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Tom Daschle

Thomas Andrew Daschle is a retired American politician and lobbyist who served as a United States senator from South Dakota from 1987 to 2005. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Daschle obtained a degree at South Dakota State University, served in the United States Air Force, he served four terms. In 1986, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, becoming Minority Leader in 1995 and Majority Leader in 2001, becoming the highest-ranking elected official in South Dakota history. In 2004, he was defeated for reelection in a remarkable upset, he took a position as a policy advisor with a lobbying firm, became a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress, co-authored a book advocating universal health care. Daschle was an early supporter of Barack Obama's presidential candidacy, was nominated by President-elect Obama for the position of Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services after the 2008 election. However, Daschle withdrew his name on February 3, 2009, amid a growing controversy over his failure to properly report and pay income taxes.

He is working for The Daschle Group, a Public Policy Advisory of Baker Donelson, a large law firm and lobbying group. Daschle was born in Aberdeen, South Dakota, the son of Elizabeth B. and Sebastian C. Daschle, both of German descent, his paternal grandparents were Volga Germans. He grew up in the eldest of four brothers, he became the first person in his family to graduate from college when he earned a B. A. from the Department of Political Science at South Dakota State University in 1969. While attending South Dakota State University, Daschle became a brother of Alpha Phi Omega. From 1969 to 1972, Daschle served in the United States Air Force as an intelligence officer with the Strategic Air Command. In the mid-1970s Daschle was an aide to Senator James Abourezk. In 1978 Daschle was elected to the United States House of Representatives, winning the race by a margin of 139 votes, following a recount, out of more than 129,000 votes cast. Daschle served four terms in the House of Representatives and became a part of the Democratic leadership.

Although Daschle was not seeking the Vice-Presidency, he received 10 delegate votes for Vice President of the United States at the 1980 Democratic National Convention. Several others received protest votes, but incumbent Vice President Walter Mondale was renominated easily. In 1986, Daschle was elected to the senate in a close victory over incumbent Republican James Abdnor. In his first year, he was appointed to the Finance Committee. In 1994 he was chosen by his colleagues to succeed the retiring Senator George Mitchell as Democratic minority leader. In the history of the Senate, only Lyndon B. Johnson had served fewer years before being elected to lead his party. In addition to the minority leader's post, Daschle served as a member of the U. S. Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. South Dakotans reelected Daschle to the Senate by overwhelming margins in 1998. At various points in his career, he served on the Veterans Affairs, Indian Affairs and Ethics Committees; when the 107th Congress commenced on January 3, 2001, the Senate was evenly divided—that is, there were 50 Democrats and 50 Republicans.

Outgoing Vice President Al Gore acted in his constitutional capacity as ex officio President of the Senate, used his tie-breaking vote to give the Democrats the majority in that chamber. For the next two weeks, Daschle served as Senate Majority Leader. Upon the commencement of the Bush administration on January 20, 2001, Dick Cheney became president of the senate, thereby returning Democrats to the minority in that body. However, on June 6, 2001, Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont announced in that he was leaving the Senate Republican caucus to become an independent and to caucus with Democrats. Democratic losses in the November 2002 elections returned the party to the minority in the senate in January 2003, Daschle once more reverted to being minority leader. Daschle recounted his senate experiences from 2001 to 2003 in his first book, Like No Other Time: The 107th Congress and the Two Years That Changed America Forever ISBN 9781400049554, published in 2003. With Charles Robbins, he has written the book The U.

S. Senate: Fundamentals of American Government. In October 2001, while he was the Senate Majority Leader, Daschle's office received a letter containing anthrax, becoming a target of the 2001 anthrax attacks; some of his staffers were confirmed to have been exposed, as well as several of Senator Russ Feingold's staffers and Capitol police officers. His suite at the Hart Senate Office Building was the focus of an intensive cleanup led by the Environmental Protection Agency. Daschle has a mixed voting record on abortion-related issues, which led the pro-choice organization NARAL to give him a 50% vote rating. In 1999 and 2003, Daschle voted in favor of the ban on partial-birth abortion, supported legislation making it a crime to harm an unborn child when someone attacks a pregnant woman. In 2003, Roman Catholic Bishop Robert Carlson wrote to Daschle, criticizing his stance on abortion as conflicting with Roman Catholic teaching, stating that Daschle should no longer identify himself as a Catholic.

