Matthew Paige Damon is an American actor, film producer and screenwriter. He is ranked among Forbes magazine's most bankable stars and is one of the highest-grossing actors of all time. Damon has received various accolades, including an Academy Award, from five nominations, two Golden Globe Awards, from eight nominations, has been nominated for three British Academy Film Awards and six Emmy Awards. Born and raised in Cambridge, Damon began his acting career by appearing in high school theater productions, he made his professional acting debut in the film Mystic Pizza. He came to prominence in 1997, when he wrote and starred in Good Will Hunting, alongside Ben Affleck, which won them the Academy and Golden Globe awards for Best Screenplay and earned Damon a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor, he continued to garner praise from critics for his roles as the eponymous character in Saving Private Ryan, the antihero in The Talented Mr. Ripley, a fallen angel in Dogma, an energy analyst in Syriana, a corrupt Irish-American police officer in The Departed.
Damon is known for his starring roles as Jason Bourne in the Bourne franchise and as a con man in the Ocean's trilogy. For his supporting role as the rugby player Francois Pienaar in Invictus and his leading role as an astronaut stranded on Mars in The Martian, Damon received Academy Award nominations for Best Supporting Actor and Best Actor, respectively; the latter won him a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor. Damon has received Emmy Award nominations for his portrayal of Scott Thorson in the biopic Behind the Candelabra and for producing the reality series Project Greenlight, he received an Academy Award nomination for producing Manchester by the Sea. In addition to acting in films, Damon has performed voice-over work in both animated and documentary films and has established two production companies with Affleck, he has been involved in charitable work, including the ONE Campaign, H2O Africa Foundation, Feeding America, Water.org. Damon is married to Luciana Bozán Barroso, they have three daughters together.
Damon was born in Cambridge, the second son of stockbroker Kent Telfer Damon and Nancy Carlsson-Paige, an early childhood education professor at Lesley University. His father had English and Scottish ancestry, his mother is of five-eighths Finnish and three-eighths Swedish descent. Damon and his family moved to Newton for two years, his parents divorced when he was two years old, Damon and his brother returned with their mother to Cambridge, where they lived in a six-family communal house. His brother Kyle is now artist; as a lonely teenager, Damon has said. Due to his mother's "by the book" approach to child-rearing, he had a hard time defining a self identity, he attended Cambridge Alternative School and Cambridge Rindge and Latin School, where he was a good student. Damon performed as an actor in several high school theater productions, he credited his drama teacher, Gerry Speca, as an important artistic influence, though Ben Affleck, his good friend and schoolmate, got the "biggest roles and longest speeches".
Damon attended Harvard University, where he was a resident of Lowell House and a member of the class of 1992, but left before receiving his degree to take a lead role in the film Geronimo: An American Legend. While at Harvard, he wrote an early treatment of the screenplay for Good Will Hunting as an exercise for an English class. Damon was a member of one of the University's select Final Clubs. In 2013, he was awarded the Harvard Arts Medal. Damon received an Academy Award for the screenplay of Good Will Hunting in 1998. Damon entered Harvard in 1988, where he appeared in student theater plays, such as Burn This and A... My Name is Alice, he made his film debut at the age of 18, with a single line of dialogue in the romantic comedy Mystic Pizza. As a student at Harvard, he acted in small roles such as in the TNT original film Rising Son and the ensemble prep-school drama School Ties, he left the university in 1992, a semester - 12 credits - shy of completion of his Bachelor of Arts in English to feature in Geronimo: An American Legend in Los Angeles, erroneously expecting the movie to become a big success.
Damon next appeared as an opiate-addicted soldier in 1996's Courage Under Fire, for which he lost 40 pounds in 100 days on a self-prescribed diet and fitness regimen. Courage Under Fire gained him critical notice, when The Washington Post labeled his performance "impressive". During the early 1990s, Damon and Affleck wrote Good Will Hunting, a screenplay about a young mathematics genius, an extension of a screenplay he wrote for an assignment at Harvard, having integrated advice from director Rob Reiner, screenwriter William Goldman, writer/director Kevin Smith, he asked Affleck to perform the scenes with him in front of the class and, when Damon moved into Affleck's Los Angeles apartment, they began working on the script more seriously. The film, which they wrote during improvisation sessions, was set in their hometown of Cambridge, drew from their own experiences, they sold the screenplay to Castle Rock in 1994, but after a conflict with the company, they convinced Miramax to purchase the script.
