New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Joan Chandos Baez is an American singer, songwriter and activist whose contemporary folk music includes songs of protest or social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 60 years, releasing over 30 albums. Fluent in Spanish and English, she has recorded songs in at least six other languages. Although regarded as a folk singer, her music has diversified since the counterculture era of the 1960s, encompasses genres such as folk rock, pop and gospel music. Although a songwriter herself, Baez interprets other composers' work, having recorded songs by Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers Band, the Beatles, Jackson Browne, Leonard Cohen, Woody Guthrie, Violeta Parra, the Rolling Stones, Pete Seeger, Paul Simon, Stevie Wonder and many others. On her past several albums, she has found success interpreting songs of more recent songwriters, including Ryan Adams, Josh Ritter, Steve Earle, Natalie Merchant and Joe Henry, she achieved immediate success. Her first three albums, Joan Baez, Joan Baez, Vol. 2, Joan Baez in Concert all achieved gold record status.
Songs of acclaim include "Diamonds & Rust" and covers of Phil Ochs's "There but for Fortune" and The Band's "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down". She is known for "Farewell, Angelina", "Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word", "Forever Young", "Here's to You", "Joe Hill", "Sweet Sir Galahad" and "We Shall Overcome", she was one of the first major artists to record the songs of Bob Dylan in the early 1960s. Baez performed fourteen songs at the 1969 Woodstock Festival and has displayed a lifelong commitment to political and social activism in the fields of nonviolence, civil rights, human rights and the environment. Baez was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7, 2017. Baez was born on Staten Island, New York, on January 9, 1941. Joan's grandfather, the Reverend Alberto Baez, left the Catholic Church to become a Methodist minister and moved to the U. S. when her father was two years old. Her father, Albert Baez, was born in Puebla and grew up in Brooklyn, New York, where his father preached to—and advocated for—a Spanish-speaking congregation.
Albert first considered becoming a minister but instead turned to the study of mathematics and physics and received his PhD degree at Stanford University in 1950. Albert was credited as a co-inventor of the x-ray microscope. Joan's cousin, John C. Baez, is a mathematical physicist, her mother, Joan Baez, referred to as Joan Senior or "Big Joan", was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1913 as the second daughter of an English Anglican priest who claimed to be descended from the Dukes of Chandos. Born in April 1913, she died on days after her one hundredth birthday. Baez had two sisters – Pauline Thalia Baez Bryan, sometimes professionally known as Pauline Marden. To varying degrees, both women were political activists and musicians like their sister, they are notable for having been married to other American artists – Pauline to painter Brice Marden and Mimi to author and musician Richard Fariña with whom she collaborated for several years. The Baez family converted to Quakerism during Joan's early childhood, she has continued to identify with the tradition in her commitment to pacifism and social issues.
While growing up, Baez was subjected to racial slurs and discrimination due to her Mexican heritage. She became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, she declined to play in any white student venues that were segregated, which meant that when she toured the Southern states, she would play only at black colleges. Joan graduated from Palo Alto High School in 1958. Due to her father's work with UNESCO, their family moved many times, living in towns across the U. S, as well as in England, Switzerland, Spain and the Middle East, including Iraq. Joan Baez became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, including civil rights and non-violence. Social justice, she stated in the PBS series American Masters, is the true core of her life, "looming larger than music"; the opening line of Baez's memoir And a Voice to Sing With is "I was born gifted". A friend of Joan's father gave her a ukulele, she learned four chords, which enabled her to play rhythm and blues, the music she was listening to at the time.
Her parents, were fearful that the music would lead her into a life of drug addiction. When Baez was 13, her aunt and her aunt's boyfriend took her to a concert by folk musician Pete Seeger, Baez found herself moved by his music, she soon began performing them publicly. One of her earliest public performances was at a retreat in Saratoga, California for a youth group from Temple Beth Jacob, a Redwood City, California Jewish congregation. A few years in 1957, Baez bought her first Gibson acoustic guitar. In 1958, her father accepted a faculty position at MIT, moved his family to Massachusetts. At that time, it was in the center of the up-and-coming folk-music scene, Baez began performing near home in Boston and nearby Cambridge, she performed in clubs, attended Boston University for about six weeks. In 1958, at the Club 47 in Cambridge, she gave her first concert; when designing the poster for the performance, Baez considered changing her performing name to either Rachel Sandperl, the surname of her long-t
Henry John Deutschendorf Jr. known professionally as John Denver, was an American singer-songwriter, record producer, actor and humanitarian, whose greatest commercial success was as a solo singer. After traveling and living in numerous locations while growing up in his military family, Denver began his music career with folk music groups during the late 1960s. Starting in the 1970s, he was one of the most popular acoustic artists of the decade and one of its best-selling artists. By 1974, he was one of America's best-selling performers, AllMusic has described Denver as "among the most beloved entertainers of his era". Denver recorded and released 300 songs, about 200 of which he composed, with total sales of over 33 million records worldwide, he recorded and performed with an acoustic guitar and sang about his joy in nature, his disdain for city life, his enthusiasm for music, his relationship trials. Denver's music appeared on a variety of charts, including country music, the Billboard Hot 100, adult contemporary, in all earning 12 gold and four platinum albums with his signature songs "Take Me Home, Country Roads", "Annie's Song", "Rocky Mountain High", "Calypso", "Thank God I'm a Country Boy", "Sunshine on My Shoulders".
