Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria. It recognises distinguished personal service to the monarch of the Commonwealth realms, members of the monarch's family, or to any viceroy or senior representative of the monarch; the present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the sovereign of the order, the order's motto is Victoria, its official day is 20 June. The order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel in London. There is no limit on the number of individuals honoured at any grade, admission remains at the sole discretion of the monarch, with each of the order's five grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service. While all those honoured may use the prescribed styles of the order—the top two grades grant titles of knighthood, all grades accord distinct post-nominal letters—the Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm and admission to some grades may be barred to citizens of those realms by government policy.
Prior to the close of the 19th century, most general honours within the British Empire were bestowed by the sovereign on the advice of her British ministers, who sometimes forwarded advice from ministers of the Crown in the Dominions and colonies. Queen Victoria thus established on 21 April 1896 the Royal Victorian Order as a junior and personal order of knighthood that allowed her to bestow directly to an empire-wide community honours for personal services; the organisation was founded a year preceding Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The order's official day was made 20 June of each year, marking the anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne. In 1902, King Edward VII created the Royal Victorian Chain "as a personal decoration for royal personages and a few eminent British subjects" and it was the highest class of the Royal Victorian Order, it is today distinct from the order, though it is issued by the chancery of the Royal Victorian Order.
After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to Britain, the Royal Victorian Order remained an honour open to all the King's realms. The order was open to foreigners from its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes and the Mayor of Nice being the first to receive the honour in 1896; the reigning monarch is at the apex of the Royal Victorian Order as its Sovereign, followed by the Grand Master. Queen Elizabeth II appointed her daughter, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007. Below the Grand Master are five officials of the organisation: the Chancellor, held by the Lord Chamberlain. Thereafter follow those honoured with different grades of the order, divided into five levels: the highest two conferring accolades of knighthood and all having post-nominal letters and, the holders of the Royal Victorian Medal in either gold, silver or bronze. Foreigners may be admitted as honorary members, there are no limits to the number of any grade, promotion is possible.
The styles of knighthood are not used by princes, princesses, or peers in the uppermost ranks of the society, save for when their names are written in their fullest forms for the most official occasions. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle and Westminster Abbey are customarily inducted as Knights Commander. Prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members and Members but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO; the current officers of the Royal Victorian Order are as follows: Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952 Grand Master: Anne, Princess Royal, since 2007 Chancellor: William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel, as Lord Chamberlain, since 2006 Secretary: Sir Alan Reid, as Keeper of the Privy Purse, since 2002 Registrar: Lieutenant Colonel Michael Vernon, as Secretary of the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood Chaplain: Peter Galloway, as Chaplain of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, since 2008 Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are given various insignia of the organisation, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes.
Common for all members is the badge, a Maltese cross with a central medallion depicting on a red background the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria surrounded by a blue ring bearing the motto of the order—VICTORIA—and surmounted by a Tudor crown. However, there are variations on the badge for each grade of the order: Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the badge on a sash passing from the right shoulder to the left hip.
The Duke of Edinburgh's Award
The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, is a youth awards programme founded in the United Kingdom in 1956 by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, that has since expanded to 144 nations. The awards recognise adolescents and young adults for completing a series of self-improvement exercises modelled on Kurt Hahn's solution to the "Six Declines of Modern Youth". In the United Kingdom, the programme is run by The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, a royal charter corporation. A separate entity, The Duke of Edinburgh's International Award Foundation, promotes the award abroad and acts as a coordinating body for award sponsors in other nations, which are organised into 62 National Award Authorities and a number of Independent Operators. Award sponsors in countries outside the United Kingdom may title their awards Duke of Edinburgh's Awards, though the recognition operates under a variety of other names in countries without a historic link to the British monarchy, or that have severed such links. In February 1956, The Duke of Edinburgh's Award was first announced.
It was at first "for boys" aged 15 to 18. It was first administered, designed, by John Hunt, who had led the first successful climb of Everest in 1953, had retired from the army to run The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, it was designed to attract boys who had not been interested in joining one of the main British youth movements, such as the Scout Association. It was not necessary to wear a uniform to participate. In the first 12 months, 7,000 boys had enrolled for the scheme; the programme borrowed from the Moray Badge, instituted at Gordonstoun School by its headmaster, Kurt Hahn, in 1936, the County Badge adopted in Moray in 1941. In November 1957 it was announced. On 19 June 1958 the Award was extended to girls, with the first girls allowed to join from 1 September 1958; the programme for girls was not the same as that for boys, was for ages 14 to 20. The first girls received their Gold Awards on 3 November 1959 at Buckingham Palace. From January 1965, the Gold Award for boys and girls was made more similar.