The film received critical praise. C
Alain Fabien Maurice Marcel Delon is a French actor and businessman. He is screen sex symbols from the 1960s, he achieved critical acclaim for roles in films such as Rocco and His Brothers, Plein Soleil, L'Eclisse, The Leopard, The Yellow Rolls-Royce, Lost Command and Le Samouraï. Over the course of his career Delon worked with many well known directors, including Luchino Visconti, Jean-Luc Godard, Jean-Pierre Melville, Michelangelo Antonioni and Louis Malle. Delon acquired Swiss citizenship on 23 September 1999, the company managing products sold under his name is based in Geneva, he resides in Chêne-Bougeries in the canton of Geneva. Alain Delon was born in Seine, Île-de-France, a suburb of Paris, his parents, Édith and Fabien Delon, divorced. Both remarried and as a result, Delon has a half-sister and two half-brothers, his paternal grandmother was Corsican, from Prunelli-di-Fiumorbo. When his parents divorced, Delon was sent to live with foster parents; when they died, his parents shared him but the arrangement proved unsatisfactory.
He attended a Roman Catholic boarding school, the first of several schools from which he was expelled because of unruly behavior. Teachers once tried to persuade him to enter the priesthood because of his aptitude in religious studies. At 14, Delon left school, worked for a brief time at his stepfather's butcher shop, he enlisted in the French Navy three years aged 17, in 1953-54 he served as a fusilier marin in the First Indochina War. Delon has said that out of his four years of military service he spent 11 months in a military jail for being "undisciplined". In 1956, after being dishonorably discharged from the military, he returned to France, he had little money, got by on whatever employment he could find. He spent time working as a porter, a secretary and a sales assistant. During this time he became friends with the actress Brigitte Auber, joined her on a trip to the Cannes Film Festival, where his film career would begin. At Cannes, Delon was seen by a talent scout for David O. Selznick.
After a screen test Selznick offered him a contract, provided. Delon returned to Paris to study the language, but when he met French director Yves Allégret, he was convinced that he should stay in France to begin his career. Selznick allowed Delon to cancel his contract, Allégret gave him his debut in the film with Edwige Feuillère, Quand la femme s'en mêle. Marc Allégret cast him in Be Beautiful But Shut Up, which featured a young Jean-Paul Belmondo, he was given his first lead, supporting Romy Schneider in a period romance, based on a novel by Arthur Schnitzler. He and Schneider began a publicised romance in real life; the film was the seventeenth most popular movie at the French box office that year. Delon was given the lead in Women Are Weak; this was the first of Delon's films to be seen in America. Delon made some personal appearances in New York to promote the movie, he was a known associate of Serbian-born gangster Vojislav Stanimirovic and frequented his establishments owned and operated in Manhattan Delon made two films which ensured his international reputation.
In 1960, he appeared in René Clément's Plein Soleil, released in the US as Purple Noon, based on the Patricia Highsmith novel The Talented Mr. Ripley. Delon played protagonist Tom Ripley to critical acclaim; the movie was a hit on the art house circuit in English-speaking countries. He played the title role in Luchino Visconti's Rocco and His Brothers. Critic Bosley Crowther of The New York Times said Delon's work was "touchingly pliant and expressive." John Beaufort in the Christian Science Monitor said: Rocco's heartbroken steadfastness furnishes the film with the foremost of its ironic tragedies... ts believability rests on Mr. Delon's compelling performance. Delon made his stage debut in 1961 in the John Ford play'Tis Pity She's a Whore alongside Romy Schneider in Paris. Visconti directed the production, he was reunited with Rene Clement in the Italian comedy film about The Joy of Living. It was a minor success. More popular was an all-star anthology film Famous Love Affairs. Around this time Delon was mentioned as a possibility for the lead in Lawrence of Arabia.
Peter O'Toole was cast instead, but Delon was signed by Seven Arts to a four-picture deal, including a big budget international movie of the Marco Polo story and The King of Paris, about Alexandre Dumas. Neither project came to fruition. Instead he was cast by Michelangelo Antonioni opposite Monica Vitti in L'Eclisse, a major critical success, although audiences were small. More popular was another all-star anthology film, The Devil and the Ten Commandments. Producer Jacques Bar was making a heist film with Jean Gabin with backing from MGM, Any Number Can Win. Gabin's co star was meant to be Jean-Louis Trintignant, he took the film's distribution rights in certain countries instead of a straight salary. Because this had never been done before in France, this was known as "Delon's method." The gamble paid off well, with Jean Gabin claiming that Delon earned ten times more money than he did as a result. However, in 1965 Delon claimed "no one else has tried it since and made
A fence known as a receiver, mover, or moving man, is an individual who knowingly buys stolen goods in order to resell them for profit. The fence acts as a middleman between thieves and the eventual buyers of stolen goods who may not be aware that the goods are stolen; as a verb, the word describes the behaviour of the thief in the transaction: The burglar fenced the stolen radio. This sense of the term came from thieves' slang, first attested c. 1700, from the notion of such transactions providing a defence against being caught. The term remains in common use in all major dialects of modern English, all of which spell it with a "c" though the source word in some dialects is now spelled defense; the fence is able to make a profit with stolen merchandise because he/she is able to secretly pay thieves a low price for "hot" goods that cannot be sold on the open markets. The thieves who patronize the fence are willing to accept a low profit margin in order to reduce their risks by "washing their hands" of the black market loot and disassociating themselves from the criminal act that procured it.