Denver appeared in several films and television specials during the 1980s. He continued to record in the 1990s focusing on environmental issues by lending vocal support to space exploration and testifying in front of Congress in protest against censorship in music, he lived in Aspen, for much of his life and was known for his love of Colorado, which he sang about numerous times. In 1974, Denver was named poet laureate of the state; the Colorado state legislature adopted "Rocky Mountain High" as one of its two state songs in 2007. Denver was an avid pilot who died at the age of 53 in a single-fatality crash while flying his experimental Rutan Long-EZ canard aircraft. Henry John Deutschendorf Jr. was born in Roswell, New Mexico, to Captain Henry John "Dutch" Deutschendorf, a United States Army Air Forces pilot stationed at Roswell AAF and his wife, Erma Louise. Years as a Lieutenant Colonel in the U. S. Air Force, Deutschendorf Sr. would set three speed records in the B-58 Hustler bomber and earn a place in the Air Force Hall of Fame.
He met and married his "Oklahoma Sweetheart". In his autobiography, Take Me Home, Denver described his life as the eldest son of a family shaped by a stern father who could not show his love for his children; because Denver's father was in the military and his family moved it was difficult for him to make friends and fit in with other children of his own age. Being the new kid was troubling for the introverted Denver, he grew up always feeling as though he should be somewhere else, but never knowing where that "right" place was. While the family was stationed at Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Denver was a member of the Tucson Arizona Boys Chorus for two years. Denver was happy living in Tucson, but his father was transferred to Maxwell AFB in Montgomery, Alabama in the midst of the Montgomery boycotts; the family moved to Carswell AFB in Fort Worth, where Denver graduated from Arlington Heights High School. Fort Worth was a distressing experience for Denver, in his third year of high school, he drove his father's car to California to visit family friends and begin his music career.
However, his father flew to California in a friend's jet to retrieve him, Denver reluctantly returned to complete his schooling. At the age of 11, Denver received an acoustic guitar from his grandmother, he learned to play well enough to perform at local clubs by the time. He adopted the surname "Denver" after the capital of Colorado, he decided to change his name when Randy Sparks, founder of The New Christy Minstrels, suggested that "Deutschendorf" would not fit comfortably on a marquee. Denver attended Texas Tech University in Lubbock and sang in a folk-music group called "The Alpine Trio" while pursuing architectural studies, he was a member of the Delta Tau Delta Fraternity. Denver dropped out of the Texas Tech School of Engineering in 1963 and moved to Los Angeles, where he sang in folk clubs. In 1965, Denver joined the Mitchell Trio. After more personnel changes, the trio became known as "Denver and Johnson". In 1969, Denver abandoned the band life to pursue a solo career and released his first album for RCA Records, Rhymes & Reasons.
Two years prior, Denver had made a self-produced demo recording of some of the songs he played at his concerts. He included in the demo a song he had written called "Babe, I Hate to Go" renamed "Leaving on a Jet Plane". Denver gave them out as presents for Christmas. Producer Milt Okun, who produced records for the Mitchell Trio and the high-profile folk group Peter and Mary, had become Denver's producer as well. Okun brought the unreleased "Jet Plane" song to Peter and Mary, their version of the song hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Denver's composition made it to the U. K. No. 2 spot in February 1970, having made No. 1 on the U. S. Cash Box chart in December 1969. Although RCA did not promote Rhymes & Reasons with a tour, Denver himself embarked on an impromptu supporting tour throughout the Midwest, stopping at towns and cities as the fashion took him, offering to play free concerts at local venues; when he was successful in persuading a school, American Legion hall, or local coffee house to let him play, he would spend a day or so distributing posters in the town and could be counted upon to show u
Arthel Lane "Doc" Watson was an American guitarist and singer of bluegrass, country and gospel music. Watson won seven Grammy awards as well as a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Watson's fingerstyle guitar and flatpicking skills, as well as his knowledge of traditional American music, were regarded, he performed with his son, guitarist Merle Watson, for over 15 years until Merle's death in 1985 in an accident on the family farm. Watson was born in North Carolina. According to Watson on his three-CD biographical recording Legacy, he got the nickname "Doc" during a live radio broadcast when the announcer remarked that his given name Arthel was odd and he needed an easy nickname. A fan in the crowd shouted "Call him Doc!" In reference to the literary character Sherlock Holmes's sidekick Doctor Watson. The name stuck. An eye infection caused Doc Watson to lose his vision before his first birthday, he attended North Carolina's school for the visually impaired, the Governor Morehead School, in Raleigh, North Carolina.
