click links in text for more info

Tomás de Zumalacárregui

Tomás de Zumalacárregui e Imaz, 1st Duke of the Victory of the Amezcoas, 1st Count of Zumalacárregui, G.d. E, OSH, known among his troops as "Uncle Tomás", was a Spanish Basque officer who lead the Carlist faction as Captain general of the Army during the First Carlist War, he was nicknamed the "Wolf of the Amezcoas", making reference to his famous military victory in the region of Navarre. Zumalacárregui is credited as the inventor of Spanish omelette, which he elaborated during the Siege of Bilbao, as a simple and nutritious dish with which to satisfy the hardships of the Carlist Army. In search of nourishment, he came across a poor housewife who had nothing other than eggs and potatoes; when Zumalacárregui mixed it up, he fed it to his starving troops. It is said that after this, the tortilla became popular throughout the rest of the First Carlist War, is now one of the most renowned dishes in the world. Zumalacárregui was born in Ormaiztegi in Gipuzkoa, a Basque province in Spain, on 29 December 1788.

His father, Francisco Antonio de Zumalacárregui, was a lawyer who possessed some property, the son was articled to a solicitor. When the Peninsular War began with a French invasion of Spain in 1808 he enlisted in Zaragoza, he served in the 1808 First Siege of Zaragoza, at the Battle of Tudela, during the 1809 Second Siege of Zaragoza until he was taken prisoner in a sortie. He succeeded in reaching his family in Navarre. For a short time he served with Gaspar de Jáuregui, another Gipuzkoan known as "The Shepherd", one of the minor guerrilla leaders, but Zumalacárregui, noted for his grave and silent disposition and his strong religious principles, disliked the disorderly life of the guerrillas, when regular forces were organized in the north he entered the 1st battalion of Gipuzkoa as an officer. During the remainder of the war he served in the regular army, his brother Miguel Antonio de Zumalacárregui was in Cádiz at the time the Cortes passed the Constitution of 1812, going on to be elected chief deputy of Gipuzkoa.

Tomas was sent with dispatches to the Regency at Cádiz, received his commission as captain. In that rank he was present at the Battle of San Marcial in August 1813. After the restoration of Ferdinand VII he continued in the army, is said to have made a careful study of the theory of war. Zumalacárregui had no sympathy with the liberal principles which were spreading in Spain, became noted as what was called a servil or strong Royalist, he attracted no attention at headquarters, was still a captain when the Revolution of 1820 broke out and the Trienio Liberal was established. His brother officers, whose leanings were liberal, denounced him to the revolutionary government, asked that he might be removed; the recommendation was not acted on, but Zumalacárregui knew of it, laid up the offence in his mind. Finding that he was suspected of an intention to bring the soldiers over to the royalist side, he escaped to France. In 1823 he returned as an officer in one of the royalist regiments, organized on French soil by the consent of the government.

He was now known as a trustworthy servant of the royalty, but he was too proud to be a courtier. For some years he was employed in bringing regiments, he became lieutenant-colonel in 1825 and colonel in 1829. In 1832 he was named military governor of Galicia. Before King Ferdinand VII died in 1833, Zumalacárregui was marked out as a natural supporter of the traditionalist party, which favoured the king's brother, Infante Carlos, Count of Molina; the proclamation of the king's daughter Isabel as heiress was the occasion of an armed conflict between him and the naval authorities at Ferrol, who were partisans of the liberal and so-called "constitutional" cause. He was put on half pay by the new authorities and ordered to live under police observation at Pamplona in Navarre; when the Carlist uprising began on the death of Ferdinand VII, he is said to have held back because he knew that the first leaders would be politicians and talkers. He did not take the field until the Carlist cause appeared to be at a low ebb, until he had received a commission from Don Carlos as Commander-in-Chief in Navarre.

He escaped Pamplona on the night of 29 October 1833 and took the command next day in the Araquil Valley. At that time the Carlist forces comprised no more than a few hundred ill-armed and dispirited guerrilleros; the difficulty he found in obtaining supplies was enormous, for the coast towns and notably Bilbao supported the "Cristino" cause. It was by seizing equipment from the government troops that he armed his forces, he obtained full possession of the Southern Basque Country, outside of the fortresses, which he had not the means to besiege. He organized the forces known as the Guías de Navarra, his chief bodyguard, biographer, was Charles Frederick Henningsen. Whether as a guerrilla leader, or as a general conducting regular war in the mountains, he proved unconquerable, he won the battles of Alsasua, Alegría de Álava, Venta de Echavarri, for example, by employing guerrilla tactics. By July 1834 he had made it safe for Don Carlos to join his headquarters. Zumalacárregui was by strongly envied by the courtiers that surrounded the pretender, as well as by other military officers.

