click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tom Bombadil

Tom Bombadil is a character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, he first appeared in print in a 1934 poem called The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, which included Goldberry, Old Man Willow and the Barrow-wight. They were not explicitly part of the older legends that became The Silmarillion, are not mentioned in The Hobbit. Bombadil is best known from his appearance as a supporting character in Tolkien's high fantasy epic The Lord of the Rings, published in 1954 and 1955. In the first volume, The Fellowship of the Ring, Frodo Baggins and company meet Bombadil in the Old Forest; this idea and an appearance by both Old Man Willow and the Barrow-wight were included in some of Tolkien's earliest notes for a sequel to The Hobbit. Bombadil is mentioned but not seen near the end of The Return of the King, with Gandalf planning to pay him a long visit. A expanded version of the original poem appeared in a collection of poems called The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and other verses from The Red Book, it included a new poem with him as the main character, several other unconnected poems.

It presents itself as a selection of hobbit poems. It has been republished along with five other short works by Tolkien in Tales from the Perilous Realm. Tolkien invented Tom Bombadil in memory of his children's Dutch doll, wrote light-hearted children's poems about him, imagining him as a nature-spirit evocative of the English countryside; the original version of Tolkien's poem "The Adventures of Tom Bombadil" was published on 15 February 1934 in The Oxford Magazine. The poem depicts Bombadil as a "merry fellow" living in a small valley close to the Withywindle river, where he wanders and explores nature at his leisure. Several of the valley's mysterious residents, including the "River-woman's daughter" Goldberry, the malevolent tree-spirit Old Man Willow, the Badger-folk and a Barrow-wight, attempt to capture Bombadil for their own ends, but quail at the power of Tom's voice, which defeats their enchantments and commands them to return to their natural existence. At the end of the poem, Bombadil marries Goldberry.

Throughout the poem, Bombadil is unconcerned by the attempts to capture him and brushes them off with the power in his words. Although Goldberry's origins are uncertain, Bombadil identifies her as having been found by him in the river and her title "River-woman's daughter" suggests that she is not a mortal human being, but rather a spirit of the river Withywindle in the Old Forest of Tolkien's Middle-earth; this is similar to the many named river spirits of traditional English folklore such as Jenny Greenteeth or Peg Powler of the River Tees, or to the naiads of the Greeks. Otherwise and Bombadil are enigmas in Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, not fitting into any of his definitions of sentient beings in his world. One proposed explanation is that she is a Maia associated with the element of water and in some way with the river Withywindle in particular, though, by no means the only possible answer. John D. Rateliff suggested that, at least in terms of Tolkien's early mythology, she should be seen as one of the wide category of fays and elementals: "Thus Melian is a'fay'.

The poem "Bombadil Goes Boating" anchors Bombadil in Middle-earth, featuring a journey down the Withywindle to the Brandywine river, where hobbits live at Hays-end. Bombadil is challenged by various river-residents on his journey, including birds and hobbits, but charms them all with his voice, ending his journey at the farm of Farmer Maggot, where he drinks ale and dances with the family. At the end of the poem, the charmed birds and otters work together to bring Bombadil's boat home; the poem includes a reference to the Norse lay of Ótr, when Bombadil threatens to give the hide of a disrespectful otter to the Barrow-wights, who he says will cover it with gold apart from a single whisker. The poem mentions a number of Middle-earth locations, including Hays-end and the Tower Hills, hints at the events of the end of the Third Age, speaking of "Tall Watchers by the Ford, Shadows on the Marches"; the poems were published in the collections The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and in Tales from the Perilous Realm.

