Hardcore wrestling is a form of professional wrestling where disqualifications, count-outs, all other different rules do not apply. Taking place in usual or unusual environments, hardcore wrestling matches allow the use of numerous items, including ladders, chairs, barbed wire, light tubes, baseball bats, golf clubs, axes, crowbars, wrenches and other improvised weapons used as foreign objects. Although hardcore wrestling is a staple of most wrestling promotions, where they are used at the climaxes of feuds, some promotions specialize in hardcore wrestling, with many matches performed in this manner. Hardcore wrestling was first acknowledged as a major wrestling style in Japan with promotions such as Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling and W*ING, it became successful in America with Extreme Championship Wrestling. The World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment capitalized on the success and introduced the WWF Hardcore Championship in the 1990s; the WWF soon began to turn the matches into comedy skits, illustrating the ridiculousness they involved.
Hardcore contrasts with traditional mat-based wrestling, where solid technical skills are preferred over hardcore's stuntworks, sweat and severe shock value. As professional wrestling entered the mid 20th century and performers looked for ways to heighten audience excitement. Blood, while taboo, was found to be a significant draw, the advent of the now-cliché "no holds barred" match marked the beginning of what is now known as hardcore wrestling. Methods were devised for wrestlers to make themselves bleed purposefully as part of their performance. Wrestlers such as "Wild Bull" Curry, "Classy" Freddie Blassie, Dory Funk, Sr. and Giant Baba were among those who introduced the bloody brawling style which caught on in Japan and the American South. New match types were devised that resembled street fighting, such as matches which were held in a cage, Texas Deathmatches which incorporated weapons, Lights Out matches which were'unsanctioned' and took place after the rest of the scheduled card, once the house lights had been turned off to signify the end of the event.
The National Wrestling Alliance had Brass knuckles championships in the Texas and Florida territories, dating from the 1950s.. Brawling continued to grow in popularity in America through the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s; the Detroit territory was home to The Sheik, Abdullah the Butcher and Bobo Brazil, featured long, bloody brawls. The Puerto Rico territory featured Carlos Colón, The Invader and Abdullah, introduced fire as an element of violence; the Memphis territory featured Jerry Lawler, Terry Funk, Eddie Gilbert and Bill Dundee and introduced the empty arena match and fighting among the crowd into the concession stands, improvising attacks with whatever appliances could be found. More specialties such as ladder matches, scaffold matches and Dog Collar matches were introduced; the NWA instituted a World Brass Knuckles Championship, active in the Tennessee territory from 1978 to 1980. In 1989, Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling was founded in Japan, the first promotion dedicated to the wild brawling style.
In the early 1990s, the Puerto Rican promoter Victor Quiñones arrived in Japan, being invited to FMW as the special manager. FMW escalated the violence to legitimately dangerous new levels, with barbed wire ropes, timed C4 explosives, exploding wire ropes, and'land mines', known as "deathmatch"; the federation featured many future North American stars, became popular worldwide. Soon after, in the United States, two independent promotions had brief but significant runs, serving as prototypes for Extreme Championship Wrestling; the Philadelphia-based Tri-State Wrestling Alliance held occasional supercards that featured big name stars among their own local talent, showcased wild bloody main event brawls with Abdullah the Butcher, The Sheik, Jesse James Sr. and others. The National Wrestling Federation was based in New York state. Both TWA and NWF featured Larry DC Drake, who engaged in a long blood feud; the two promotions ended about the same time, National Wrestling Alliance Eastern Championship Wrestling took their place, with many of the same wrestlers and venues.
Eddie Gilbert was the initial booker, was replaced a few months by Paul Heyman. After splitting off from the NWA, the company changed its name to Extreme Championship Wrestling, became the leading independent hardcore wrestling federation in North America. ECW coined the term'hardcore wrestling', but its usage there was different than it is used today. In ECW,'hardcore' referred to a strong work ethic, high levels of effort, dedication to the fans, lack of fluff or filler, their level of violence equaled that of the Japanese promotions. A new gimmick, breaking wooden tables, was introduced to ECW through nephew of The Sheik. Sabu had developed a gimmick of throwing himself through a propped-up table in Japan in order to entertain the crowd and get his character over as a wild and insane man, he started to put opponents through tables, a safe spot which looked and sounded devastating. He brought it with him to ECW; the table spot became a staple of ECW events, has become so commonplace that it is now incorporated into otherwise non-hardcore matches in every promotion.
