Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Paul Brown Tiger Stadium
Paul Brown Tiger Stadium is a high school football stadium located in Massillon, Ohio. It is primarily used for American football, and is the field of the Massillon Washington High School Tigers football team. The stadium has a capacity of 16,600 spectators. The stadium is named after former Tiger and noted football head coach, originally named Tiger Stadium, its construction was completed in 1939 through the Works Progress Administration program. Besides being the season home of the Massillon Tiger Football team. This is possible due to the use of turf as a playing surface. The stadium hosts the annual Pro Football Hall of Fame drum, Paul Brown Tiger Stadium is listed as a historical site of significance by the State of Ohio. The 3 million dollar,80,000 square foot building is the largest indoor practice facility in the state of Ohio,20. It is one of the few indoor facilities for a high school football team in the nation. Massillon City School District official site
2015 IFAF World Championship
The 2015 IFAF World Championship was the fifth instance of the IFAF World Championship, an international American football tournament. The United States hosted the tournament, seven teams had confirmed their participation for the tournament in Canton, Ohio. USA Football stepped in and announced the Championships would be held at the Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium in Canton, the United States won their third consecutive championship in their third appearance, defeating Japan in the final. The Gold Medal Game international broadcast was carried on Sports Radio America, the 2015 games in Sweden were originally scheduled to be the first ever to consist of a field of 12 national teams in World Championships. The teams were to be divided into four groups for the preliminary round, budgetary considerations caused several teams to withdraw from the 2015 Championship. After the move of the tournament to Canton a new schedule containing only 8 teams was announced, the schedule in Canton originally had five rounds, with teams divided into two brackets of four teams each.
The preliminary rounds consisted of three games for each team against each of the teams in their bracket. The top three finishers in the higher bracket- which included the higher seeded teams, and the top finisher in the lower bracket would reach the semi-final and final single-elimination round. In late April #2 seed Canada announced it would withdraw, citing sponsorship, the revised final schedule included 7 teams playing 4 rounds with three games each day on July 9,12,15,18. #3 seed Japan received a bye in Round 1, while #4 seed Mexico drew a bye in Round 2 as a result of its loss in the first round game versus the US team. On July 18, the United States defeated Japan 59–12 to win the 2015 IFAF World Championship, teams with an asterisk did not attend. This was the fifth IFAF World Championship tournament for Japanese defensive lineman Yasuo Wakisaka,46 and he is the only player to appear in all world championship tournaments since its inception in 1999. All games of the tournament were to be played in the 30,000 spectator Tele2 Arena located in Stockholm, Sweden but were moved to Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium in Canton, U. S. instead.
Canada withdrew from the tournament after the schedule was announced. Winner All times in Eastern Daylight Time Game 1
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference North division. The Browns play their games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea. The Browns official colors are brown and white and they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets and are the only team named after a specific person, original coach Paul Brown. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B, McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference. The Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the four active seasons. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers, from 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl in that period.
In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore, Maryland. The Browns intellectual property, including name, training facility, and history, were kept in trust. A new team would be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation, the Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success and they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, and no playoff wins. The franchise has noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks. To date, the Browns overall win-loss record since 1999 is 88–200, the Browns origins date to 1944, when taxicab magnate Arthur B. Mickey McBride secured the rights to a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. S, early in 1945, McBride named 36-year-old Ohio State Buckeyes coach Paul Brown as the teams head coach and general manager and gave him a share in its profits.
The move surprised and upset Buckeye fans, who had hoped he would resume his successful run at the school after the war, the name of the team was at first left up to Paul Brown, who rejected calls for it to be christened the Browns. The franchise and the Cleveland Plain Dealer held a naming contest to publicize the team, in June 1945, a committee selected Panthers as the new teams name, named after a failed American Football League franchise in Cleveland which only lasted a single season in 1926. It is unclear whether Panthers was the highest vote-getter, or if it was second-highest behind Browns, the owner of the failed AFL Panthers franchise, General C. X. Zimmerman, indicated that he owned the name Cleveland Panthers, at this point, Paul Brown bowed to popular sentiment and agreed to the Browns name
NCAA Division III Football Championship
The NCAA Division III Football Championship began in 1973. Before 1973, most of the now in Division III competed in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. The Division III playoffs begin with 32 teams selected to participate in the playoffs, the Division III championship game, known as the Stagg Bowl, has been played annually in Salem, Virginia, at Salem Football Stadium, since 1993. In 1969, the NCAA started two regional championship games for college teams, the East Regionals Knute Rockne Bowl and the Wests Amos Alonzo Stagg Bowl. When the NCAA developed a national Division III championship game in 1973, the Stagg Bowl name, as voted by the media at the game since 20002000 Chuck Moore Mt. Union Senior RB2001 Chuck Moore Mt, union 5th year Senior RB2002 Dan Pugh Mt. Union Senior RB2003 Blake Elliot St. Johns Senior WR2004 Riley Jenkins Linfield Senior RB2005 Nate Kmic Mt, union Freshman RB2006 Greg Micheli Mt. Union Sophomore QB2007 Justin Beaver Wisc-Whitewater Senior RB2008 Greg Micheli Mt, union Senior QB2009 Levell Coppage Wisc-Whitewater Sophomore RB2010 Levell Coppage Wisc-Whitewater Junior RB2011 Loussaint Minett Wisc-Whitewater Sophomore DE2012 Kevin Burke Mt.