In The Lord of the Rings, Tom Bombadil is a mysterious character who aids Frodo Baggins and his companions on their journey. Tom and his wife Goldberry, the "Daughter of the River", still live in their house by the source of the Withywindle, some of the characters and situations from the original poem appear in The Lord of the Rings. In the book, he is described as "Master of wood and hill", nearly always speaks or sings in stress-timed metre: 7-beat lines broken into groups of 4 and 3, he appears in three chapters, "The Old Forest", "In the House of Tom Bombadil" and "Fog on the Barrow-downs". He is mentioned in the chapter "The Council of Elrond" as a possible keeper and protector of the One Ring, as well as at the end of the story in "Homeward Bound" and "The Grey Havens". Behind Bombadil's simple façade are hints of great knowledge and power, though limited to his own domain. However, there is a certain amount of evidence. Tom first appears when Merry and Pippin are trapped by Old Man Willow, Frodo and Sam cry for h

List of burials at Mount Auburn Cemetery

Mount Auburn Cemetery is a historic, "garden-style" burial ground in Boston, located between Cambridge and Watertown, dedicated in 1831. The 174-acre grounds has long been the preferred burial ground for the middle class and elite of New England; this list highlights its notable internees, though many others are contained within the large and scenic grounds. Hannah Adams, author Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, author Louis Agassiz, scientist Thomas Bailey Aldrich, author George Thorndike Angell, advocate for the humane treatment of animals, founder of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Nathan Appleton, congressman William Appleton, congressman Thomas F. August and politician who served as the 31st Mayor of Somerville, Massachusetts Hosea Ballou, Universalist theologian and minister Stanisław Barańczak, Polish poet and translator John Bartlett and publisher of Bartlett's Familiar Quotations Benjamin E. Bates, founder of Bates College Jonathan Bayliss, Gloucester novelist and playwright Jeremy Belknap and historian Jacob Bigelow, designer of Mt. Auburn Cemetery J. W. Black, photographer Edwin Booth, actor Edwin Boring, psychologist Nathaniel Bowditch, seaman, author.

William Brewster, ornithologist Peter Bent Brigham, Boston businessman and philanthropist Phillips Brooks, American Episcopal bishop Roger Brown, American social psychologist, buried together with his partner Albert Gilman Charles Bulfinch, architect McGeorge Bundy, presidential cabinet official Anson Burlingame, legislator, diplomat George Cabot, statesman James Henry Carleton, United States Army officer William Ellery Channing, Unitarian theologian Stanley Cavell, philosopher Joyce Chen, chef John Ciardi, translator Alvan Clark and telescope maker Nancy Talbot Clark, female physician James B. Conant, president of Harvard University Sherman Conant, Union major and 9th Florida Attorney General Richard David Cowan, buried together with his partner Stewart Mitchell, intimate of Gerald and Sara Murphy Christopher Pearse Cranch ), Transcendentalist writer and artist Robert Creeley, poet Benjamin Williams Crowninshield, statesman, U. S. Secretary of the Navy Frank Crowninshield and editor of Vanity Fair magazine Benjamin Robbins Curtis, United States Supreme Court justice Charlotte Cushman, actress Felix Octavius Carr Darley, artist Charles Devens and Union general Samuel Dexter, congressman Dorothea Dix, hospital reformer George Dorr, founder of today's Acadia National Park Mildred Dresselhaus, physicist Mary Baker Eddy, religious leader Harold "Doc" Edgerton, scientist Charles William Eliot, Harvard University president Martha May Eliot, foremost pediatrician and specialist in public health Edward Everett, Governor of Massachusetts, President of Harvard University, United States Secretary of State, speaker at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

William Everett, congressman Achilles Fang, sinologist and friend of Ezra Pound Fannie Farmer, cookbook author Fanny Fern, feminist author Annie Adams Fields and hostess.

Mo i Rana

Mo i Rana is a town and the administrative centre of the municipality of Rana in Nordland county, Norway. It is located in the Helgeland region of Nordland, just south of the Arctic Circle; some of the outlying areas of the town include the suburbs of Båsmoen and Ytteren in the north and Selfors in the east and Åga/Hauknes/Dalsgrenda in the south. The town is called "Mo i Rana" to distinguish it from other places named Mo though locally the town is just called Mo; the postal address for Mo was "Mo 8600" until it was changed to "Mo i Rana 8600" in 1999. The 12.03-square-kilometre town has a population of 18,866 and a population density of 1,568 inhabitants per square kilometre. This makes it the second largest town in Nordland county; the name Mo i Rana means "Mo in Rana" in Norwegian. "Mo" comes from an old farm, situated near the modern town. The name of the farm comes from the Old Norse name Móar, which means grass lowland; the name Rana comes from Old Norse too. Rana means quick or fast because the fast water flow in the Ranfjorden outside town.