In a 1989 radio interview with Terry Gross on the Fresh Air show on National Public Radio, Watson explained how he got his first guitar. His father told him that if he and his brother David chopped down all the small dead chestnut trees along the edge of their field, he could sell the wood to a tannery. Watson bought a $10 Stella guitar from Sears Roebuck with his earnings, while his brother bought a new suit. In that same interview, Watson explained that his first high-quality guitar was a Martin D-18. Watson's earliest influences were country roots musicians and groups such as the Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers; the first song he learned to play on the guitar was "When Roses Bloom in Dixieland", first recorded by the Carter Family in 1930. Watson stated in an interview with American Songwriter that, "Jimmie Rodgers was the first man that I started to claim as my favorite." Watson proved to be a natural musical talent and within months was performing on local street corners playing songs from the Delmore Brothers, Louvin Brothers, Monroe Brothers alongside his brother Linny.
By the time Watson reached adulthood, he had become a proficient acoustic and electric guitar player. In 1953, Watson joined the Johnson City, Tennessee-based Jack Williams' country and western swing band on electric guitar; the band had a fiddle player, but was asked to play at square dances. Following the example of country guitarists Grady Martin and Hank Garland, Watson taught himself to play fiddle tunes on his Les Paul electric guitar, he transferred the technique to acoustic guitar, playing fiddle tunes became part of his signature sound. During his time with Jack Williams, Doc supported his family as a piano tuner. In 1960, as the American folk music revival grew, Watson took the advice of folk musicologist Ralph Rinzler and began playing acoustic guitar and banjo exclusively; that move ignited Watson's career when he played on his first recording, Old Time Music at Clarence Ashley's. Of pivotal importance for his career was his February 11, 1961 appearance at P. S. 41 in Greenwich Village.
He subsequently began to tour as a solo performer and appeared at universities and clubs like the Ash Grove in Los Angeles. Watson would get his big break and rave reviews for his performance at the renowned Newport Folk Festival in Newport, Rhode Island in 1963. Watson began performing with his son Merle, the same year. After the folk revival waned during the late 1960s, Watson's career was sustained by his performance of the Jimmy Driftwood song "Tennessee Stud" on the 1972 live album recording Will the Circle Be Unbroken; as popular as Doc and Merle began playing as a trio with T. Michael Coleman on bass guitar in 1974; the trio toured the globe during the late seventies and early eighties, recording nearly fifteen albums between 1973 and 1985, bringing Doc and Merle's unique blend of acoustic music to millions of new fans. In 1985, Merle died in a tractor accident on his family farm. Two years Merle Fest was inaugurated in remembrance of him. Watson played guitar in both flatpicking and fingerpicking style, but is best known for his flatpick work.
His guitar playing skills, combined with his authenticity as a mountain musician, made him a influential figure during the folk music revival. Watson pioneered a fast and flashy bluegrass lead guitar style including fiddle tunes and crosspicking techniques which were adopted and extended by Clarence White, Tony Rice and many others. Watson was an accomplished banjo player and sometimes accompanied himself on harmonica as well. Known for his distinctive and rich baritone voice, Watson over the years developed a vast repertoire of mountain ballads, which he learned via the oral tradition of his home area in Deep Gap, North Carolina. Watson played a Martin model D-18 guitar on his earliest recordings. In 1968, Watson began a relationship with Gallagher Guitars when he started playing their G-50 model, his first Gallagher, which Watson refers to as "Old Hoss", is on display at the Country Music Hall of Fame in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1974, Gallagher created a customized G-50 line to meet Watson's preferred specifications, which bears the Doc Watson name.