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Stone box grave

Stone box graves were a method of burial employed by Native Americans of the Mississippian culture in the American Midwest and Southeast. Their construction was common in the Cumberland River Basin around Nashville, Tennessee A stone box grave is a coffin of stone slabs arranged in the rectangular shape into which a deceased individual was placed. Common materials used for construction of the graves were limestone and shale, both varieties of stone which break into slab like shapes; the materials for the bottom of the graves varies, with grave floors made of stone, shell, perishables, or some combination of those materials, while the tops are more slabs of stone. Grave goods were interred with the deceased and included mortuary pottery, ceramic objects, stone implements such as celts and arrowheads, bone beads and awls, personal ornaments including marine shell gorgets and freshwater pearls. Regional variations existed, with some being larger and roomier than others, some being built with right angles and some angled inward at the feet.

The people of the Middle Tennessee region tended to place bodies in an extended position, while in Eastern Tennessee a flexed position was more favored. In some instances small stone boxes would be used as a secondary burial, with the excarnated bones placed in as a bundle; some graves have been found to have been reused. The grave would be reopened and the bones of the previous occupant would be disarticulated and shoved to one end or side so the new occupant could be placed in the proper position. Instances of double burials have been found, with two occupants interred simultaneously; this is thought to be a conjugal pairing as the occupants are of the opposite sex from one another. This type of burial seems to have been reserved for adult members of these societies, with few known examples of child or subadult burials in this fashion. Burials for these individuals seems to adjacent to houses. Stone box graves have been found at many different Mississippian sites from the American Bottom to the deep South.

The practice was prominent in the Cumberland River Valley of Kentucky and Tennessee, with thousands having been found in the Nashville area. Sites such as Beasley, Mound Bottom, Brick Church Pike, Old Town, Castalian Springs and Sellars Mound all have examples of excavated stone box graves, they have been found as far afield as the Prather Complex sites in the Louisville, Kentucky vicinity, the Pennyroyal Region of Kentucky, the Lower Illinois River Valley, the Little Egypt region of Illinois, in Missouri near St. Louis and the Guntersville Basin area of Northern Alabama. Since the beginning of archaeological investigations in the region in the late nineteenth century the graves have been used as a means for understanding the prehistoric inhabitants of the area, with many calling the people of the Middle Tennessee area the "Stone Grave People". Joseph Jones, under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, investigated the Middle Tennessee area and in his 1876 monograph he describes the native remains and discussed the possible origins of the local populations and their connection to other peoples and regions such as the Natchez of the Lower Mississippi Valley.

In the 1870s Frederick Ward Putnam of the Peabody Museum excavated several large platform mounds with stone box graves in the vicinity of Nashville. In his 1877 report Putnam recorded burial placement and grave goods found during his excavations and speculated on the ancestry and age of the people who built the mounds. Putnam concluded that the people of the area were connected with groups from the central Mississippi River Valley. Gates P. Thrustons 1890 manuscript, which started as a piece on a stone box grave cemetery found in Nashville, was the first comprehensive analysis of artifacts for the state of Tennessee. Thruston's conclusions on the builders of the local mounds and box graves added to the nineteenth century myth of the "Moundbuilders", as he concluded a "superior race" from the local Native Americans had built the structures. Clarence Bloomfield Moore with his Gopher of Philadelphia riverboat expedition of 1914-1915 continued the tradition of extensive archaeological research in the area and like his predecessors he was enthralled by the stone box graves.

He made maps of sites showing the different varieties of stone graves in Middle Tennessee, Upper Tennessee Valley and nearby Northern Alabama regions Cist List of Mississippian sites Mississippian culture burial mounds Southeastern Ceremonial Complex Kauffman Site 23JE206-Stone box graves in Missouri The Tennessee and lower Ohio rivers expeditions of Clarence... By Clarence Bloomfield Moore THE TENNESSEE STATE CEMETERY LAW AND ITS IMPACT UPON PREHISTORIC SITE PRESERVATION - Michael C. Moore Tennessee Encyclopedia-Cox gorgets found in stone box graves Notice of Inventory Completion: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Archaeology, Nashville, TN Stone Box Indian Site