The town was an old trade centre in Helgeland. Farmers have lived in the area since the Iron Age. Mining, building boats, hunting/fishing used to be the main ways of life. Starting the summer 1730, there was a Sámi market in Mo; the market was held on the main church grounds until 1810. In 1860, wholesale merchant L. A. Meyer started a trade center, on license from the royal authority. Meyer traded flour and tobacco, reindeer meat and venison with the Swedes; the trade with Sweden increased during Sweden's difficult economic years from 1892 to the start of the First World War. Many paths now used as hiking trails were trade paths for mountain dwellers in Sweden to Mo i Rana. One example is a path that starts in the Vindelfjällens Nature Reserve at Ammarnäs and follows the Vindel River valley joins Vindelkroken and crosses the Norwegian border to Mo i Rana; the municipality is rich on iron ores, water to produce power. This was important in industry development. Dunderland Iron Ore Company established the first mines in Storforshei.

Rana Gruber was established in 1937 a mining company. In 1946 the Norwegian Parliament approved plans for the construction of an Iron mill in Norway; the Parliament selected Mo i Rana. A/S Norwegian Iron Work Company was established. In 1955, the first steel was produced to other countries; the construction of the iron works took nine years. During this period the village of Mo i Rana was changed to an industrial city. People from all over the country moved to Mo i Rana; the community needed homes for thousands of new residents. Construction of houses and residential blocks started immediately, it was established electricity and water supply to the city. In 1930, the population was 1300 people, this increased to 7,000 in 1955. In 1978 The Iron Mill employed 4,500 of the 25,000 town's inhabitants; the Norwegian Parliament resolved in June 1988 to phase out state ownership of the company. Today there are 119 industrial companies at the industrial estate; the companies have activity in the iron and steel industry, the engineering industry, the research and development service industry and the information technology industry.

In total, the companies employ 1900 people. From the end of the Second World War until the early 1990s, Mo i Rana, with the town's steel mill as its cornerstone, was dependent upon heavy industry. Following the decline of heavy industry, new service industries have now grown in the town. Rana Municipality was established on 1 January 1838 under the old formannskapsdistrikt law. Shortly afterwards, in 1839, the municipality was divided into Sør-Ranen. In 1844, Nord-Ranen was renamed Mo herred. On 1 January 1923, the village of Mo was designated as a ladested and so it was separated from the rest of the municipality to become a municipality of its own; the new town of Mo kept the rest of the old municipality became known as Nord-Rana. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, the municipality of Nord-Rana was merged with the town of Mo i Rana, the part of the municipality of Sør-Rana located north of the Ranfjorden, the Sjona area of Nesna Municipality to create the large, new Rana Municipality.

During the autumn of 1951, around "700 or 800" protesters showed up at the local graveyard as a result of a "nighttime mobilization" to oppose the government's attempt to remove Soviet corpses from graves. Some 93,000 Soviet POWs had been brought to Norway between 1941 and 1945 by the Germans to work on improvements to infrastructure in Norway. A 2013 article in Dagbladet says. Hauge stopped the action". Mo i Rana is located at the head of Ranfjorden, just on the southern side of the Saltfjellet mountains with the Svartisen glacier, Norway's second largest; the river Ranelv

Bald and Bankrupt

Benjamin Rich, better known by his YouTube channel name Bald and Bankrupt, is an English travel vlogger and author. He began his YouTube channel in June 2018, documenting the Indian subcontinent and the post-Soviet states before expanding to the rest of the world; as of March 2020, his channel has around 1.47 million subscribers and around 182 million total views. Rich had a long history of travelling. In March 1993, he went on a backpacking trip to India, flying into Delhi's Indira Gandhi Airport for what was supposed to be a one-month backpacking journey, but became so interested in Indian culture that he stayed there for four years and opened up a small hotel, he has expressed his admiration for the post-Soviet states. He has stated that his admiration started with an interest with Belarusian gymnast Svetlana Boginskaya during his adolescence, but it was during a two-month long stay in Moscow in 1993 that his interest in the place started, as he was there to witness the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis.

