli between 1923 and 1927 during Italian rule as Tolmino. After the Italian caputilation, it was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1943 and was part of Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral before liberation by Yugoslav partisans. After temporary division of Julian March by Morgan Line, Tolmin was part of Zone-B, under Yugoslav administrators, it was passed from Italy to Yugoslavia in 1947 after the Treaty of Paris. Tolmin was passed to Slovenia after breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991. Tolmin's main sights are its old town centre, a modern sports park, thousand-year-old castle ruins at the hill known as Kozlov rob; the area is home to a multitude of vestiges from World War I. The most significant relic of the time is the Javorca Church, dedicated to the Holy Spirit built above the Polog shepherds outpost in the Tolminka Valley by Austro-Hungarian soldiers to commemorate their deceased comrades.

The museum, library and the town’s open spaces provide venues for a variety of events and presentations all year round. The Tolmin region is a popular destination for artists from Slovenia and abroad; the parish church in the town is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary and belongs to the Diocese of Koper. Tolmin is known for the "Metalcamp" festival since 2004, which since 2013 is called Metaldays, which every year attracts about 10,000 people from whole Europe and other parts of world. Other festivals held in Tolmin are the Overjam reggae festival. Notable natives and residents of Tolmin include: Andrea Bresciani, illustrator Pino Bosi and historian Ivan Čargo, painter Jan Cvitkovič, film director Anton Haus, grand admiral of the Austro-Hungarian Navy Ciril Kosmač, writer Karel Lavrič, politician Giancarlo Movia, philosopher Ivan Pregelj, writer Albert Rejec and head of TIGR Jožko Šavli and historian Saša Vuga, writer Tolmin is twinned with: Vicchio, since 1981 Tolmin on Geopedia

Sacred trees and groves in Germanic paganism and mythology

Trees hold a particular role in Germanic paganism and Germanic mythology, both as individuals and in groups. The central role of trees in Germanic religion is noted in the earliest written reports about the Germanic peoples, with the Roman historian Tacitus stating that Germanic cult practices took place in groves rather than temples. Scholars consider that reverence for and rites performed at individual trees are derived from the mythological role of the world tree, Yggdrasil. After Christianization, trees continue to play a significant role in the folk beliefs of the Germanic peoples; the pagan Germanic peoples referred to holy places by a variety of terms and many of these terms variously referred to stones and temple structures. From Proto-Germanic *xaruʒaz or *haruʒaz, a masculine noun, developed Old Norse hǫrgr meaning'temple, idol', Old English hearg'temple, idol', Old High German harug meaning'holy grove, holy stone'. According to philologist Vladimir Orel, the term was borrowed from the continental Celtic *karrikā or, the same non-Indo-European source as the Celtic source.

A more general term for a sacred place was *vé. The Proto-Germanic masculine noun *nemeðaz, which developed into Old Frankish nimid either developed from, or is otherwise connected to, Gaulish nemeton, Latin sacellum and Old Irish nemed'holiness'. Another Proto-Germanic masculine noun, *lauxaz or *lauhaz, has given rise to words with a variety of meanings in various Germanic languages, including Anglo-Saxon lēah,'meadow', Middle Low German lo,'bush', Old High German laoh, löh,'grove, bush'. Scandinavian placenames occur with the name of a deity compounded with lundr,'grove', or viðr,'wood'. Sacred trees and groves are attested among the records of the ancient Germanic peoples; some scholars hypothesize that they predated the development of temples. In his Germania, Tacitus says that the Germanic peoples "consecrate woods and groves and they apply the name of gods to that mysterious presence which they see only with the eye of devotion", Tacitus describes the grove of the Semnones and refers to a castum nemus in which the image of the goddess Nerthus was hallowed, other reports from the Roman period refer to rites held by continental Germanic peoples in groves, including the sacrifices in forest clearings of survivors by the Cherusci after their victory at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, recounted by Tacitus in his Annals based on a report by Germanicus.