In Japan, hardcore promotions sprang up around the country, including Wrestling International New Generations
Tracy Stanton Smothers is an American professional wrestler. He is best known for his appearances with World Championship Wrestling, Smoky Mountain Wrestling, the World Wrestling Federation and Extreme Championship Wrestling. Smothers was from Springfield, TN, he graduated from Springfield High School, where he played football and wrestled. Smothers was the first person in Springfield High School history to go to the state championship in wrestling. Smothers started his career in the Memphis promotion on Saturday morning TV. Steve Armstrong and Tracy Smothers started teaming as The Wild-Eyed Southern Boys in Florida Championship Wrestling in 1987 where they feuded with The New Breed, they moved on to Southeast Championship Wrestling. In 1989, he won the CWF Tag Team Championship in the newly renamed Continental Wrestling Federation. While in Continental, Smothers wrestled an unmuzzled bear, announced as 550 lbs. Smothers and Armstrong competed in World Championship Wrestling for a number of years and were known as the Southern Boys and the Young Pistols upon turning heel.
Smothers and Armstrong had a long feud with The Fabulous Freebirds. Smothers' last major appearance for WCW was on January 21, 1992 at Clash of the Champions, as he teamed with Terry Taylor in a loss to Marcus Alexander Bagwell and Brian Pillman. Smothers achieved his greatest singles success in Jim Cornette's Smoky Mountain Wrestling promotion, based out of Knoxville, Tennessee. Between 1992 and 1995, "The Wild Eyed Southern Boy", competed as a babyface for SMW and won the Heavyweight title twice, the tag team titles once, the "Beat the Champ" TV title on three separate occasions. Smothers had notable feuds during this time against "Prime Time" Brian Lee, Chris Candido, Tony Anthony, The Heavenly Bodies, The Gangstas, he competed as a heel in the United States Wrestling Association during the SMW vs. USWA feud in 1995. After SMW folded, Smothers continued to work for the USWA. Smothers and at one point joined the USWA branch of the Nation of Domination, changing his name to Shaquille Ali. In the summer of 1996, Smothers began wrestling in the WWF as Freddie Joe Floyd, a babyface jobber to various up and comers, most notably Hunter Hearst-Helmsley and Stone Cold Steve Austin.
His only meaningful win under the Floyd gimmick was an upset of Justin "Hawk" Bradshaw in his debut, which resulted in Bradshaw beating Floyd in a subsequent rematch. He scored a count out win over Triple H, thanks to Mr. Perfect distracting Helmsley, his entire gimmick was a rib on Gerald Brisco and Jack Brisco, as they both came from Bowlegs, Oklahoma. Jack Brisco’s real name is Fred Joe Brisco, Gerald’s full name is Floyd Gerald Brisco. In his career he joined Extreme Championship Wrestling as "The Main Man" Tracy Smothers, he was mocked by the crowd with chants of "Freddy Joe!!" regarding his WWF stint and was most notably remembered for doing a goofy dance, that ECW announcer Joey Styles commented on by saying "what the hell is with that awful dance." He was part of The Full Blooded Italians, a comedy heel tag team, which included Little Guido, "The Big Don" Tommy Rich, the "Italian Stallion" John T. Smith. Smothers, long associated with being a stereotypical southern wrestler, was billed as being from "Nashville, Italy" or "Southern Italy" during this time.
Smothers wrestled at both of the June 2005 ECW reunion shows, defeating The Blue Meanie at Hardcore Homecoming with the help of J. T. Smith, accompanying Little Guido to ringside for his match with Yoshihiro Tajiri and Super Crazy at ECW One Night Stand 2005. On June 18, 2005 at a Championship Wrestling event, Smothers challenged WWE employee John "Bradshaw" Layfield to a fight after JBL shot on The Blue Meanie during a brawl at the end of One Night Stand, he wrestled at all four of the Hardcore Homecoming events. Smothers still competes on a regular basis in various independent promotions throughout the country, although based in the south/mid-south/midwest area, he formed a tag team with fellow SMW and ECW alumni Chris Hamrick known as "Southern Comfort" and together they won several tag team championships on the indy circuit. In late 2005 and early 2006, Smothers worked a full-time schedule at various independent promotions in Tennessee and around the midwest and eastern United States, he toured the United Kingdom and teaming with Chris Hamrick on One Pro Wrestling shows as'Southern Comfort', where they competed in a tag team ladder match for the Tag Team Championship against Team SHAG and Jonny Storm and Jody Fleisch losing to Team SHAG.