Jiří Vacek

Ing. Jiří Vacek is a Czech mystic and translator of spiritual literature, he is active as a teacher of yoga and non-dualistic philosophy Advaita Vedanta in the Czech Republic. His spiritual practice is based on the teachings of Sri Ramana Maharshi, the Tamil sage of Arunachala. J. Vacek is the author of the unique encyclopaedia of yoga and mysticism published in the form of a book series entitled The Highest Yoga and Mysticism, his articles on spiritual practice have been published in several foreign journals. He is an author of many CDs and DVDs on various spiritual topics. J. Vacek translated a number of works from various fields of spiritual literature into the Czech language the teachings of Ramana Maharshi as well as many other foreign works; as a promoter of yoga and mysticism, he has influenced the local spiritual scene and still continues to do so. Jiří Vacek was born in 1931 in Slaný on Whit Monday, a day belonging to Whitsuntide – a significant feast of the liturgical year, his childhood was affected by the German occupation of the Czechoslovakia during the World War II, when the whole Czech nation suffered under the Nazi rule.

The beginnings of his interest in the spiritual life date back to as early as 1945. The first spiritual book J. Vacek encountered, which influenced him was the Burning Bush by Karel Weinfurter. According to this book, J. Vacek started practising mystic exercises, namely the mantra repetition and silent concentration on the spiritual heart. From the start, he felt attracted to the personality of Ramana Maharshi, a spiritual teacher and sage from the 19th to 20th century, whose atma-vichara J. Vacek practiced from the end of the 1950s, his other spiritual masters, who he was in touch with, were Jaroslav Kočí from Ostrava and Míla Tomášová. During the communist regime, Jiří Vacek was interrogated by the State Security owing to his spiritual interests and sentenced for "disturbing the socialistic way of life", he was sacked from work for a few times. Despite all that, he kept spreading both his original works and translations in the form of so-called samizdats. After the fall of the communist regime in former Czechoslovakia in 1989, J. Vacek began to operate in public and published translations of many spiritual books the works with the teachings of Ramana Maharshi and the books dealing with the non-dualistic realization – Advaita.

He translated several works from Christianity and Zen Buddhism. Altogether, he has so far published over 100 of his own original works and more than 30 translations from the English language. Being retired, J. Vacek dedicates his free time to public meditations and meditations with his friends/students. What is the Path? The path lies in turning away from the changing forms to their unchanging nature, their source, it lies in the withdrawal of consciousness´ attention from observed objects and its turning to the observer or witness, the consciousness itself, which leads to the realization of our true Nature, the Self, as pure consciousness and destruction of the illusion that we are a being limited by mind and body – ego. This way, it leads to liberation from worldly suffering and the rebirth cycle, countless lives and deaths in it, to the restoration of the natural and original unlimited bliss of pure being, it removes the illusion of diversity and leads to the realization of the Unity, the highest Truth, the Lord, the eternal life and true happiness.

The spiritual practice as presented by Jiří Vacek is based on the teaching of Ramana Maharshi. Just as him, Jiří Vacek teaches that the basis of the spiritual life lies in finding our true existence in the self-aware consciousness or, in other words, in the realisation of our true Self; the easiest way how to realise our true Self is to follow the "footprint" of the observer, since it is always true that to be able to observe anything, we – consciousness, that observes or is aware of observed objects, must be present here. In the consciousness of the observer, we continuously distinguish ourselves from all the observed/observable objects, which are: our body, the creations of our mind including our feelings, the surrounding world, and directly, without words or thinking, we try to realise and experience that we are the non-material consciousness, aware of these observed objects. This is the most important element of the spiritual practice that we can and should practice permanently during all of our common daily activities.