Such groves were sometimes dedicated to a particular deity: in addition to the case of Nerthus, there was a silva Herculi sacra near the River Weser, the Semnones held their rituals in honor of the regnator omnium deus. The scholar of Germanic religion Jan de Vries noted that placenames such as Frølund, Ullunda, Frösvi, Mjärdevi, in which the name of a deity is compounded with words meaning "grove" or "wood", suggest a continuation of the same practice, but are found exclusively in eastern Scandinavia. Reverence for individual trees among the Germanic peoples is a common theme in medieval Christian denunciations of backsliding into paganism. In some cases, such as Donar's Oak, these were associated with particular gods, the association of individual trees with saints can be seen as a continuation of the tradition into modern times; the Landnámabók, which describes the settlement of Iceland and dates from the 13th century, tells of a skáld by the name of Þórir snepill Ketilsson who, after his crew encountered and fended off raiding vikings, arrived in Iceland and founded a sacred grove there:...

Thorir took possession of all of the whole of Fnjoskadale, as far as Odeila. He made his home at Lund, held the grove sacred. There exists a Scandinavian folk tradition of farmers making small offerings to a "warden tree", regarded as exercising a protective function over the family and land. However, there are no indications that the trees were regarded in the pagan period as the abode of gods and spirits. Scholars have speculated that publicly revered trees such as that at the temple in Uppsala were regarded as counterparts to the mythic world tree Yggdrasil. Sacred trees and groves leave few archaeological traces, but two such sites may have been identified, both in Sweden. A mouldering birch stump surrounded by animal bones from brown bear and pig, was discovered under the church on Frösön in Jämtland in 1984; the finds have been carbon dated to the late Viking Age. Possible burnt offerings have been found on a hill at Lunda near Strängnäs in Södermanland; the present section divides notable examples into texts discussing the religious activities of the ancient Germanic peoples involving trees and groves and their appearance in the myths of the Germanic peoples the North Germanic peoples.

Sacred trees and groves are mentioned throughout the history of the ancient Germanic peoples, from their earliest attestations among Roman scribes to references made by medieval Christian monks. Notable examples

School of the Legends

School of the Legends, LLC was founded in August 2009 as a private online community for current and former NFL athletes. The company is based in Tennessee. SOTL is the Official Social Network and Training Partner of NFL Players, the marketing arm of the National Football League Players Association. In January 2010, SOTL presented a plan of partnership to the NFLPA in Washington, DC and in June 2010, SOTL became an licensed partner. SOTL has filmed training classes with current and former NFL players, as well as organized live interviews with players; as part of their football training system, "Legends in Training," the organization administers courses taught by NFL players such as Michael Vick, Jerome Bettis, Larry Fitzgerald. In September 2010 SOTL partnered with the NFLPA, Feed the Children in New Orleans to assist 800 families affected by the destruction of 陳凱威wikion9. SOTL is an official partner of American Youth Football and Manning Passing Academy. An updated version of SchooloftheLegends.com launched in September 2011 along with mobile and iPad applications.

December 2011, SOTL shot TV ad campaigns which featured Barry Sanders, Deion Sanders, Ray Lewis, Jerome Bettis, Chris Johnson and Cortland Finnegan. School of the Legends is now a defunct organization; the SOTL roster consists of thousands of participating players referred to as “Legends” within the organization. This number has grown from 500 registered NFL players in 2009 to 2,800 players today; some of the professional athletes associated with SOTL are listed below: Michael Vick Jerome Bettis DeMaurice Smith: Executive Director of the NFLPA Ray Rice Tony Gonzalez Larry Fitzgerald DeAngelo Williams Cortland Finnegan Jason Carthen Deion Sanders Ray Lewis Chris Johnson Barry Sanders Marcell Dareus A. J. Green Official website NFL Players Association official website

List of Keeping Up Appearances episodes

The following is a complete list of episodes for the British sitcom Keeping Up Appearances. The programme premiered on BBC One on 29 October 1990 and ran for five series, with its final episode airing on 25 December 1995; the programme consists of 44 episodes, including four Christmas specials. The first series, six episodes, aired from 29 October to 3 December 1990 on Mondays; the second series, 10 episodes, aired from 1 September to 3 November 1991 on Sundays. A Christmas special aired on Wednesday 25 December 1991. A third series, seven episodes, aired from 6 September to 18 October 1992, again on Sundays. A fourth series, seven episodes, aired from 5 September to 17 October 1993 on Sundays. A Christmas special aired on Sunday 26 December 1993; the show took a one-year break and did not make a series in 1994 because Patricia Routledge was unavailable, although a further Christmas special aired on Sunday 25 December 1994. A fifth series, of ten episodes, aired from 3 September to 5 November 1995, once again on Sundays.