On February 25, 2007 in Cincinnati, Smothers defeated Corporal Robinson to win the Pro Wrestling Unplugged Hardcore Championship. Smothers was the Cleveland All Pro Wrestling heavyweight champion until he was defeated by the Blue Meanie on June 3, 2007. Smothers shows up in Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South wrestling from time to time. Most Recently beating the legendary Ricky Morton from The Rock'n' Roll Express on July 22 at Gory Days 3 in Sellersburg, Indiana. On October 19, 2008 in Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South's Double Death Tag Team Tournament, Smothers teamed with Corporal Robinson to face Cult Fiction's Vulgar Display of Power, Brain Damage and Deranged managed by Halfbreed Billy Gram. Smother's joined Cult Fiction. Tracy Smothers debuted in Juggalo Championship Wr
The Iron Sheik
Hossein Khosrow Ali Vaziri, better known by his ring name The Iron Sheik, is an Iranian-American former professional wrestler, amateur wrestler and actor. Vaziri is the first-and-only Iranian world champion in WWE history, having won the WWF World Heavyweight Championship in 1983. Coming off the Iranian hostage crisis, The Iron Sheik is considered to be one of the greatest heels of all time, his villainous character peaked during the 1980s WWF wrestling boom and his rivalry with Hulk Hogan turned Hogan into one of the greatest television heroes of the decade. He would form a tag team with Nikolai Volkoff, with whom he won the WWF Tag Team Championship at the inaugural WrestleMania event. In 2005, he was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame. A heel throughout the 1980s, he gained popularity on Kidd Chris, The Howard Stern Show, on the internet due to his shoot interviews, vulgar language, his intense dislike for some of his fellow professional wrestlers. Khosrow was born in Tehran and grew up in a working-class family which had little money and no running water.
In his youth, he idolized Iranian Olympic Gold-Medalist wrestler Gholamreza Takhti, he subsequently made a name for himself as an amateur wrestler. Khosrow competed for a spot on Iran's Greco-Roman wrestling team for the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, he moved to the United States and became the assistant coach of two U. S. Olympic squads in the 1970s. In 1971, he was the Amateur Athletic Union Greco-Roman wrestling champion and gold medalist at 180.5 pounds. In 1972, Khosrow was invited to become a professional wrestler by promoter Verne Gagne. Khosrow trained at Gagne's wrestling camp under trainer Billy Robinson and wrestled for Gagne's American Wrestling Association, he worked as a trainer, teaching Ricky Steamboat, Greg Gagne and Jim Brunzell.. Khosrow first wrestled as a face in preliminary matches before a promoter suggested that he adopt a heel gimmick similar to that of the notorious Sheik. Khosrow obliged and adopted what came to be his signature look: he shaved his head bald, grew a traditional "buffo" style mustache, added wrestling boots with the toe curled up.
He introduced the Persian clubs, a sport in his native Iran, challenged wrestlers to do as many swings as him. His Iranian gimmick received attention due to the events of the Iranian revolution. Taking the name The Great Hossein Arab, he won his first title, the Canadian Tag Team Championship, with partner the Texas Outlaw, he wrestled in Japan against the likes of Steve Day and Antonio Inoki in 1978. In 1979 he caught the eye of the World Wrestling Federation where he made his debut in 1979 and won the first-ever Battle Royal in Madison Square Garden, New York City; this earned him a title shot at then-champion Bob Backlund, who pinned him that night in a 30-minute battle. He feuded with Chief Jay Strongbow and Bruno Sammartino before leaving in 1980. Khosrow resurfaced as The Iron Sheik in the NWA territories. Playing on real-life political matters and the animosity Americans had for the country of Iran, he moved on to the Mid-South and Mid-Atlantic territories, capturing the Mid-Atlantic title from Jim Brunzell before moving to Georgia Championship Wrestling.
