Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million in an area of 2,395 km2, making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city. Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, its historical core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996; the western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto.
Its English name, evolved from a misinterpretation of the Portuguese pronunciation. Port wine, one of Portugal's most famous exports, is named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, in particular the cellars of Vila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging and export of fortified wine. In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency. Porto is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago; the history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas. During the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the city developed as an important commercial port in the trade between Olissipona and Bracara Augusta. Porto was important during the Suebian and Visigothic times, a centre for the expansion of Christianity during that period. Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.
In 868, Vímara Peres, an Asturian count from Gallaecia, a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure the lands back into Christian hands. This included the area from the Minho to the Douro River: the settlement of Portus Cale and the area, known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the modern name of Portugal. In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering the region north of Douro. In 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; the Portuguese-English alliance is the world's oldest recorded military alliance. In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. From the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco; this expedition by the king and his fleet, which counted among others, Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
The nickname given to the people of Porto began in those days. Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto; the production of port wine gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley, he demarcated the region for production of port. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm; the revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos. Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual icon: the Torre dos Clérigos. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became an important industrial centre and had its size and population increase.
The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the population fled from the advancing French troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas, the bridge collapsed under the weight; this event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I; the French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the Douro River from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar in a brilliant daylight coup de main, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the Fr
Island of Mozambique
The Island of Mozambique lies off northern Mozambique, between the Mozambique Channel and Mossuril Bay, is part of Nampula Province. Prior to 1898, it was the capital of colonial Portuguese East Africa. With its rich history and sandy beaches, the Island of Mozambique is a UNESCO World Heritage site and one of Mozambique's fastest growing tourist destinations, it has a permanent population of 14,000 people and is served by nearby Lumbo Airport on the Nampula mainland. Pottery found on Mozambique Island indicates that the town was founded no than the fourteenth century. According to tradition, the original Swahili population came from Kilwa; the town's rulers had links with the rulers of both Quelimane by the fifteenth century. In 1514, Duarte Barbosa noted that the town had a Muslim population and that they spoke the same Swahili dialect as Angoche; the name of the island is derived from Ali Musa Mbiki, sultan of the island in the times of Vasco da Gama. This name was subsequently taken to the mainland country, modern-day Mozambique, the island was renamed Ilha de Moçambique.
The Portuguese established a port and naval base in 1507 and built the Chapel of Nossa Senhora de Baluarte in 1522, now considered the oldest European building in the Southern Hemisphere. During the 16th century, the Fort São Sebastião was built, the Portuguese settlement became the capital of Portuguese East Africa; the island became an important missionary centre. It withstood Dutch attacks in 1607 and 1608 and remained a major post for the Portuguese on their trips to India, it saw the trading of slaves and gold. Apart from the ancient fortifications, only half of the town is stone-built; the hospital, a majestic neo-classical building constructed in 1877 by the Portuguese, with a garden decorated with ponds and fountains, was repainted white after the Mozambican Civil War. For many years, it was the biggest hospital south of the Sahara. With the opening of the Suez Canal, the island's fortunes waned. In 1898, the capital was moved to Lourenço Marques on the mainland. By the middle of the 20th century, the new harbour of Nacala took most of the remaining business.
Other notable buildings on the island include the Palace and Chapel of São Paulo, built in 1610 as a Jesuit College and subsequently used as the Governor's Residence, now a museum. The island, now urbanised, is home to several mosques and a Hindu temple. A 3 km bridge was erected in the 1960s to connect it to the mainland; the island in itself is not big, about 3 km long and between 200 and 500 metres wide. Most historical buildings are at the island's northern end; the majority of the residents live in reed houses in Makuti Town at the southern end of the island. The island is close to two tourist highlights Chocas Mar, a long beach about 40 km north of Ilha de Moçambique across the Mossuril Bay and Cabaceiras. O. J. O. Ferreira, Ilha de Moçambique byna Hollands: Portuguese inbesitname, Nederlandse veroweringspogings en die opbloei en verval van Mosambiek-eiland. Gordonsbaai & Jeffreysbaai: Adamastor: 2010 Malyn Newitt, Mozambique Island: The Rise and Decline of an East African Coastal City, 1500–1700.