Union Sophomore QB2013 Matt Behrendt Wisc-Whitewater Junior QB2014 Matt Behrendt Wisc-Whitewater Senior QB2015 Taurice Scott Mt. com D3 playoffs
Works Progress Administration
In a much smaller but more famous project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects. Almost every community in the United States had a new park, the WPAs initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. At its peak in 1938, it provided jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people, most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. The stated goal of building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes, Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp.
The WPA was a program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs. It was liquidated on June 30,1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the shortage of World War II. The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years, on May 6,1935, FDR issued Executive Order 7034, establishing the Works Progress Administration. The WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA. The WPA was largely shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, which was responsible for projects including education programs, recreation programs. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division, the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics, known as the Division of Social Research, the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety, the goal of the WPA was to employ most of the unemployed people on relief until the economy recovered
Pro Football Hall of Fame Game
The Pro Football Hall of Fame Game is an annual National Football League exhibition game that is held the weekend of the Pro Football Hall of Fames induction ceremonies. The game is played at Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium and it is traditionally the first game in the NFLs preseason, marking the end of the NFLs six-month offseason. The two teams play in the Pro Football Hall of Fame Game are typically selected by the league in advance of the remainder of the preseason schedule. The participants are usually announced around the time that the new Hall of Fame members are announced, since 1971, the opponents for each game have traditionally included one AFC team and one NFC team. An all-NFC matchup was scheduled for 2011, but it was canceled due to the 2011 NFL lockout, since 2011, each of the two teams in the game has had at least one prominent alumnus being inducted into the Hall that year. The last four teams to have been added to the league each played in the Hall of Fame Game as their first game.
In 1995, expansion clubs Jacksonville and Carolina played one another, when the Cleveland Browns returned to the league with a rebooted roster in 1999, they too played in the Hall of Fame Game. Prior to the AFL-NFL merger, the Hall of Fame Game was played in August or September, in 1970, it was moved to the beginning of the preseason. Prior to 2002, it was not uncommon for the game to be played in July, since 2002, when the league permanently moved the start of the season to the weekend after Labor Day, the game has always been played in early August. The two clubs had set a deadline of July 22 to ratify a resolution in time to prepare for the game. The league and players did not ratify the agreement until July 25, the 2016 edition, which was scheduled to be played between the Green Bay Packers and the Indianapolis Colts, was canceled due to unsafe playing conditions. Mike Silver of NFL. com reported that on the morning of day, the logos at midfield. When it was apparent the paint wasnt drying fast enough, the field was heated to speed up the drying process and these issues led to unfavorable play conditions.
The affected areas were described as being slick and like cement, Stadium officials attempted to address this by applying a solvent, reportedly paint thinner, to the turf. A Packers employee noticed a warning that this substance could result in burns when exposed to skin. When officially cancelling the game, both the league and the Players Association cited safety concerns, both teams were told at 6,40 p. m. --an hour and 20 minutes before kickoff--that the game was going to be canceled. However, fans in the stadium only learned of the cancellation via social media. No official announcement was made until just before the scheduled 8 p. m. kickoff, on December 28,2016, the NFL announced that the 2017 edition of the game would be played on Thursday, August 3,2017
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
AstroTurf is a brand of artificial turf playing surface. The original AstroTurf product was a synthetic turf. The prime reason to incorporate AstroTurf on game fields was to avoid the cost of laying natural turf, the name AstroTurf has evolved into a generic trademark and is sometimes used to refer to all brands of artificial turf. The original AstroTurf brand product was co-invented in 1965 by Donald L. Elbert, James M. Faria and it was patented in 1965 and originally sold under the name ChemGrass. It was re-branded as AstroTurf by an employee named John A. Wortmann after its first well-publicized use at the Houston Astrodome stadium in 1966. Early iterations of the short pile turf swept the major stadia, concerns over directionality and traction led Monsantos R&D department to implement a texturized nylon system. By imparting a crimped texture to the nylon after it was extruded, in 1987, Monsanto consolidated its AstroTurf management and technical activities in Dalton, Georgia, as AstroTurf Industries, Inc.