There, he had notable matches with Dusty Rhodes, Dick Murdoch, Tommy Rich, traded the National TV title with Ron Garvin. The Iron Sheik returned to the WWF in 1983 and challenged Bob Backlund for WWF World Heavyweight Championship again. Backlund accepted, on the December 24 episode of All- American Wrestling accepted Sheik's weekly Persian club challenge, he was successful in his third attempt to swing the clubs, the Sheik attacked him from behind, injuring his neck. In the December 26 title bout at Madison Square Garden, Backlund attempted to roll Sheik into a bridge pin, but this aggravated his weakened neck. Sheik capitalized by applying his Camel Clutch chinlock finisher. Backlund didn't submit, but his concerned manager Arnold Skaaland threw in the towel and forfeited the championship; the Iron Sheik rematched Backlund indecisively at house shows and defended the title against Chief Jay Strongbow, as well as Pat Patterson and Salvatore Bellomo. On national TV, he defeated only jobbers, but wrestled Tito Santana on a live PRISM broadcast from The Spectrum in Philadelphia on January 21, 1984.
This match was included on WWE's Legends of Wrestling 3 compilation. Two days at Madison Square Garden, The Iron Sheik was scheduled to rematch Backlund, replaced by Hulk Hogan. Five minutes in, Sheik had Hogan locked in the Camel Clutch. Hogan powered to his feet with Sheik still on his back, rammed him backwards into the turnbuckles and hit his Atomic Legdrop for the pin and the championship; this moment is considered the beginning of "Hulkamania". He bitterly feuded with Sgt. Slaughter, winning a few matches by disqualification, but losing the rest by pinfall, including a "Boot Camp Rules" match; as a tag team partner with Nikolai Volkoff, under the management of "Classy" Freddie Blassie, the newly dubbed "Foreign Legion" won the WWF Tag Team Championship from The U. S. Express at the first WrestleMania at Madison Square Garden when he knocked out Windham from behind with Blassie's cane. Part of the pair's regular entrance consisted of waving the flags of Iran and the Soviet Union demanding that the crowd be quiet and "show
World Tag Team Championship (WWE)
The World Tag Team Championship was the first original professional wrestling world tag team championship in the World Wrestling Entertainment promotion, the promotion's third tag team championship overall. Established by the then-World Wide Wrestling Federation on June 3, 1971, it served as the only title for tag teams in the promotion until the then-World Wrestling Federation bought World Championship Wrestling in March 2001, which added their tag team championship. Both titles were unified in November 2001, continuing WWF's. In 2002, the company was renamed WWE. Following the introduction of the WWE brand extension, where wrestlers and championships became exclusive to a WWE brand, the World Tag Team Championship became exclusive to the Raw brand, while a second WWE Tag Team Championship was established for the SmackDown brand. Both titles were unified in 2009 into the "Unified WWE Tag Team Championship", but remained independently active until the World Tag Team Championship was decommissioned in 2010 in favor of continuing the newer championship.
The championship was contested in professional wrestling matches. Bouts for the title headlined WWF events including In Your House 3, Fully Loaded: In Your House, 2001's Backlash; the inaugural champions were the team of Luke Graham and Tarzan Tyler, the final champions were The Hart Dynasty. When the World Wide Wrestling Federation formed in 1963, their first tag team championship was the WWWF United States Tag Team Championship, an NWA championship established in 1958 and used by the WWWF's predecessor, Capitol Wrestling Corporation. After then-WWWF World Heavyweight Champion Bruno Sammartino and his tag team partner Spiros Arion won the titles in 1967, the U. S. Tag Team Championship was deactivated due to Sammartino being the world champion. Two years The Rising Suns arrived in the WWWF with the WWWF International Tag Team Championship, which they claimed to have won in a tournament in Tokyo in June of that year; this became the WWWF's tag team title until 1971 when The Rising Suns left the WWWF and took the titles with them.