After the sale, the fence recoups their investment by disguising the stolen nature of the goods and reselling the goods as near to the white market price as possible without drawing suspicion. This process relies on a legal business in order to "launder" the stolen goods by intermixing them with legally-purchased items of the same type. Fencing is illegal in all countries, but proving a violation of anti-fencing laws can be difficult; the fence is able to make a profit with stolen merchandise because he is able to pay thieves a low price for stolen goods. Thieves agree to this because their alternatives may present a greater risk of the thief being caught; as well, selling stolen goods takes a great deal of time and effort, as the thief would have to try to contact a number of potential buyers and show them the merchandise. Some habitual thieves are so well known to police that if the thief were to attempt to sell any used goods, this would draw the attention of law enforcement; the fence disguises the stolen nature of the goods, if possible, so that he or she can sell them closer to the market price.
Depending on the stolen item, the fence may attempt to remove, deface, or replace serial numbers on the stolen item before reselling it. In some cases, fences will transport the stolen items to a different city to sell them, because this lessens the likelihood that the items will be recognized. For some types of stolen goods, fences disassemble the good and sell the individual parts, because the sale of parts is less risky. For example, a stolen car or bicycle may be disassembled. Another tactic used by some fences is to retain stolen items for some time before selling them, which lessens the likelihood that the burglary victims or police will be looking for the items in auctions and pawnshops. Fencing is conducted through legal businesses; some fences maintain a legitimate-seeming "front". Depending on the type of stolen merchandise a fence deals in, "front" businesses might be discount stores, used goods stores, a coin and gem store, auction house, flea market, or auto salvage yards; the degree of illicit activity in each "front" business may differ from fence to fence.
While one fence's salvage yard may consist of stolen auto parts, another fence's used goods store might consist of legitimately purchased used goods, with the stolen merchandise acting as a minor, but profitable, sideline. The prices fences pay thieves depend both on norms and on legitimate market rates for the items in question. Vulnerable sellers, such as drug addicts or casual thieves, may receive less than 20% of an item's value. Higher prices, sometimes as high as 50% of an item's value in a legal market, can be commanded by a professional thief one who concentrates on valuable items. At the same time, fences will take advantage of thieves by deceiving them about the value of an individual item and the relevant market conditions. For example, a fence may falsely tell a petty thief that the market for the type of good which the thief is selling is flooded with this type of merchandise, to justify paying out a lower price. Research on fences shows that they view themselves as entrepreneurs, relying on networking with and patronage by prominent criminals to become successful in their word-of-mouth-based "wheeling and dealing".
They occupy the middle ground between the legitimate world. Some active fences go farther in their business, maintaining longstanding contacts and teaching thieves how to practice their craft, whether by identifying specific products or by teaching them tools of the trade. There are a number of different types of fences. One way of categorizing fences is by the type of good in which they trade, such as jewels, power tools, or electronics. Another way of categorizing fences is by their level of involvement in buying and selling stolen goods. At the lowest level, a hustler or drug dealer may accept stolen goods. At the highest level would be a fence whose main criminal income comes from buying and selling stolen items. At the broadest level, two tiers of fences can be distinguished; the lower level of fences are those who directly buy stolen goods from burglars. At a higher level are the "m
Art forgery is the creating and selling of works of art which are falsely credited to other more famous artists. Art forgery can be lucrative, but modern dating and analysis techniques have made the identification of forged artwork much simpler. Art forgery dates back more than two thousand years. Roman sculptors produced copies of Greek sculptures; the contemporary buyers knew that they were not genuine. During the classical period art was created for historical reference, religious inspiration, or aesthetic enjoyment; the identity of the artist was of little importance to the buyer. During the Renaissance, many painters took on apprentices who studied painting techniques by copying the works and style of the master; as a payment for the training, the master would sell these works. This practice was considered a tribute, not forgery, although some of these copies have erroneously been attributed to the master. Following the Renaissance, the increasing prosperity of the middle class created a fierce demand for art.