Besides, Don Carlos was a somewhat naïve and suggestible man, Zumalacárregui had therefore to drag behind him the whole weight of the distrust and intrigues of the court. Yet by


Mangalia (Romanian pronunciation:, Turkish: Mankalya, ancient Callatis is a city and a port on the coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanța County, Romania. The municipality of Mangalia administers several summer time seaside resorts: Cap Aurora, Neptun, Saturn, Venus; the Greek town Callatis existed until the mid-7th century under this name. Life in the town resumed from the 10th century. In the 13th century Callatis came to be known as Pangalia; the Vlachs called the Greeks called it Panglicara. From the 16th century the town had acquired Mangalia. A Greek colony named, its first silver coinage was minted around 350 BC. In 72 BC, Callatis was conquered by the Roman general Lucullus and was assigned to the Roman province of Moesia Inferior. Throughout the 2nd century AD, the city built defensive fortifications and the minting of coinage under the Roman emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla continued. Callatis suffered multiple invasions in the 3rd century AD but recovered in the 4th century AD to regain its status as an important trade hub and port city.

From the 7th to the 11th century the city was under the rule of the First Bulgarian Empire. Mangalia is positioned at 43°49’ latitude and 28°35’ longitude, with an approximate elevation of 10 meters, 44 kilometres south of the municipality of Constanţa, on the same latitude as the French resort of Nice. Mangalia is one of the southernmost resorts on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. Mangalia is characterized by a moderate maritime climate with hot summers and mild winters, Mangalia being the country's second place, after Băile Herculane, with positive average temperatures in wintertime. Spring comes early but is cool and autumn is long and warm. In summer, cloudiness is reduced and the duration of sunshine is of 10–12 hours a day. Annual precipitation is low; the sea breeze is stronger in summer. The natural cure factors are the water of the Black Sea, chlorided, sodic, hypotonic, the sulphurous, bicarbonated, calcic, mesothermal mineral waters of the springs in the northern part of the city, in the area of the beach between Saturn and Venus, the sulphurous peat mud, rich in minerals, extracted from the peat bog north of the city and the marine climate, rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation that have a bracing effect on the organism.

The resort has a large, fine-sand beach developed for purposes of aeroheliotherapy and wave therapy, as well as high seawalls with a specific microclimate where one may benefit from inhalations of saline aerosols having therapeutic effects. At the 2011 census, 90.6% of the city's residents were ethnic Romanians, 4.4% Turks, 3.6% Tatars, 0.5% Roma, 0.3% Lipovans, 0.6% belonged to other ethnic groups. According to religion, for respondents for whom data is available, 89.5% were Romanian Orthodox, 8.3% Muslim, 0.9% Roman Catholic, 0.3% Pentecostal, 1% other or none. The city has been well known in recent years as the place where one of the largest summer festivals in Romania takes place: Callatis Festival; the Mangalia Municipal Council, elected in the 2012 local government elections, is made up of 19 councilors, with the following party composition: Mangalia is twinned with: Alexandru Avram. Kallatis. - In: Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea. Vol. 1. Eds. Dimitrios V. Grammenos and Elias K. Petropoulos.

Oxford, Archaeopress, 2001, 239-286

RV Neil Armstrong (AGOR-27)

RV Neil Armstrong is the designation for a new oceanographic research ship, first of the Neil Armstrong-class research vessels, to be owned by the United States Navy and operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 24, 2012 that the research vessel was to be named after Neil Armstrong, the first person to walk on the Moon and a former naval aviator who served in the Korean War; the ship was ordered in May 2010 as a replacement for RV Knorr, operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution since 1970. The ship was constructed by Dakota Creek Industries of Anacortes and scheduled for completion in 2014 for entry into service in 2015, it was launched on 29 March 2014, christened by Carol Armstrong, passed sea trials 7 August 2015 and delivered to the Navy on 23 September 2015. A sister ship, RV Sally Ride, was launched 9 August 2014 to be operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography under a renewable charter-party agreement. Neil Armstrong is a commercially designed mono hull research vessel, capable of coastal and deep ocean operations, equipped with cranes and winches for over-the-side loading of research equipment and supplies, as well as accommodations for twenty-four scientists.