Rich was declared bankrupt in the UK in January 2017, which gave him the source of his YouTube channel's title. On 12 April 2018, Rich released the book The Burning Edge: Travelling Through Irradiated Belarus, under the pen name Arthur Chichester, which describes his experiences travelling through the parts of Belarus affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Rich joined YouTube under the username "bald and bankrupt" on 12 June 2018, his first video, uploaded that same day, was titled "I ♥ India's Policewomen". He predominantly films on his smartphone, he is noted for aiming to "show the lives of real locals, away from the tourist spots and Starbucks coffee". Since 2018, Rich has been accompanied in his videos by his friend Alina Adzika. Adzika is a Belarusian national and a structural engineer based in Prague, she is an extreme travel and adventure enthusiast, she is referred to by Rich as "Alinchik" in his videos. She is a polyglot and acts as a translator for Rich in more complex Russian conversations, as well as the Czech and Belarusian languages.

She is referenced in the credits as assisting with editing his 2018 book on Belarus, The Burning Edge. Rich and his Youtube channel were featured in The Daily Express's June 2019 article "World War 3: The secret underground nuclear bunkers hiding below forest revealed". Rich's content has attracted coverage in various national media publications in the towns and regions he visits. New Delhi publication The New Learn reported on Rich's travels in India in January 2019, they praised his visits to refugee camps for Hindus in North Delhi stranded following the crisis in Pakistan, described his videos as "introducing the world to an India, real and authentic, where people still open up their lunch boxes to strangers, where tea is the beginning of lifelong associations, where trust means more than money and where there is vibrancy everywhere". In June 2019, Rich was discussed in the Slovak press for his visit to Luník IX, which he described as "Europe's largest poor Roma neighborhood"; the article describes how, despite warnings about the estate being among the most dangerous in Europe, he was welcomed by local people who spoke fluent English and invited him to their modern and clean homes, which he described as "better than apartment in Britain".

Swedish YouTube personality Pewdiepie stated in a July 2019 podcast that Bald and Bankrupt is his favourite YouTube channel. Afisha Daily journalist Lyubava Zaitseva wrote about Rich's interesting choice of Russian destinations in September 2019, stating that its Russian readers had "not seen such Russia" and praising him for "trying to distance himself from tourist places" and showing cities "from the inside, communicating with local residents". Rich's video about a trip to Patamanta, Bolivia was reported by Gizmodo Español as "more scary than entering Chernobyl", he informed a local woman that he was an English tourist, to which she responded by warning him that he is in danger because "people burn people" in the area. This was followed by two men who approached Rich, inspected his documents, gave him 30 minutes to leave the area. Following a November 2019 video filmed in Chechnya, Rich was criticised on the Radio Free Europe website Caucasus Realities for referring to a local woman as "chick" and for laughing about sharing a train compartment with her.

He apologised, stating that he now understands that his language was "not accepted here, it's not beautiful" but that he did not intend to offend Chechnya. In November 2019, Russia Beyond named Rich's channel in its list of six YouTube vlogs "where foreigners show you real Russia", it noted his "openness to local people and unpredictability". That month, Hindustan Times reported on how he exposed scams against tourists in Delhi Airport, from inflated prices to rickshaw drivers and false claims. Rich admits that he struggles with the grammar, he has shown an intermediate level of Hindi in his videos. Chichester, A.. The Burning Edge: Travels Through Irradiated Belarus. ISBN 978-1-9807-8751-8 Article on Bald and Bankrupt in Lunik IX by MARTINA BEŇOVÁ of Noizz Aktuality dated 24/07/19