The first Gold Awards were achieved in 1958, the charity was established in 1959. A single programme for young people aged 14 to 21 was launched in 1969, extended to those up to 25 years of age in 1980. In 2013, the Duke presented Awards at St James's Palace which included his 500th Gold Award Presentation; the first Duke of Edinburgh's Award ceremony was held in the United Kingdom in 1956. Participation in DofE programmes and the number of awards achieved has grown every year since 1956; as of 2017 420,000 young people were taking part in Duke of Edinburgh's Award programmes run in nearly 11,000 designated DofE centres – including schools, youth clubs and businesses – throughout the UK. Over 6 million young people in the UK have taken part in the DofE in the UK since 1956; the Duke of Edinburgh's Award is a member of the National Council for Voluntary Youth Services. In 2009, the old system of keeping track of progress through paper Record Books was replaced by the introduction of a major new online system – eDofE.
Participants use this system to track their progress, while Leaders use it to oversee participants' progress. The Duke of Edinburgh's Award programmes take between one and four years to complete, they must be completed by the participant's twenty-fifth birthday. There are around 300,000 participants annually; the programmes are at three progressive levels which, if completed, lead to a Bronze, Silver or Gold Duke of Edinburgh’s Award. With assistance from adult Leaders, participants select and set objectives in each of the following areas: Volunteering: undertaking service to individuals or the community. Physical: improving in an area of sport, dance or fitness activities. Skills: developing practical and social skills and personal interests. Expedition: planning, training for, completion of an adventurous journey in the UK or abroad. At Gold level, participants must do an additional fifth Residential section, which involves staying and working away from home for five days, doing a shared activity.
To achieve an award, the participant must work on each section for a minimum period of time, must be monitored and assessed by someone with knowledge of the chosen activities. Each progressive level demands more commitment from participants: Bronze 3 -- 6 months. Participants are required to show regular activity and commitment to the award for the duration of their DofE programme, at least one hour per week. In Northern Ireland participants completing The Duke of Edinburgh's Award can choose to accept a certificate from the Gaisce or an International Award Certificate instead of a Duke of Edinburgh certificate. Awards modelled on The Duke of Edinburgh's Award are presented by sponsoring organisations affiliated with the Duke of Edinburgh's International Award Association in 144 nations: 29 located in the Americas; the prestige and awareness of these awards vary from country to country and – unlike awards programmes in Ireland and the United Kingdom – there is no connection to the head of state and awards are issued by private youth charities.
In the United States, for instance, only about 7,000 of the estimated 47 million eligible persons age 14 to 24 annually participate in the programme. The Award was established in Australia in 1959 on the initiative of Sir Adrien Curlewis in 1958. By 2015 the Award was available in all state and territories and today over 24,000 young Australians undertake a Bronze, Silver or Gold Award each ye
Firth of Forth
The Firth of Forth is the estuary of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Lothian on the south, it was known as Bodotria in Roman times. In the Norse sagas it was known as the Myrkvifiörd. An early Welsh name is Merin Iodeo, or the "Sea of Iudeu". Geologically, the Firth of Forth is a fjord, formed by the Forth Glacier in the last glacial period; the drainage basin for the Firth of Forth covers a wide geographic area including places as far from the shore as Ben Lomond, Harthill and the edges of Gleneagles Golf Course. Many towns line the shores, as well as the petrochemical complexes at Grangemouth, commercial docks at Leith, former oil rig construction yards at Methil, the ship-breaking facility at Inverkeithing and the naval dockyard at Rosyth, along with numerous other industrial areas, including the Forth Bridgehead area, encompassing Rosyth and the southern edge of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, Bo'ness and Leven; the firth is bridged in two places. The Kincardine Bridge and the Clackmannanshire Bridge cross it at Kincardine, while the Forth Bridge, the Forth Road Bridge and the Queensferry Crossing cross from North Queensferry to South Queensferry, further east.