The WWWF established their own original world tag team championship, the "WWWF World Tag Team Championship" in 1971. Following the title's introduction, Luke Graham and Tarzan Tyler became the inaugural champions on June 3. In 1979, the title became known as the "WWF Tag Team Championship" when the promotion was renamed to World Wrestling Federation, it was subsequently renamed to "WWF World Tag Team Championship" in 1983, but was referred to as the "WWF Tag Team Championship" for short. In March 2001, the WWF purchased World Championship Wrestling and its championships were now defended on WWF programming. Soon after, "The Invasion" took place in which the WCW/ECW Alliance was dismantled. At the 2001 Survivor Series pay-per-view, the title was unified with the WCW Tag Team Championship in a steel cage match. Then-WCW Tag Team Champions, the Dudley Boyz, defeated then-WWF Tag Team Champions, the Hardy Boyz, were named the last WCW Tag Team Champions, as that title was deactivated, while becoming the new WWF Tag Team Champions.
After the WWF/WWE name change in 2002, the championship was subsequently renamed to "WWE Tag Team Championship". During the initial WWE brand extension, the WWE Tag Team Championship was assigned to the SmackDown! brand, but after Raw's The Un-Americans defeated SmackDown!'s Billy and Chuck for the championship, the title moved to the Raw brand, leaving SmackDown! without a tag team title. As a result, then-SmackDown! General Manager Stephanie McMahon commissioned a new tag team title called the WWE Tag Team Championship, to be the exclusive tag team titles for the SmackDown! brand. With the introduction of the World Heavyweight Championship on the Raw brand after the WWE Championship became exclusive to SmackDown!, the WWE Tag Team Championship on Raw was renamed to "World Tag Team Championship". This was done so that the names of both tag team titles would mirror the names of the top championships on their respective brands; when the WWE Championship and World Heavyweight Championship switched brands during the 2005 WWE draft lottery, neither of the tag team titles were renamed.
In late 2008 through early 2009, then-WWE Tag Team Champions The Colóns engaged in rivalry with then-World Tag Team Champions John Morrison and The Miz, with the two teams exchanging victories in non-title matches and retaining their respective titles against each other. On the March 17 episode of ECW on Syfy, it was announced that at WrestleMania XXV, both teams would defend their titles against each other and the winning team would hold both titles; the Colóns defeated Morrison and Miz, thus unified the titles into the "Unified WWE Tag Team Championship", although both championships remained independently active. As the Unified WWE Tag Team Championship, the champions could appear and defend the titles on any WWE brand, regardless of the brand that the holders belonged to. On August 16, 2010, the World Tag Team Championship was decommissioned in favor of continuing the lineage of the WWE Tag Team Championship, following Bret Hart's presentation of new championship belts to and final World Tag Team Champions, The Hart Dynasty.
Following the events of the WWE brand extension, an annual WWE draft was established, in which select members of the WWE roster were reassigned to a different brand. After the World Tag Team Championship was unified with the WWE Tag Team Championship as the Unified WWE Tag Team Championship, the champions co
Pasadena is a city in the U. S. state of Texas, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city's population is 149,043, making it the seventeenth most populous city in the state of Texas, as well as the second-largest city in Harris County; the area was founded in 1893 by John H. Burnett of Galveston, who named the area after Pasadena, because of the perceived lush vegetation; the Pasadena Volunteer Fire Department is the largest of all volunteer municipal fire departments in the United States. Prior to European settlement the area around Galveston Bay was settled by the Karankawa and Atakapan tribes the Akokisa, who lived throughout the Gulf coast region. Spanish explorers such as the Rivas-Iriarte expedition and José Antonio de Evia charted the bay and gave it its name; the pirate Jean Lafitte established a short-lived kingdom based in Galveston in the early 19th century with bases and hide-outs around the bay and around Clear Lake. Lafitte was forced to leave in 1821 by the U.
S. Navy. Following its declaration of independence from Spain the new nation of Mexico moved to colonize its northern territory of Texas by offering land grants to settlers both from within Mexico and from the nearby United States; the colony established by Stephen F. Austin and the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company of New York began a wave of settlement around the bay. Following a coup in the Mexican government by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Texas revolted against Mexican rule in 1835. After several battles and skirmishes the final battle of the Texas Revolution took place near modern Pasadena on April 21, 1836. Santa Anna was captured at Vince's Bayou; because this was the last conflict that led to the Mexican surrender and neighboring Deer Park have adopted the nickname "Birthplace of Texas". Sam Allen started a ranch in 1843 with 350 acres; this became the Allen Ranch which occupied what is now western Pasadena all the way to Harrisburg, Texas. By 1888, the ranch contained 15,000 acres in Harris County, 10,000 acres in Brazoria County, Texas with grazing lands in Galveston and Fort Bend Counties.