Alabama State Route 255

Research Park Boulevard runs from I-565 to Bob Wade Lane on the north and west sides of Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama. Much of the route is a limited access highway, with the entire route planned to be limited access. Plans call for the road to be extended to create a near-complete bypass around Huntsville. SR 255 was created around 1969 as part of a proposed northern bypass of Huntsville; the original route ran from Redstone Arsenal Gate 9 to US 72 as limited access highway with exits for U. S. Route 72 Alternate/SR 20, Old Madison Pike, ending at US 72, with plans to extend north; the interchange with SR 20 was intended only to provide access to the Arsenal's Gate 9 and accordingly had an incomplete set of ramps. SR 255 only appeared on maps and was unsigned, was better known as Rideout Road; the road continues southward past Gate 9 into Redstone Arsenal and has an additional interchange at the Toftoy Thruway, but this is not considered part of the state route. A fourth interchange opened in 1989.

At that time, Bradford Drive was overpassed over 255 to connect the existing east side of Cummings Research Park to the opened west side. A set of ramps provided full access between the two roads. During the construction of I-565 in 1990, a truck towing a crane dislodged the southbound bridge over SR 20 forcing an earlier replacement of the bridge. SR 255 was first signed as an exit off of 565. SR 255 was extended north in 1996 to SR 53; the interchange with US 72 was modified as part of this work, a third southbound lane was added between US 72 and Bradford Drive. However, an existing cloverleaf ramp that provided access from 72 westbound to 255 southbound was eliminated. SR 255 was name Rideout Road in honor of 1st Lt. Percy Rideout, killed in action in France on October 8, 1918 and was posthumously promoted and awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for “extraordinary heroism in action. In 2001, the road was renamed Research Park Boulevard for Cummings Research Park, which the road bisects.

In 2005, a three-mile extension was constructed to connect with Bob Wade Lane on the north side of Huntsville. This section was named in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. and built to the same road standards as the present at-grade portion of SR 255, allowing for future upgrade to limited access. The road was built as part of a deal with the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama Plant to allow faster access to I-565. In 2013, the at-grade intersection with SR 53 was replaced with an interchange; as part of this work, existing at-grade intersections with Blake Bottom Road and Dan Tibbs Road were eliminated, making the route all freeway from the Arsenal boundary to SR 53. A $500 million Southern Bypass through Redstone Arsenal, which would extend SR 255 south from its current terminus at 565 to US 231 in south Huntsville, has been proposed, it would have become part of the proposed Memphis-Huntsville-Atlanta highway. As of 2009, the project was put on hold indefinitely due to military security concerns.

Subsequently, the route was re-planned, the current plan does not call for using any part of SR 255. In 2010, the city of Huntsville was to have begun construction to extend SR 255 to US 231/US 431 North towards Meridianville parallel to Bob Wade Lane. Long-range plans call for SR 255 to be built south to US 72 east of Huntsville. However, as of August 2013, the construction phase was still not funded. In December 2013, the Huntsville City Council approved a sales tax increase to raise funds for this and other road projects around Huntsville; the extension of the freeway portion of SR 255 to SR 53 cut in half two feeder roads, Blake Bottom Road and Dan Tibbs Road, which provide access to numerous subdivisions in northwestern Huntsville. This has created a traffic bottleneck in the afternoon, as traffic going from northbound SR 255 to these roads has to take the SR 53 ramp and make a U-turn at the interchange to get to the frontage road intersections on the southbound side. Accordingly, a plan has been published for an overpass at Blake Bottom Road to provide access from the northbound side of SR 255.