A final Christmas special was aired on Monday 25 December 1995. Additionally, a Children in Need special was aired on Friday 24 November 1995; the 1993 Christmas special is 60 minutes long. All episodes aired on BBC One. 1The Series Three and Four Boxset did not include the 1994 Christmas specials. These were released with the 2006 boxset. A complete collection was released on 8 October 2007. Keeping Up Appearances List of Keeping Up Appearances episodes at TV.com Keeping Up Appearances – list of episodes on IMDb

West Hesse Highlands

The West Hesse Highlands known as the West Hessian Lowlands and Highlands, refers to a forested region of the Central Uplands in Germany that lies within the state of Hesse, between those elements of the Rhenish Massif right of the Rhine in the west, the Weser Uplands to the north, the Hessian Central Uplands to the east and the Wetterau to the south. The West Hesse Highlands are one of the major natural regions of Germany and are part of the Central European Uplands as well as being the watershed between the Rhine and the Weser, they comprise a line of hill ranges in the west, running north-northeast to south-southwest on the shoulder of the Rhenish Massif and including the Kellerwald, a fault trough in the east, the West Hesse Depression. The West and East Hesse Highlands or Hesse Highlands correspond to the geological unit known as the Hesse Depression, in its wider sense, because here geologically young layers of Zechstein and Bunter sandstone, in places younger rocks like Muschelkalk, of the Jurassic and Neogene periods, have been preserved.

The following geographical units are taken from the Hesse Environmental Atlas: 34 West Hesse Lowlands and Highlands 340 Waldeck Upland 340.0 Waldeck Plain 340.1 Waldeck Forest 341 East Waldeck Border Lowlands 341.0 Middle Diemel Depression 341.1 Rhoda Depression 341.2 Volkmarsen Basin 341.3 Wolfhagen Hills (including the Elsberg Ridge and the Isthaberg 341.4 Naumburg Depression and Ridge 341.5 Wildungen Depression 341.6 Hessenwald 341.7 Löwenstein Bottom 342 Habichtswald Highlands 342.0 Habichtswald 342.1 Habichtswald Depression 342.2 Hinter Habichtswald Hills 342.3 Dörnberg and Schreckenberge 342.4 Malsburg Forest 343 West Hesse Depression 343.0 Schwalm 343.1 Landsburg Depression 343.2 Hessengau 343.3 Kassel Basin 343.4 Hofgeismar Depression 343.5 North Habichtswald Foreland 344 Kellerwald 344.0 High Kellerwald 344.1 Middle Kellerwald 344.2 Wildungen Highlands 344.3 Große Hardt 344.4 Herzhausen-Hemfurth Eder Valley 344.5 Lower Kellerwald 345 Burgwald 345.0 Wetschaft Depression 345.1 Northern Burgwald 345.2 Southern Burgwald 345.3 Wohra Valley 345.4 Buntstruth 345.5 Frankenberg Upland 346 Upper Hessian Ridge 346.0 Gilserberg Heights 346.1 Neustadt Saddle 346.2 Northern Vogelsberg Foreland 347 Amöneburg Basin 347.0 Ohm Depression 347.1 Ebsdorf Bottom 348 Marburg-Gießen Lahn Valley 348.0 Marburg Highlands 348.1 Giessen Basin 349 Vogelsberg Foothills 349.0 Lumda Plateau 349.1 Ohm Valley 349.2 Gießen Ridge 349.3 Laubach Hills The tectonics of the Upper Rhine Rift, which continue along the eastern edge of the Rhenish Massif as far as the Upper Weser Hills, form highlands and lowlands here that merge into the volcanic East Hesse Highlands beyond the West Hesse Depression on their eastern perimeter.