By the consciousness of the self-aware observer, we introduce the divine life into our day-to-day life. We do not need to divide our life into the worldly activities and the spiritual ones, although formal meditation is still the basis. We try to carry out with all of our activities while being consciously aware of our true Self, our divine nature; this makes all our activities easier since the level of our awareness rises and we can concentrate better and better on condition that we do not forget about our Self – us being different from anything that can be observed. This practice enables us to work on the second crucial element of the spiritual practice, the dissolution of vasanas, tendencies of our mind directed towards our body and our world separated/fallen off from God; this practice, focused on the static aspect of the Reality, was supplemented by Jiří Vacek with another inseparable element, so called inner pranayama. This meditation concentrates on the divine creative power and perfectly

East Branch Delaware River

The East Branch Delaware River is one of two branches that form the Delaware River. It is 75 mi long, flows through the U. S. state of New York. It winds through a mountainous area on the southwestern edge of Catskill Park in the Catskill Mountains for most of its course, before joining the West Branch along the northeast border of Pennsylvania with New York. For a long stretch it serves as the park's boundary. Much of it is paralleled by State Route 30; the river was impounded just north of Downsville in the mid-20th century to create Pepacton Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply system supplying drinking water to the City. It is a popular destination for fly fishing for brown trout. In 1881 John Burroughs, a native of the area, published "A Summer Voyage", recounting a solo boat trip down the East Branch from Arkville to Hancock. There are many variant names for the river that include: Papaconck, Papakonk River, Papotunk River, Pepachton River, Pepacton Branch, Popacton River, Popaxtunk Branch.

The East Branch Delaware River rises in eastern Delaware County, from a small pond next to a gas station on Route 30 just below the divide with the Hudson River watershed southwest of the hamlet of Grand Gorge and flows SSW, through the town of Roxbury. Its upper course winds through a narrow valley containing the river and Route 30. Just past the Middletown town line, the river flows through Wawaka Lake and receives Dry Brook, whose tributaries drain the town of Halcott, the only part of Greene County in the Delaware's watershed, from the east just outside Arkville; this confluence puts the Catskill Park Blue Line in the middle of the channel. Route 30 remains parallel as the East Branch returns to the southwest, flowing through the small village of Margaretville, the first significant settlement along the river, where NY 28 joins Route 30; the two roads remain alongside for the next few miles as the East Branch widens into Pepacton Reservoir. A short distance from the north end of the reservoir, Route 28 leaves Route 30 at the former hamlet of Dunraven, cleared to make room for the reservoir.

Pepacton Reservoir continues, with the Blue Line along its north shore, carrying the river through the towns of Andes and Colchester as its course moves more to the west. Route 30 crosses it midway along its length; the Downsville Dam just north of the village of that name marks the reservoir's southern end. Below the dam and its spillway the river narrows again, to where routes 30 and 206 cross just outside the village, it continues winding through a wider valley alongside Route 30 to East Branch, where the East Branch's most significant tributary, the Beaver Kill, a world-renowned trout stream that rises in western Ulster County, flows in from the east. Here Route 30 ends at the Route 17 expressway being converted into Interstate 86, parallels the river, crossing back and forth. At the Hancock town line, the Blue Line turns to follow it south, taking the East Branch out of the Catskill Park. A few miles below that, at the village of Hancock, it turns south and joins the West Branch to create the Delaware's main stem.

Not including tributaries of Pepacton Reservoir Right Pleasant Valley Brook Platte Kill Downs Brook Trout Brook Clauson Brook Baxter Brook Morrison Brook Bolton Brook Read Creek City Brook Cadosia CreekLeft Batavia Kill Dry Brook Huckleberry Brook Campbell Brook Beaver Kill Fish Creek Peas Eddy Brook Gee Brook List of New York rivers Peas Eddy Island Fly fishing the East Branch of the Delaware River "A Summer Voyage" at


The UltraSPARC II, code-named "Blackbird", is a microprocessor implementation of the SPARC V9 instruction set architecture developed by Sun Microsystems. Marc Tremblay was the chief architect. Introduced in 1997, it was further development of the UltraSPARC operating at higher clock frequencies of 250 MHz reaching 650 MHz; the die contained 5.4 million transistors and had an area of 149 mm². It was fabricated by Texas Instruments in their 0.35 μm process, dissipated 25 W at 205 MHz, used a 2.5 V power supply. L2 cache capacity was 1 to 4 MB. In 1999, the UltraSPARC II was ported to a 0.25 μm process. This version was code-named "Sapphire-Black", it operated at 360 to 480 MHz, possessed a die area of 126 mm², dissipated 21 W at 400 MHz and the power supply voltage was reduced to 1.9 V. Supported L2 cache capacity was increased to 1 to 8 MB; the UltraSPARC II was the basis for four derivatives. The UltraSPARC IIe "Hummingbird" was an embedded version introduced in 2000 that operated at 400 to 500 MHz, fabricated in a 0.18 μm process with aluminium interconnects.