The ship is powered by a multi-drive low-voltage diesel electric propulsion system for efficiency and lower maintenance and fuel costs. Both Neil Armstrong-class ships have state of the art oceanographic equipment allowing deep ocean mapping and information technology for ship monitoring and worldwide land-based communication. Neil Armstrong has more than 130 square meters of adjustable lab space, supplied by a flash evaporation desalination system. RV Sally Ride - Sister Ship RV Knorr - Predecessor to the Neil Armstrong RRS James Cook - British equivalent RRS Charles Darwin - Predecessor to the James Cook Oceanography

John of Saint Omer

John of Saint Omer was Marshal and baron of a third of Akova in the Principality of Achaea. He was a younger son of Bela of Saint Omer and Bonne de la Roche, sister of the Lord of Athens and Thebes, Guy I de la Roche. Upon their marriage, in 1240, Guy gave Bela the lordship over half of Thebes. John participated, along with his brothers Nicholas II and Otho, in the War of the Euboeote Succession in the ranks of the coalition of most of the princes of Frankish Greece, who opposed the expansionist policies of the Prince of Achaea, William II of Villehardouin. John married Margaret of Passavant in 1276, but was unsuccessful in securing her inheritance of the Barony of Akova in the Principality of Achaea, appropriated by the Prince after the death of baron Walter of Rosières. Despite the support of his brother Nicholas, he managed to receive only a third of the barony, as well as the post of hereditary Marshal of the Principality. From his marriage he had Nicholas III of Saint Omer. Bon, Antoine.

La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe. Paris: De Boccard. Longnon, Jean. "The Frankish States in Greece, 1204–1311". In Wolff, Robert Lee. A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189–1311. University of Wisconsin Press. Pp. 234–275. Trapp, Erich. "24701. Σαῖντ ̓Ομέρ, Ντζὰν ντὲ". Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit. 10. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 3-7001-3003-1

Last Ones Standing

"Last Ones Standing" is a song by British recording artist Example. This is the fourth single from Example's second album; the song was available to download on 12 September 2010, with a physical single release on 13 September 2010. Production was handled by Bjorn Yttling of Peter Bjorn and John. Fraser McAlpine of BBC Chart Blog gave the song a positive review stating: It's a tough one to call, isn't it? Because on the surface of it, it's not like this song contains music, SO amazingly distracting that it cannot be ignored if you are up to the most exciting chapter in The Expert's Guide To Newt Management. Or at least, not more distracting than other modern forms of popular song. Mind you, it does start with those stabby synths, an introduction that dramatic has to be an attention-grabber, and once the ear has been pricked, that's a good place to jump in with your little tales of bad behaviour. It's nice that the taxi-driver they've just run away from has the chance to offer a disapproving little grunt too.

That's inclusive. People like to feel included, and he sings the first bit, thus drawing in the rap-phobics, before hitting them full in the face with his lyrical flow. It's like he's saying "yeah, you want to know why we don't sit in the seats when we're on the tube? Well you're gonna have to put up with THIS RAPPING FIRST". So by the time we get to the chorus, he's treated us mean, he's kept us keen, the double-whammy: stabby synths AND singing AND a drunken arm around the shoulder leading us outside for a night of pure silliness.. "Last Ones Standing" was first seen on the UK Singles Chart when it debuted at number 158 on 28 August 2010. The following week, the single jumped an amazing 88 places to number 70. Upon official release; the single made early appearances on other UK charts, including the UK Dance Chart. The single was seen prematurely on the UK Indie Chart at number 30 on 15 August 2010. On 16 September 2010 the single debuted at number 44 on the Irish Singles Chart, becoming the third of Example's singles to do so.

The following week, the single climbed 7 places to number 37. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Klias Peninsula

The Klias Peninsula is a peninsula in western of Sabah, Malaysia. It consists of coastal wetlands which become the largest mangrove and nipa swamp area in Sabah's west coast and serves as a major nurturing ground for fisheries resources in the Brunei Bay and Kimanis Bay. Miocene cobble conglomerates deposited in a tidally-influenced channel define a major sequence boundary exposed on the peninsula that can be correlated to paleo-shelf edge gorges imaged offshore on seismic data. Recent beach deposits on the area at 20 metre elevation indicate youthful uplift which offer a stellar example of drainage capture and facies variability in an active tropical foreland basin; the peninsula coastal area comprising the Kuala Penyu and Beaufort received mean annual rainfall ranging from 2,000 millimetres to 2,500 millimetres while towards the east annual rainfall reached between 2,500 millimetres and 3,000 millimetres. It consists of four forest reserve areas of Binsuluk, Klias and Padas Damit with much of its coastline is lined with mangroves.

The area support large population of water birds together with 134 species from 59 tree families were recorded as well the population of proboscis monkeys