The Romans made a bridge of around 900 boats at South Queensferry. From 1964 to 1982, a tunnel existed under the Firth of Forth, dug by coal miners to link the Kinneil colliery on the south side of the Forth with the Valleyfield colliery on the north side; this is shown in the 1968 educational film "Forth - Powerhouse for Industry". The shafts leading into the tunnel were filled and capped with concrete when the tunnel was closed, it is believed to have filled with water or collapsed in places. In July, 2007, a hovercraft passenger service completed a two-week trial between Portobello and Kirkcaldy, Fife; the trial of the service was hailed as a major operational success, with an average passenger load of 85 percent. It was estimated the service would decrease congestion for commuters on the Forth road and rail bridges by carrying about 870,000 passengers each year. Despite the initial success, the project was cancelled in December, 2011; the inner firth, located between the Kincardine and Forth bridges, has lost about half of its former intertidal area as a result of land reclamation for agriculture, but for industry and the large ash lagoons built to deposit spoil from the coal-fired Longannet Power Station near Kincardine.
Historic villages line the Fife shoreline. The firth is a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the Firth of Forth Islands SPA is home to more than 90,000 breeding seabirds every year. There is a bird observatory on the Isle of May; the youngest person to swim across the Firth of Forth was 13-year-old Joseph Feeney, who accomplished the feat in 1933. In 2008, a controversial bid to allow oil transfer between ships in the firth was refused by Forth Ports. SPT Marine Services had asked permission to transfer 7.8 million tonnes of crude oil per year between tankers, but the proposals were met with determined opposition from conservation groups. Bass Rock Craigleith Cramond Eyebroughy Fidra Inchcolm Inchgarvie Inchkeith Inchmickery with Cow and Calf The Lamb Isle of May lowest bridging point: Stirling North shore South shore Isle of May bird observatory Forthfast experimental hovercraft service, 16–28 July 2007 Inchcolm Virtual Tour Take a virtual tour around some of the Inchcolm's military defences
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Roderick McKenzie Petrie is the chairman and former chief executive of Scottish football club Hibernian. Petrie is a qualified chartered accountant who trained with Ernst & Young, has served on the Hibernian board since 1996 and on the boards of the Scottish Football Association and Scottish Premier League. Petrie trained to be a chartered accountant with Ernst & Young becoming an audit partner in 13 years with the firm, he was managing director of investment bank Quayle Munro for over six years. Petrie, who had advised Tom Farmer throughout his rescue of Hibernian FC from receivership in 1991, joined the club's board of directors in 1996 and was appointed managing director in 1997. Petrie was involved in the creation of the Scottish Premier League, but Hibs themselves missed the first season in the new top flight of Scottish football due to being relegated to the First Division in 1998; the club won the First Division at the first attempt in season 1998–99 and returned to the top division. A new, multimillion-pound main Stand was built, to add to the new North and South Stands built during Sir Tom's ownership.
Most Scottish football clubs hit financial difficulty in 2002 when the television broadcast deal with Sky Sports ended after the league and broadcaster failed to reach agreement on a renewal. Hibernian was one of the first Scottish clubs to react to the new financial landscape, taking action to reduce costs as as possible; however losses accrued and added to the loan taken to develop the new stand, the club saw its debt level increase. Petrie, the only significant minority shareholder in Hibs, the board explored options to reduce debt. Two options were identified: one was for the club to stay at Easter Road while increasing revenue. Hibs opened discussions with Hearts about the possibility of moving to Straiton, but this was met with a sceptical reaction by the Hibs support. Hibs appointed former player and manager Pat Stanton to act as an "honest broker" in a public consultation process that followed; the result of the consultation was. The club launched a campaign called Stand Up And Be Counted to engage with fans in an effort to increase revenues.
Land behind the east side of Easter Road was sold by the parent company after the Club identified the footprint of land it wished to keep for future redevelopment. The sale, to a housing developer, helped to reduce the club's debt to a more manageable level after the parent company forgave a significant sum owed to it by the club; the club continued to exercise prudence in its financial dealings, with tight control of costs. Petrie was appointed Hibs chairman after the resignation of Ken Lewandowski. After the appointment of Tony Mowbray as Hibs manager in May 2004, Hibs made a trading profit in four consecutive years. Hibs received significant transfer income for Garry O'Connor, Kevin Thomson, Scott Brown, Ivan Sproule, Steven Whittaker, David Murphy during this same period. Hibs lost the services of Scottish internationalists Ian Murray, Derek Riordan and Gary Caldwell for little or no fee due to the expiry of their contracts. Despite criticism after the resignation of John Collins, that he has not used enough of these revenues on increased spending on players, Petrie has argued that the club has increased the budget for player wages four times and invested in a new training ground in East Lothian, while reducing the net debt to under £3M.