The Galveston, Houston & Henderson Railroad ran through the Allen ranch. There was a problem of cattle being killed on the tracks and in 1875, Allen built a 19-mile fence along the east side of the railway right of way to keep the cattle off the tracks; the fence ran from Harrisburg to League City and had four rails and a top rail wide enough to walk on. A gate was placed in the fence at the Harrisburg-Lynchburg Road with a large sign above instructing that it should be closed at all times; the area east of this railroad fence running from Buffalo Bayou to the tracks on Sims Bayou ran all the way to Galveston Bay. It contained 100,000 acres of grazing land for cattle. "Proposed" towns in or near present-day Pasadena were set up but short lived and either abandoned or never got off the ground. In 1892 Colonel John H. Burnett of Galveston established an unnamed townsite on the Vince Survey just east of the Allen Ranch. Burnett was involved in both construction and promotion of railroads and knew their impact on the value of property.
The land was sold in 10 acres lots. He had established the nearby towns of Deepwater and Genoa to be incorporated into Pasadena and Houston; the 1900 hurricane that destroyed Galveston damaged Pasadena, as well. The city received a population boost from some Galveston refugees who relocated to the mainland following the catastrophe. Donations by the newly created Red Cross, including millions of strawberry plants to Gulf Coast farmers, helped revive the community; this and the subsequent establishment of a major strawberry farm in the area by Texaco founder Joseph S. Cullinan made Pasadena a major fruit producer for many years afterward; as the community recovered major tracts of the Allen Ranch were liquidated opening up new development. Rice farmers from Japan settled in the community further diversifying its agriculture. Champion Coated Paper Company of Ohio opened a paper mill in 1937. Other businesses began to develop. In 1901 the Texas Oil Boom began with the gusher at Spindletop; the discovery of the oil field at Goose Creek led to increasing petroleum exploration around Galveston Bay.
By 1917–1920 refinery operations had appeared in Pasadena and continued to expand thereafter (Pasadena Refining System... The world wars brought further industrial development, with Pasadena's growth rate surpassing neighboring Houston. Pasadena voted to incorporate in 1923, but residents decided to cancel the incorporation one year later. Pasadena incorporated in 1928; because of the 1928 incorporation, Houston did not incorporate Pasadena's territory into its city limits, while Houston annexed surrounding areas that were unincorporated. By the mid-20th century Pasadena's economy had become tied to petroleum and other heavy industry. NASA's Johnson Space Center was established near Pasadena in 1963 with the residential community of Clear Lake City under Pasadena's jurisdiction, established nearby; these developments helped to diversify the town's economy significantly. Former Pasadena City Council member and State Representative Ray Barnhart described the city at the time as "a lovely community but politically corrupt."
Barnhart recalled that a half dozen Pasadena officials were indicted in the late 1950s and early 1960s for public corruption. In 1965, Houston Post reporter Gene Goltz Received the Pulitzer Prize for his exposure of government corruption in Pasadena, which resulted in widespread reforms. In the 21st century, Pasadena emerged as a working-class suburb of Houston, with a 60 percent Hispanic population. In 2015, Pasadena voted to alter the com
Barbed wire known as barb wire corrupted as bobbed wire or bob wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strands. It is used atop walls surrounding secured property, it is a major feature of the fortifications in trench warfare. A person or animal trying to pass through or over barbed wire will suffer discomfort and injury. Barbed wire fencing requires only fence posts and fixing devices such as staples, it is simple to construct and quick to erect by an unskilled person. The first patent in the United States for barbed wire was issued in 1867 to Lucien B. Smith of Kent, regarded as the inventor. Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb, received a patent for the modern invention in 1874 after he made his own modifications to previous versions. Barbed wire was the first wire technology capable of restraining cattle. Wire fences were easier to erect than their alternatives; when wire fences became available in the United States in the late 19th century, they made it affordable to fence much larger areas than before.