In 2012 the Alabama DOT informed the city of Huntsville that the state will not pay for this project. However, in 2017, the ADOT reached an agreement with Madison County to build the interchange; the entire route is in Madison County. Alabama Department of Transportation county road maps for Madison

Wiktor Poliszczuk

Wiktor Poliszczuk was a Polish-Ukrainian-Canadian politologist specialising in the history of political thought, who wrote about the Polish-Ukrainian relations during World War II and issues relating to the emergence of Ukrainian nationalism in the 20th century resulting in a campaign of ethnic cleansing. Poliszczuk's work has been criticized by several Polish, Canadian and Ukrainian historians, but acknowledged for his Polish-Ukrainian reconciliation effort. Poliszczuk was born into a family of Ukrainian father and Polish mother, he was raised as an Eastern Orthodox Christian. When he was a child Wiktor, his mother and two sisters were deported to Kazakh SSR by the Soviet authorities, his father was executed by the Soviets. After World War II his family resettled in Dnipropetrovsk and in 1946 moved to Poland following Polish-Soviet repatriation agreement, to re-unite with the family of his aunt. In Poland Poliszczuk worked as a teacher, he studied law at the Wrocław University, political science at the University of Silesia in Katowice, where he obtained a PhD.

He worked as an attorney in the People's Republic of Poland. In 1981 during the time of martial law in Poland he emigrated to Canada, he lived in Toronto until his death in November 2008. Poliszczuk's research and his extensive writing were devoted to the anatomy of bolshevism and practice of national rights in the former Soviet Union as well as the theory and practice of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army activities, his on-line biography does not list any affiliations with a Canadian university. His two books, translated into English-language, were self-published in Toronto, Canada, including: Legal and political assessment of the OUN and UPA, as well as Bitter truth: the criminality of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Wiktor Poliszczuk was the author of over 200 papers and scientific publications, scientific articles, polemics and press releases written in English and Polish, including five large volumes bearing the title Integral Ukrainian nationalism as a variant of fascism.

His two books were translated into English-language. In his writing, Poliszczuk separates the issues of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army and the Ukrainian nation, stating that the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists was based on terror, he explores the sources of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists' actions as based on the theories of Dmytro Dontsov. On April 16, 2009, Wiktor Poliszczuk received posthumously the "Polonia Mater Nostra Est" award. Poliszczuk's main argument in his work on the history of Ukrainian nationalism was that it began only in the period following World War I. Poliszczuk postulated that the earlier political beliefs held by Ukrainian writers such as Mykola Mikhnovsky were oriented toward independence and did not have the same radical character of Dmytro Dontsov's ideology which served as inspiration for the World War II atrocities committed by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. According to Poliszczuk – wrote Dr Anna Dziduszko-Rościszewska of the Jagiellonian University – the main difference among the ideas of Mikhnovsky and Dontsov was the actual definition of a nation.

For Mikhnovsky, the reform of the existing social order did not preclude the commitment to the ideal of tolerance, wrote Poliszczuk. For Dontsov, on the other hand and intolerance became the necessary ingredients of the new Ukrainian nationalism providing the vocabulary of motive for the massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia in the following years. Wiktor Poliszczuk was criticised as biased against OUN-UPA and nonscientific by several historians. Polish historian Rafał Wnuk of the Institute of National Remembrance in Lublin categorized Poliszczuk's work as belonging to the "para-scientific" tradition. Although Poliszczuk was described by Wnuk as a "left-wing democrat", he was said by Wnuk to have used the same jargon and to have reached the same conclusions as the Polish national nonscientific writers. Ukrainian academic Yaroslav Isayevich of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine called Poliszczuk an "expert practitioner of anti-Ukrainian hysteria." Canadian historian David Marples described Poliszczuk's work as detailed, although taking the form of a polemic similar to the views regarding UPA from the Soviet perspective to which Poliszczuk's work can be added.

In an interview published in translation by the Warsaw-based Ukrainian newspaper Our Word, Polish historian Ryszard Torzecki dismissed Poliszczuk as an "NKVD prosecutor" and one of the named writers unworthy of discussion. Ukrainian nationalist historians condemned Poliszczuk's works. For example, Volodomyr Serhiichuk of Ukraine published an entire book in response to his writing, defending OUN-UPA and claiming the Polish community's alleged collaboration with the Germans and with the Bolsheviks. However, the aforementioned book "denigrates the Poles at every opportunity. Poliszczuk was a "left-wing democrat" who supported Operation Vistula, wrote Rafal Wnuk.