In 1988, Balsam AG purchased all the stock of AstroTurf Industries. In 1994, Southwest Recreational Industries, Inc. acquired the AstroTurf brand, in 1996, SRI was acquired by American Sports Products Group Inc. While AstroTurf was the leader throughout the late 20th century. FieldTurf, AstroTurfs chief competitor in the early 2000s and today and this third generation turf, as it became known, changed the landscape of the marketplace. Although SRI successfully marketed AstroPlay, a third generation turf product, increased competition, despite their legal victory, increased competition took its toll. Out of the proceedings, Textile Management Associates, Inc. of Dalton, acquired the AstroTurf brand. TMA began marketing the AstroTurf brand under the company AstroTurf, LLC, in 2006, General Sports Venue became TMAs marketing partner for the AstroTurf brand for the American market. AstroTurf, LLC handled the marketing of AstroTurf in the rest of the world, in 2009, TMA acquired GSV in order to enter the marketplace as a direct seller.
AstroTurf, LLC focused its efforts on research and development, which has promoted rapid growth, AstroTurf introduced new product features and installation methods, including AstroFlect and field prefabrication. AstroTurf introduced a product called RootZone consisting of crimped fibers designed to encapsulate infill and this product has been adopted by many professional organizations and colleges in the United States. In 2016, SportGroup Holding announced that it would purchase AstroTurf,1964 The Moses Brown School in Providence, Rhode Island, installs ChemGrass
Canton is a city in and the county seat of Stark County, United States. Founded in 1805 alongside the Middle and West Branches of Nimishillen Creek, its status in that regard began to decline during the late 20th century, as shifts in the manufacturing industry led to the relocation or repositioning of many factories. After this decline, the industry diversified into the service economy, including retailing, finance. Canton is located approximately 24 miles south of Akron, and 60 miles south of Cleveland, Canton lies on the outskirts of the greater northeast Ohio metropolitan area anchored by Cleveland, and is a short distance away from the periphery of the greater Pittsburgh area. The city lies on the edge of Ohios extensive Amish country, particularly in Holmes and Wayne counties to the citys west and southwest. Canton is located along Interstate 77, U. S. Route 62, and the historic Lincoln Highway, the present-day U. S. Route 30, and is the terminus of the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad. Canton is the largest incorporated area in the Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, as of the 2010 Census, the population was 404,422.
Cantons city population declined 9. 7%, down to 73,007 residents, despite this decline, the 2010 figure actually moved Canton from ninth to eighth place among Ohio cities. Nearby Youngstown in Mahoning County, once more populous than Canton. Canton is chiefly notable for two reasons, the first is football, especially the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the formation in 1920 of what became the National Football League. The second is William McKinley, who conducted from his home in Canton the famed front porch campaign which won him the presidency of the United States in the 1896 election, the McKinley National Memorial and the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum commemorate his life and presidency. Canton was chosen as the site of the First Ladies National Historic Site largely in honor of his wife, Canton is currently experiencing an urban renaissance, anchored by its growing and thriving arts district centrally located in the downtown area. Several historic buildings have been rehabilitated and converted into upscale lofts, Canton was founded in 1805, incorporated as a village in 1822, and re-incorporated as a city in 1838.
Bezaleel Wells, the surveyor who divided the land of the town, named it after Canton, the name was a memorial to a trader named John ODonnell, whom Wells admired. ODonnell had named his Maryland plantation after the Chinese city, as he had been the first person to transport goods from there to Baltimore, Canton was the adopted home of President William McKinley. Born in Niles, McKinley first practiced law in Canton around 1867, the city was his home during his successful campaign for Ohio governor, the site of his front-porch presidential campaign of 1896 and the campaign of 1900. Canton is now the site of the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum, Cantons street layout forms the basis for the system of addresses in Stark County. Canton proper is divided into quadrants by Tuscarawas Street and Market Avenue