They made intensive animal husbandry practical on a much larger scale. An example of the costs of fencing with lumber prior to the invention of barbed wire can be found with the first farmers in the Fresno, California area, who spent nearly $4,000 to have wood for fencing delivered and erected to protect 2,500 acres of wheat crop from free-ranging livestock in 1872. Fencing consisting of flat and thin wire was first proposed in France, by Leonce Eugene Grassin-Baledans in 1860, his design consisted of bristling points, creating a fence, painful to cross. In April 1865 Louis François Janin proposed a double wire with diamond-shaped metal barbs. Michael Kelly from New York had a similar idea, proposed that the fencing should be used for deterring animals. More patents followed, in 1867 alone there were six patents issued for barbed wire. Only two of them addressed livestock deterrence, one of, from American Lucien B. Smith of Ohio. Before 1870, westward movement in the United States was across the plains with little or no settlement occurring.
After the American Civil War the plains were extensively settled, consolidating America's dominance over them. Ranchers moved out on the plains, needed to fence their land in against encroaching farmers and other ranchers; the railroads throughout the growing West needed to keep livestock off their tracks, farmers needed to keep stray cattle from trampling their crops. Traditional fence materials used in the Eastern U. S. like wood and stone, were expensive to use in the large open spaces of the plains, hedging was not reliable in the rocky, clay-based and rain-starved dusty soils. A cost-effective alternative was needed to make cattle operations profitable; the "Big Four" in barbed wire were Joseph Glidden, Jacob Haish, Charles Francis Washburn, Isaac L. Ellwood. Glidden, a farmer in 1873 and the first of the "Big Four," is credited for designing a successful sturdy barbed wire product, but he let others popularize it for him. Glidden's idea came from a display at a fair in DeKalb, Illinois in 1873, by Henry B.
Rose. Rose had patented "The Wooden Strip with Metallic Points" in May 1873; this was a wooden block with wire protrusions designed to keep cows from breaching the fence. That day, Glidden was accompanied by two other men, Isaac L. Ellwood, a hardware dealer and Jacob Haish, a lumber merchant. Like Glidden, they both wanted to create a more durable wire fence with fixed barbs. Glidden experimented with a grindstone to twist two wires together to hold the barbs on the wire in place; the barbs were created from experiments with a coffee mill from his home. Glidden was joined by Ellwood who knew his design could not compete with Glidden's for which he applied for a patent in October 1873. Meanwhile, who had secured several patents for barbed wire design, applied for a patent on his third type of wire, the S barb, accused Glidden of interference, deferring Glidden's approval for his patented wire, nicknamed "The Winner," until November 24, 1874. Barbed wire production increased with Glidden and Ellwood’s establishment of the Barb Fence Company in DeKalb following the success of "The Winner".
The company's success attracted the attention of Charles Francis Washburn, Vice President of Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company, an important producer of plain wire in the Eastern U. S. Washburn visited De Kalb and convinced Glidden to sell his stake in the Barb Wire Fence Company, while Ellwood stayed in DeKalb and renamed the company I. L Ellwood & Company of DeKalb. In the late 1870s, John Warne Gates of Illinois began to promote barbed wire, now a proven product, in the lucrative markets of Texas. At first, Texans were hesitant, as they feared that cattle might be harmed, or that the North was somehow trying to make profits from the South. There was conflict between the farmers who wanted fencing and the ranchers who were losing the open range. Demonstrations by Gates in San Antonio in 1876 showed that the wire could keep cattle contained, sales increased dramatically. Gates parted company with Ellwood and became a barbed wire baron in his own right. Throughout the height of barbed wire sales in the late 19th century, Ellwood and Haish competed with one another, but Ellwood and Gates joined forces again to create the American S
Stone Cold Steve Austin
Steve Austin, better known by the ring name "Stone Cold" Steve Austin, is an American retired professional wrestler, actor and television host. Austin is signed under a Legends contract to WWE. Austin enjoyed a successful mid-card career as "Stunning" Steve Austin in World Championship Wrestling from 1991 to 1995. After a brief stint in Extreme Championship Wrestling in late 1995, he signed with the World Wrestling Federation as The Ringmaster. Rebranded as "Stone Cold" Steve Austin the following year, he gained significant mainstream popularity as a brazen, beer-drinking antihero who defied the establishment and his boss, company chairman Vince McMahon; this persona of Austin's became the "poster boy" of the Attitude Era, a boom period in WWF business in the latter 1990s and early 2000s. He introduced the long-standing "What?" Chant in professional wrestling. A number of prominent industry figures, including McMahon, have declared Austin to be the biggest star in WWF/WWE history and stressed that he surpassed the popularity of Hulk Hogan.