Petrie's relationship with the Scottish media has been a point of interest. Despite praise for his sure financial management, some journalists accused Petrie of being uncooperative. Petrie resigned from his position as chief executive in April 2008 and was replaced by Scott Lindsay, but has retained his position as chairman. Petrie stated that Lindsay would take over the "day-to-day running of the club", while Petrie would retain control of "executive duties", including the negotiation of player contracts and setting the player budget. Hibs continued to break in the 2009–10 season, although this was due to the sale of players offsetting a trading loss. After manager John Hughes left the club by mutual consent in October 2010, Petrie received criticism from former player Paul Kane for his track record in appointing managers; the previous three managers – John Collins, Mixu Paatelainen and Hughes – had all left the club within 18 months of being appointed. Petrie was again criticised. Hibs announced that two other directors, Scott Lindsay and Fyfe Hyland, would conduct the next recruitment process.
After two years of declining attendances and financial losses, attendance stabilised in the 2012–13 season. Lindsay and Hyland both left the club during 2012, with other directors taking on their executive tasks. Hibs continued to struggle on the field, culminating in their relegation to the Scottish Championship in 2014. Petrie, who had made Terry Butcher his seventh managerial appointment in 10 years as chairman during the 2013–14 season, pledged to continue as chairman while overseeing the introduction of Leeann Dempster as chief executive. A group of fans, led by former player Paul Kane, called on Petrie to resign
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in the Gorgie area of Edinburgh, that plays in the Scottish Premiership, the top tier in Scottish football. Hearts are the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, as they were formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly, whose name was influenced by Walter Scott's novel The Heart of Midlothian; the modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the city's Royal Mile and the team's colours are predominantly maroon and white. Hearts play at Tynecastle Park, where home matches have been played since 1886. After renovating the ground into an all-seater stadium following the findings of the Taylor Report in 1990, the stadium now has a capacity of just over 20,000 following the completion of a newly rebuilt main stand in 2017, their current training facilities are based at the Oriam, Scotland's national performance centre for sport, where they run their youth academy.
Heart of Midlothian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most in 1959–60, when they retained the Scottish League Cup to complete a League and League Cup double – the only club outside of the Old Firm to achieve such a feat. The club's most successful period was under former player turned manager Tommy Walker from the early 1950s to mid 1960s. Between 1954 and 1962 they won two league titles, one Scottish Cup, four Scottish League Cups, finished inside the league's top four positions for 11 consecutive seasons between 1949–50 and 1959–60. Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio, were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half linchpins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side. Along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young, they set the record for the number of goals scored in a Scottish league winning campaign. In doing so, they became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100.
Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most in 2012 after a 5–1 victory over Hibernian, their local rivals. All four of Hearts' Scottish League Cup triumphs came under Walker, most a 1–0 victory against Kilmarnock in 1962, their most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013, where they lost 3–2 to St Mirren. In 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time; the club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate. The club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club; the group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a local policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of association football. In December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington.
This was the first time. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules; the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The exact date of the club's formation was never recorded; the earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a sporting context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the same club who went on to form the football club, but it was common for football clubs in those days to play other sports as well; the club took its name from historic county Midlothian, dating from the Middle Ages, as well as the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the Royal Mile, which marks the historic entrance to The Old Tolbooth jail, demolished in 1817 but was kept fresh in the mind by Walter Scott's novel The Heart of Midlothian. Led by captain Tom Purdie the club played its matches in the East Meadows and in 1875 Hearts became members of the Scottish Football Association and were founder members of the Edinburgh Football Association.
By becoming members of the SFA Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time. Hearts played against 3rd Edinburgh Rifle Volunteers on October 1875 at Craigmount Park in Edinburgh; the game ended in a scoreless draw. A replay was held at the Meadows which again finished 0–0. Under rules at the time both clubs progressed to the next round with Hearts losing out to Drumpellier in the next round. In the 1884–85 season, clubs in Scotland struggled to attract players, who were attracted to play in England, due to the games professional status there. After an 11–1 win in the Scottish Cup over Dunfermline a protest was raised against the club for fielding two professional players. Hearts were suspended by the SFA for two years; this was the first suspension of an SFA club. After a change of the clubs' committee the club was readmitted. Hearts had considerable success in the early years of the Scottish Football League, winning the league championship in 1895 and 1896, they won four Scottish Cups in a 15-year period from 1891 to 1906.
The team played against Sunderland in the 1894–95 World Championship, but lost with a 5–3 score. Hearts did win the World Championship title in 1902, beating Tottenham Hotspur 3–1 in Tynecastle Park, after a 0–0 in London few month earlier. In November 1914, Heart of Midlothian comfortably led the First Division, having started