The ridges never attain the height of the loftiest peaks of the highlands to the west. Although the two highland areas of this Central Uplands region reach heights of 675 m and 615 m, the typical height of the ridges is more like 400 m. Between them, there are large river depressions, in places up to 200 m lower; the Habichtswald highlands, which are up to 615 m high, in the north are separated from the peaks of the Waldeck Plateau to the west between 400 und 500 m high, by the East Waldeck Basin. South of the plateau is the 675 m high Kellerwald; the latter runs away to the south, splitting into two ridges around 400 m high: the Burgwald, to the southwest, the Upper Hessian Ridge to the south. South of the Burgwald is the Marburg-Gießen Lahn Valley to the west and the Amöneburg Basin to the east, flat apart from the singularity of the 365 m high Amöneburg itself; the basin rises southwards into the 405 m high Vogelsberg foothills. In the far east, the West Hesse Depression runs alongside all the ridges mentioned, following the valleys of the Schwalm and Eder.

The northern part of the Burgwald, the southwestern Kellerwald and the Upper Hessian Ridge form part of the Rhine-Weser watershed and link the Rothaargebirge with the Vogelsberg. The many depressions in the West Hesse Highlands and Lowlands have led to a buildup of loess soils, why arable farming is widespread here. Wüstegarten - Kellerwald Hohes Lohr - Kellerwald Große Aschkoppe - Kellerwald Hohes Gras - Habichtswald Großer Bärenberg - Habichtswald Hoher Dörnberg - Habichtswald Isthaberg (523

Coulure

Coulure is a viticultural hazard, the result of metabolic reactions to weather conditions that causes a failure of grapes to develop after flowering. In English the word shatter is sometimes used. Coulure is triggered by periods of cold, rainy weather or high out-of-season temperatures; the condition is most manifested in the spring. It occurs in vines that have little sugar content in their tissue. Flowers are not fertilized, thus the vines falls off. Coulure can cause irregular bunches of grapes which are less compact than normal; these bunches are more sensitive to developing various grape diseases. The yield of a vine with coulure will decrease substantially. Grape varieties with high proclivity to coulure are Grenache, Malbec and Muscat Ottonel. Other causes of coulure may be vineyard conditions and practices, pruning too early or too excessively fertile soils or overuse of fertilizers, improper selection of rootstocks or clones. During the flowering part of the growing season, grapevines need dry conditions with sufficient sunlight and ambient air temperature around 15 °C for pollination to go smoothly.

Less ideal conditions wet, rainy weather, increases the odds that a higher than normal numbers of flowers go unpollinated and coulure to occur. Coulure is a distinct phenomena unrelated to another viticultural hazard, where the flowers are pollinated but the resulting berries develop with seeds and remain small. Like coulure, millerandage is caused by inclement weather during the flowering and fruit set period and cause reduced yields. Coulure is caused by a carbohydrate deficiency in the plant tissues that causes the vine to conserve resources that would otherwise be funneled into the developing grape berries; as carbohydrate levels drop, soon after flowering the stems connected to the berries shrivel as the small grapes fall off. To some extent coulure and the dropping of fruit is a natural and healthy reaction of a vine, self-regulating its resource and the amount of fruit that it produces, but when the situation is exacerbated by certain weather conditions and disruption to photosynthesis, coulure can have a more severe impact on yields that may negatively affect a region's grape supply and thus influence pricing.

When the weather is the primary instigator of coulure, the French term this phenomenon coulure climatique. This describes the cloudy and wet conditions that limit the amount of photosynthetic activity that takes place during the flowering cycle of a grapevine. Limited sunshine means lower sugar levels that can be converted into resources to develop grape berries. Warm temperatures can exacerbate coulure in some grape varieties by promoting cellular respiration and excessive shoot growth that further competes with the berries for the resources derived from carbohydrates. Other contributing factors include excessively fertile vineyard soils, either or enhanced by the use of nitrogen-rich fertilizers, overly vigorous rootstock and severe pruning that too drastically limits the amount of leaf surface needed to sustain photosynthesis. Coulure is not 100% preventable but a vineyard manager can take several precautions to lessen the severity and impact of coulure; some grape varieties are more prone to develop coulure than others, such as Grenache, Malbec and Muscat Ottonel.

A grower can choose to grow clones of those varieties, now available for Merlot and Malbec, that have less susceptibility to developing coulure. In the vineyard, care can be taken to not prune so and insure that there is adequate leaf coverage for photosynthesis. Trimming the tips of developing shoots near the end of the flowering period can lessen the competition for sugar resources between berries and new shoot development. For non-organic viticulture, chemical growth inhibitors can be applied to the vine to limit shoot growth as well. Epicurious.com Professional Friends of Wine