It dissipated a maximum of 13 W at 500 MHz, used a 1.5 to 1.7 V power supply and had a 256 KB L2 cache. The UltraSPARC IIi "Sabre" featuring on-chip PCI controller was a low-cost version introduced in 1997 that operated at 270 to 360 MHz, it was fabricated in a 0.35 μm process and possessed a die size of 156 mm². It dissipated 21 W and used a 1.9 V power supply. It had a 256 KB to 2 MB L2 cache. In 1998, a version code-named Sapphire-Red, was fabricated in a 0.25 μm process, enabling the microprocessor to operate at 333 to 480 MHz. It used a 1.9 V power supply. The UltraSPARC IIe+ or IIi was introduced in 2002. Code-named "Phantom", it operated at 550 to 650 MHz and was fabricated in a 0.18 μm process with copper interconnect. It used a 1.7 V power supply. It had a 512 KB L2 cache; the Gemini was the first attempt by Sun to produce a multithreaded microprocessor. It had taped out, but was cancelled before it was introduced after the announcement of UltraSPARC T1 Niagara microprocessor in early 2004.

It consisted of an on-die L2 cache on a single chip. The DAC 2004 abstracts described the dual-core UltraSPARC II processor in Session 40; the "Dual-Core UltraSPARC" was based upon the UltraSPARC II microarchitecture and featured: DDR-1 memory controller, JBUS interface, parity protected L1 cache, ECC protected dual 512KB on-chip Level 2 cache, 1.2 GHz clock frequency, 80 million transistors, 206mm^2 die size, dissipated 23 watts of power. Kapil, S. "A chip multithreaded processor for network-facing workloads". IEEE Micro. 24: 20–30. CiteSeerX Doi:10.1109/MM.2004.1289288

Luftwaffe construction units

Luftwaffe construction units were established in 1939 from Reichsarbeitsdienst units transferred to the Luftwaffe, reinforced with technically competent older conscripts also with prisoners of war and foreign volunteers. The main task was the maintenance of military air bases. In 1944 the bulk of the construction units were transferred to the Organization Todt. During the buildup of the Luftwaffe, necessary construction work was conducted by private contractors with civilian staff. From 1938 units from the Reichsarbeitsdienst were used by the Luftwaffe for construction purposes; these RAD-units were from 1939 converted into Luftwaffe construction battalions. From 1941 construction regiments, sometimes construction brigades, were created. Construction units under RAD control still existed. In 1944 most of the construction units were transferred to the Organisation Todt; the role of the construction and pioneer units consisted of the implementation of all kind of construction projects, principally air base construction, runway construction and repair.

The pioneers were tasked with the destruction of Luftwaffe installations, as the fronts contracted. Construction and pioneer units were used to combat partisans, as first-line troops in emergencies; the personnel of the construction units came from the Reichsarbeitsdienst, from older, technically trained, conscripts. The manual labor were performed by prisoners of war and by Hiwis; the Luftwaffe construction units were subordinated to the air base regional commands, the Koflug, their use directed by its Field Works Office, at the local air base by its Works Superintendent's Office, composed of technical military officials. On the Luftgau level, a special staff officer commander, of the construction units were in charge. In the Reichsluftfahrtministerium an inspector of construction units supervised the technical and military training, the appropriate use, of the construction units and the pioneers. Henner, Sigurd & Böhler, Wolfgang. Die Deutsche Wehrmacht. Dienstgrade und Waffenfarbe der Luftwaffe 1939-1945.

Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. Thomas, Nigel & Caballero Jurado, Carlos. Wehrmacht Auxiliary Forces. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. United States War Department. Handbook on German military forces. TM-E 30-451. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. "Luftwaffen-Bau-Bataillone." The Luftwaffe, 1933-45. "Luftwaffen-Pionier-Bataillone." The Luftwaffe, 1933-45. "Luftwaffen-Bau-Bataillone." Lexikon der Wehrmacht