In 1991, Gallagher customized a personal cutaway guitar for Watson that he played until his death and which he referred to as "Donald" in honor of Gallagher guitar's second generation proprietor and builder, Don Gallagher. For the last few years, Doc had been playing a Dana Bourgeois dreadnought given to him by Ricky Skaggs for his 80th birthday. In 1994, Watson teamed up with musicians Randy Scruggs and Earl Scruggs to contribute the classic song "Keep on the Sunny Side" to the
Woodrow Wilson Guthrie was an American singer-songwriter, one of the most significant figures in American folk music. He wrote hundreds of political and children's songs, along with ballads and improvised works, his album of songs about the Dust Bowl period, Dust Bowl Ballads, is included on Mojo magazine's list of 100 Records That Changed The World. Many of his recorded songs are archived in the Library of Congress. Songwriters such as Bob Dylan, Phil Ochs, Johnny Cash, Bruce Springsteen, Robert Hunter, Harry Chapin, John Mellencamp, Pete Seeger, Andy Irvine, Joe Strummer, Billy Bragg, Jerry Garcia, Jay Farrar, Bob Weir, Jeff Tweedy, Bob Childers, Sammy Walker, Tom Paxton, AJJ, Brian Fallon, Sixto Rodríguez have acknowledged Guthrie as a major influence, he performed with the slogan "This machine kills fascists" displayed on his guitar. Guthrie was brought up by middle-class parents in Okemah, until he was 14, when his mother Mary was hospitalized as a consequence of Huntington's disease, a fatal hereditary neurological disorder.
His father moved to Texas, to repay debts from unsuccessful real estate deals. During his early teens, Guthrie learned blues songs from his parents' friends, he married at 19, but with the advent of the dust storms that marked the Dust Bowl period, he left his wife and three children to join the thousands of Okies who were migrating to California looking for employment. He worked at Los Angeles radio station KFVD. Throughout his life, Guthrie was associated with United States Communist groups, although he did not appear to be a member of any. With the outbreak of World War II and the non-aggression pact the Soviet Union had signed with Germany in 1939, the owners of KFVD radio were not comfortable with Guthrie's Communist sympathies, he left the station, ending up in New York where he wrote and recorded his 1940 album Dust Bowl Ballads, based on his experiences during the 1930s, which earned him the nickname the "Dust Bowl Troubadour". In February 1940 he wrote his most famous song, "This Land Is Your Land".
He said it was a response to what he felt was the overplaying of Irving Berlin's "God Bless America" on the radio. Guthrie was fathered eight children, his son Arlo Guthrie became nationally known as a musician. Guthrie died in 1967 from complications of Huntington's disease, his first two daughters died of the disease. During his years, in spite of his illness, Guthrie served as a figurehead in the folk movement, providing inspiration to a generation of new folk musicians, including mentoring Ramblin' Jack Elliott and Bob Dylan. Guthrie was born 14 July 1912 in Okemah, a small town in Okfuskee County, the son of Nora Belle and Charles Edward Guthrie, his parents named him after Woodrow Wilson Governor of New Jersey and the Democratic candidate, elected as President of the United States in fall 1912. Charles Guthrie was an industrious businessman, owning at one time up to 30 plots of land in Okfuskee County, he was involved in Oklahoma politics and was a conservative Democratic candidate for office in the county.
Charles Guthrie was involved in the 1911 lynching of Laura and L. D. Nelson. Three significant fires occurred during Guthrie's early life, one that caused the loss of his family's home in Okemah; when Guthrie was seven, his sister Clara died after setting her clothes on fire during an argument with her mother, their father was burned in a fire at home. Guthrie's mother, was afflicted with Huntington's disease, although the family did not know this at the time. What they could see was dementia and muscular degeneration; when Woody was 14, she was committed to the Oklahoma Hospital for the Insane. At the time his father Charley was living and working in Pampa, Texas, to repay debts from unsuccessful real estate deals. Woody and his siblings were on their own in Oklahoma; the 14-year-old Woody Guthrie worked odd jobs around Okemah, begging meals and sometimes sleeping at the homes of family friends. Guthrie had a natural affinity for music, learning old ballads and traditional English and Scottish songs from the parents of friends.