An article from Portuguese Studies. Ilha de Mozambique travel guide from Wikivoyage World Heritage Site Website managed by the Community Multimedia Center of the Ilha de Mozambique
Carlos Heitor Cony
Carlos Heitor Cony was a Brazilian journalist and writer. He was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. Cony viewed himself as center-leftist and faced persecution under the military government in the 1960s. Four of his works were adapted to movies, he was a columnist at the Brazilian newspaper Folha de S. Paulo. Folha Mertin-litag BBC Carlos Heitor Cony on IMDb
Aluísio Tancredo Gonçalves de Azevedo was a Brazilian novelist, diplomat and short story writer. A Romantic writer, he would adhere to the Naturalist movement, he introduced the Naturalist movement in Brazil with the novel O Mulato, in 1881. He founded and occupied the 4th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1897 until his death in 1913. Azevedo was born to David Gonçalves de Azevedo and Emília Amália Pinto de Magalhães, he was the younger brother of the famous playwright Artur Azevedo. As a child, Aluísio would work as a traveling salesman. Since he loved painting and drawing, would move to Rio de Janeiro in 1876, to study at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes. After graduating, he drew caricatures for journals such as O Fígaro, O Mequetrefe, Zig-Zag and A Semana Ilustrada, his father's death, in 1878, made. He initiated his writer career, publishing in 1880 a typical Romantic novel, Uma Lágrima de Mulher, he helps on the creation of an anticlerical journal named O Pensador, where he wrote Abolitionist articles.
In 1881 he publishes the first Brazilian Naturalist novel ever: O Mulato, that deals with the themes of racism. Consolidating his career as a writer, he could return to Rio, he would write endlessly during the period of 1882-1895. Dating from this period are his famous novels Casa de Pensão and O Cortiço, many other works written in partnership with his brother, or with Émile Rouède. In 1895 he became a diplomat, he served as a minister in Spain, England and Argentina, where he died. Aluísio Azevedo's biography at the official site of the Brazilian Academy of Letters Complete works by Aluísio Azevedo, in Portuguese Works by Aluísio Azevedo at LibriVox
Portuguese Mozambique or Portuguese East Africa are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory. Portuguese Mozambique constituted a string of Portuguese colonies and a single Portuguese overseas province along the south-east African coast, which now forms the Republic of Mozambique. Portuguese trading settlements and colonies, were formed along the coast from 1498, when Vasco da Gama first reached the Mozambican coast. Lourenço Marques explored the area, now Maputo Bay in 1544, he settled permanently in present-day Mozambique, where he spent most of his life, his work was followed by other Portuguese explorers and traders. Some of these colonies were handed over in the late 19th century for rule by chartered companies such as the Mozambique Company, which had the concession of the lands corresponding to the present-day provinces of Manica and Sofala, the Niassa Company, which had controlled the lands of the modern provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa.
In 1951 the colonies were combined into a single overseas province under the name Moçambique as an integral part of Portugal. Most of the original colonies have given their names to the modern provinces of Mozambique. Mozambique, according to official policy, was not a colony at all but rather a part of the "pluricontinental and multiracial nation" of Portugal. Portugal claimed, as it did in all its colonies, to Europeanise the local population and assimilate them into Portuguese culture. Lisbon wanted to retain the colonies as trading partners and markets for its goods. However, paid forced labour, to which all Africans were liable if they failed to pay head tax, was not abolished until the early 1960s. During its history as a Portuguese colony, the present-day territory of Mozambique had the following formal designations: 1501–1569: Captaincy of Sofala 1570–1676: Captaincy of Mozambique and Sofala 1676–1836: Captaincy-General of Mozambique and Rivers of Sofala 1836–1891: Province of Mozambique 1891–1893: State of Eastern Africa 1893–1926: Province of Mozambique 1926–1951: Colony of Mozambique 1951–1972: Province of Mozambique 1972–1975: State of Mozambique Until the 20th century the land and peoples of Mozambique were affected by the Europeans who came to its shores and entered its major rivers.