Veteran professional wrestling journalist Wade Keller remarked that Austin is "in every conversation for the greatest wrestling act of all time", as well as for "the most profitable and the most influential". Austin held 19 championships throughout his wrestling career, as he is a six-time WWF World Heavyweight Champion, a two-time Intercontinental Champion and a four-time WWF Tag Team Champion—thus making him the fifth Triple Crown Champion in WWE history—while being a two-time WCW United States Heavyweight Champion, a two-time WCW World Television Champion, a one-time WCW World Tag Team Champion and a one-time NWA World Tag Team Champion in WCW, he was the winner of the 1996 King of the Ring tournament as well as the 1997, 1998 and 2001 Royal Rumbles, making him the only three-time winner of the event. Furthermore, he was awarded the unsanctioned Million Dollar Championship by Ted DiBiase. Austin has main evented multiple pay-per-view events including three WrestleManias, he was forced to retire from in-ring competition in 2003 due to a series of knee injuries and a serious neck injury.
Throughout the rest of 2003 and 2004, he was featured as the Co-General Sheriff of Raw. Since 2005, he has continued to make occasional appearances and was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame in 2009 by Vince McMahon. In 2011, Austin returned to WWE to host the reboot of the reality series Tough Enough!. Austin was born in Texas, his parents and Beverly Anderson, divorced when he was around a year old. His mother moved to Victoria, in 1968, married Ken Williams. Austin adopted his stepfather's surname and legally changed his name to Steven James Williams. Austin has one younger sister. Kevin is less than a year younger, Austin has hypothesized in his autobiography that their father may have left because he could not handle another child so soon. Austin spent most of his childhood in Texas. After finishing his schooling from Edna High School, Austin got a football scholarship at Wharton County Junior College, followed by a full scholarship at the University of North Texas. Deciding to become a wrestler, Austin joined Chris Adams' school in the Dallas Sportatorium, where Adams wrestled for World Class Championship Wrestling.
Adams' training was purely technical, teaching Austin the moves, but nothing relating to kayfabe or business. His first lesson in that came from Tony Falk, the referee in his 1989 televised WCCW debut against Frogman LeBlanc, who called the spots to lead him to a pinfall and a $40 payday. Working under his real name, he was named Steve Austin by Memphis booker Dutch Mantell during the merger of World Class and the Continental Wrestling Association into the United States Wrestling Association; the name change occurred to avoid confusion with "Dr. Death" Steve Williams, a well-known wrestler during that time. Austin returned to Dallas, managed by Percy Pringle and accompanied by Jeannie Adams and feuded with Adams and his wife Toni. Austin left the USWA in 1990 and signed with WCW the next year, it was during this time Austin adopted the "Stunning" nickname that followed him to WCW. Austin was paired with a valet named Vivacious Veronica, but was joined by Jeannie Adams, known as "Lady Blossom".
Just weeks after his debut, Austin defeated Bobby Eaton for his first WCW World Television Championship on June 3, 1991 and that year joined Paul E. Dangerously's Dangerous Alliance. Austin lost the WCW World Television Championship to Barry Windham in a two out of three falls match on April 27, 1992, but regained the title from Windham on May 23 and enjoyed a second lengthy reign as champion before losing the title to Ricky Steamboat on September 2, while The Dangerous Alliance disbanded shortly thereafter. At Halloween Havoc on October 25, Austin replaced Terry Gordy, teaming with "Dr. Death" Steve Williams to wrestle Dustin Rhodes and Windham for the unified WCW and NWA World Tag Team Championships; the teams wrestled to a thirty-minute time limit draw. In January 1993, Austin formed a tag team known as The Hollywood Blonds with Brian Pillman, they won the unified NWA and WCW World Tag Team Championship on March 3 by defeating Ricky Steamboat and Shane Douglas and held the title for five months.
At Clash of the Champions XXIII on June 16, the Blondes faced Ric Flair and Arn Anderson in a two out of three falls tag team title match and were defeated, but retained the title as