Guthrie befriended an African-American shoeshine boy named "George", who played blues on his harmonica. After listening to George play, Guthrie began playing along with him, he used to busk for food. Although Guthrie did not do well as a student and dropped out of high school in his senior year before graduation, his teachers described him as bright, he was an avid reader on a wide range of topics. In 1929, Guthrie's father sent for Woody to join him in Texas, but little changed for the aspiring musician. Guthrie 18, was reluctant to attend high school classes in Pampa, he played at dances with his father's half-brother Jeff Guthrie, a fiddle player. His mother died in 1930 of complications of Huntington's disease while still in the Oklahoma Hospital for the Insane. At age 19, Guthrie met and married his first wife, Mary Jennings, in Texas in 1931, they had three children together: Gwendolyn and Bill. Bill died at age 23 of an automo
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Judith Marjorie Collins is an American singer and songwriter known for her eclectic tastes in the material she records and for her social activism. Collins' debut album A Maid of Constant Sorrow was released in 1961, but it was the lead single from her 1967 album Wildflowers, "Both Sides, Now" — written by Joni Mitchell — that gave Collins international prominence; the single hit the Top 10 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart and won Collins her first Grammy Award for Best Folk Performance. She enjoyed further success with her recordings of "Someday Soon", "Chelsea Morning", "Amazing Grace", "Cook with Honey". Collins experienced the biggest success of her career with her recording of Stephen Sondheim's "Send in the Clowns" from her best-selling 1975 album Judith; the single charted on the Billboard Pop Singles chart in 1975 and again in 1977, spending 27 non-consecutive weeks on the chart and earning Collins a Grammy Award nomination for Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female, as well as a Grammy Award for Sondheim for Song of the Year.
Collins was born the eldest of five siblings in Seattle, where she spent the first ten years of her life. Her father, a blind singer and radio show host, took a job in Denver, Colorado, in 1949, the family moved there. Collins studied classical piano with Antonia Brico, making her public debut at age 13, performing Mozart's Concerto for Two Pianos. Brico took a dim view, both and of Collins' developing interest in folk music, which led her to the difficult decision to discontinue her piano lessons. Years after she became known internationally, she invited Brico to one of her concerts in Denver; when they met after the performance, Brico took both of Collins' hands into hers, looked wistfully at her fingers and said, "Little Judy—you could have gone places." Still Collins discovered that Brico herself had made a living when she was younger playing jazz and ragtime piano. In her early life, Collins had the good fortune of meeting many professional musicians through her father, it was the music of Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger and the traditional songs of the folk revival of the early 1960s, that kindled Collins' interest and awoke in her a love of lyrics.
Three years after her debut as a piano prodigy, she was playing guitar. Her first public appearances as a folk artist after her graduation from Denver's East High School were at Michael's Pub in Boulder and the folk club Exodus in Denver, her music became popular at the University of Connecticut. She performed for the campus radio station along with David Grisman and Tom Azarian, she made her way to Greenwich Village, New York City, where she played in clubs like Gerde's Folk City until she signed with Elektra Records, a label she was associated with for 35 years. In 1961, Collins released her first album, A Maid of Constant Sorrow, at age 22. At first she sang traditional folk songs or songs written by others – in particular the protest songwriters of the time, such as Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Bob Dylan, she recorded her own versions of important songs from the period, such as Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" and Pete Seeger's "Turn, Turn". Collins was instrumental in bringing little-known musicians to a wider public.
For example, she recorded songs by Canadian poet Leonard Cohen, who became a close friend over the years. She recorded songs by singer-songwriters such as Eric Andersen, Fred Neil, Ian Tyson, Joni Mitchell, Randy Newman, Robin Williamson and Richard Fariña long before they gained national acclaim. While Collins' first few albums consisted of straightforward guitar-based folk songs, with 1966's In My Life, she began branching out and including work from such diverse sources as the Beatles, Leonard Cohen, Jacques Brel, Kurt Weill. Mark Abramson produced and Joshua Rifkin arranged the album, adding lush orchestration to many of the numbers; the album was a major departure for a folk artist and set the course for Collins' subsequent work over the next decade. With her 1967 album Wildflowers produced by Abramson and arranged by Rifkin, Collins began to record her own compositions, beginning with "Since You've Asked"; the album provided Collins with a major hit and a Grammy award in Mitchell's "Both Sides, Now", which reached Number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Two songs were featured in the 1968 film "The Subject Was Roses"). Collins' 1968 album Who Knows Where the Time Goes was produced by David Anderle, featured back-up guitar by Stephen Stills, with whom she was romantically involved at the time. Time Goes had a mellow country sound and included Ian Tyson's "Someday Soon" and the title track, written by the UK singer-songwriter Sandy Denny; the album featured Collins' composition "My Father" and one of the first covers of Leonard Cohen's "Bird on the Wire". By the 1970s Collins had a solid reputation as an art song singer and folksinger and had begun to stand out for her own compositions, she was known for her broad range of material: her songs from this period include the traditional Christian hymn "Amazing Grace", the Stephen Sondheim Broadway ballad "Send in the Clowns", a recording of Joan Baez's "A Song for David", her own compositions, such as "Born to the Breed". Collins guest starred on The Muppet Show in an episode broadcast in January 1978, singing "Leather-Winged Bat", "I Know An Old Lady who Swallowed a Fly", "Do Re Mi", "Send in the Clowns".
She appeared several times on Ses