As the Muslim traders Swahili, were displaced from their coastal centres and routes to the interior by the Portuguese, migrations of Bantu peoples continued and tribal federations formed and reformed as the relative power of local chiefs changed. For four centuries the Portuguese presence was meagre. Coastal and river trading posts were built and built again. Governors sought personal profits to take back to Portugal, colonists were not attracted to the distant area with its unattractive climate. In Portugal, Mozambique was considered to be a vital part of a world empire. Periodic recognition of the relative insignificance of the revenues it could produce was tempered by the mystique which developed regarding the mission of the Portuguese to bring their civilization to the African territory, it was believed that through missionary activity and other direct contact between Africans and Europeans, the Africans could be taught to appreciate and participate in Portuguese culture. In the last decade of the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century, integration of Mozambique into the structure of the Portuguese nation was begun.
After all of the area of the present province had been recognized by other European powers as belonging to Portugal, pacification of the tribes of the interior was completed and the traditional holders of political power were subordinated to the Portuguese. Civil administration was established throughout the area, the building of an infrastructure was begun, agreements regarding the transit trade of Mozambique's land-locked neighbours to the west were made. Portugal never had a racist policy or sanctioned discrimination based on race, its concept of what it called a "multiracial society" envisaged complete racial integration, including intermarriage, as well as cultural adaptation. The determined position of the Portuguese as conquerors and governors of the Africans, resulted in barriers to the formation of this ideal; the fact that most Africans were not "cultivated" in the Portuguese sense, that many participated in what were considered by the Portuguese to be pagan beliefs and uncivilized behaviour, tended to create a low opinion of Africans as a group.
The uneducated Portuguese immigrant peasants in urban areas were in direct competition with Africans for jobs and demonstrated jealousies and prejudices with racial overtones. The society was divided into two peripherally interrelated sectors; the urban-based modern sector, comprising altogether between 2 and 2.5 percent of the population, consisting of Europeans but including a few thousand Europeanised Africans and Chinese, was dominant in the economic and social realms. Communication between this sector and the large majority of rural Africans was limited. Communication between members of the ten dif
Ilha das Cobras
Ilha das Cobras, one of many Snake Islands around the world, is an island located within Guanabara Bay in the city and state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is east of the neighborhood Guanabara, it is home to the Arsenal de Marinha do Rio de Janeiro base of the Brazilian Navy
Desembargador is a Portuguese title given to some appellate judges in Portugal and other countries influenced by the Portuguese legal tradition. The title desembargador was given to the judges of some of the higher courts of the Kingdom of Portugal and of the Portuguese Empire. Namely, were desembargadores the judges of the Desembargo do Paço, of the House of Supplication and of the several courts of relação; the first Relação court was created in Porto by the transformation of the former Civil House court. Additional relações were created after in the Portuguese overseas cities of Goa, Salvador da Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, São Luís do Maranhão and Recife. After the independence of Brazil from Portugal in 1822, the title continued to be applied in both countries and in the remaining parts of the Portuguese Empire to the judges of certain courts of appeal; the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 defines desembargadores as the judges of the Courts of Justice, which are appellate courts of the state court system.
Judges of the state first instance courts are called juízes de direito. In 2001, the Regional Federal Court for the 4th Region determined that the judges of that court should be called desembargadores federais, instead of juízes federais, or federal judges, the name of their office until then. First instance federal judges continued being called juízes federais; this determination was criticized by the federal judge Julio Guilherme Schattschneider, who said that it was the equivalent to the President issuing a decree saying that they should be called First Minister. He said that the Court gave a bad example because its determination was unconstitutional, given that the Constitution determines that all federal judges, regardless of being appellate court judges or not, be called juízes. With the reform of the Justice system in the early 1830s, following the establishment of the Constitutional Monarchy in Portugal, the title juíz desembargador or desembargador became reserved only for the judges of the courts of relação.
Presently, there are five of those courts, one each in the cities of Porto, Coimbra, Évora and Guimarães. By comparison, the judges of first instance are titled juízes de direito and the judges of the Supreme Court of Justices are titled conselheiros; the judges of the courts of administrative and tax jurisdiction have analogous titles and so those of the two regional central administrative courts are titled desembargadores. Law of Brazil Law of Portugal