Near the end of the 14th century, Roman statues were unearthed in Italy, intensifying the populace's interest in antiquities, leading to a sharp increase in the value of these objects. This upsurge soon extended to contemporary and deceased artists. Art had become a commercial commodity, the monetary value of the artwork came to depend on the identity of the artist. To identify their works, painters began to mark them; these marks evolved into signatures. As the demand for certain artwork began to exceed the supply, fraudulent marks and signatures began to appear on the open market. During the 16th century, imitators of Albrecht Dürer's style of printmaking added signatures to them to increase the value of their prints. In his engraving of the Virgin, Dürer added the inscription "Be cursed and imitators of the work and talent of others". Famous artists created forgeries. In 1496, Michelangelo created a sleeping Cupid figure and treated it with acidic earth to cause it to appear ancient, he sold it to a dealer, Baldassare del Milanese, who in turn sold it to Cardinal Riario of San Giorgio who learned of the fraud and demanded his money back.
However, Michelangelo was permitted to keep his share of the money. The 20th-century art market has favored artists such as Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso and Matisse and works by these artists have been targets of forgery; these forgeries are sold to art galleries and auction houses who cater to the tastes of art and antiquities collectors. There are three varieties of art forger; the person who creates the fraudulent piece, the person who discovers a piece and attempts to pass it off as something it is not, in order to increase the piece's value, the third who discovers that a work is a fake, but sells it as an original anyway. Copies, replicas and pastiches are legitimate works, the distinction between a legitimate reproduction and deliberate forgery is blurred. For example, Guy Hain used original molds to reproduce several of Auguste Rodin's sculptures. However, when Hain signed the reproductions with the name of Rodin's original foundry, the works became deliberate forgeries. An art forger must be at least somewhat proficient in the type of art he is trying to imitate.
Many forgers were once fledgling artists who tried, unsuccessfully, to break into the market resorting to forgery. Sometimes, an original item is stolen from the owner in order to create a copy. Forgers will return the copy to the owner, keeping the original for himself. In 1799, a self-portrait by Albrecht Dürer which had hung in the Nuremberg Town Hall since the 16th century, was loaned to Abraham Wolfgang Küfner; the painter returned the copy in place of the original. The forgery was discovered in 1805, when the original came up for auction and was purchased for the royal collection. Although many art forgers reproduce works for money, some have claimed that they have created forgeries to expose the credulity and snobbishness of the art world; the artists claim after they have been caught, that they have performed only "hoaxes of exposure". Some exposed forgers have sold their reproductions by attributing them as copies, some have gained enough notoriety to become famous in their own right.
Forgeries painted by the late Elmyr de Hory, featured in the film F for Fake directed by Orson Welles, have become so valuable that forged de Horys have appeared on the market. A peculiar case was that of the artist Han van Meegeren who became famous by creating "the finest Vermeer ever" and exposing that feat eight years in 1945, his own work became valuable as well. One of these forgers was his son Jacques van Meegeren, in the unique position to write certificates stating that a particular piece of art that he was offering "was created by his father, Han van Meegeren". Forgers copy works by deceased artists, but a small number imitate living artists. In May 2004, Norwegian painter Kjell Nupen noticed that the Kristianstad gallery was selling unauthorized, signed copies of his work. American art forger Ken Perenyi published a memoir in 2012 in which he detailed decades of his activities creating thousands of authentic-looking replicas of masters such as James Buttersworth, Martin Johnson Heade, Charles Bird King, selling the forgeries to famous auction houses such as Christie's and Sotheby's and wealthy private col
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris. Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau; the commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region. Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants; this urban area is a satellite of Paris. Fontainebleau is renowned for the large and scenic forest of Fontainebleau, a favourite weekend getaway for Parisians, as well as for the historic Château de Fontainebleau, which once belonged to the kings of France, it is the home of INSEAD, one of the world's most elite business schools. Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are sometimes called Bellifontains. Fontainebleau has been recorded in different Latinised forms, such as, Fons Bleaudi, Fons Bliaudi, Fons Blaadi in the 12th and 13th centuries, with Fontem blahaud being recorded in 1137.
It became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise to the name of the inhabitants as Bellifontains. The name originates as a medieval composite of two words: Fontaine– meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person’s Germanic name Blizwald; this hamlet was endowed with a royal hunting lodge and a chapel by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. A century Louis IX called Saint Louis, who held Fontainebleau in high esteem and referred to it as "his wilderness", had a country house and a hospital constructed there. Philip the Fair was born there in 1268 and died there in 1314. In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, spent time at Fontainebleau; the connection between the town of Fontainebleau and the French monarchy was reinforced with the transformation of the royal country house into a true royal palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau. This was accomplished by the great builder-king, Francis I, who, in the largest of his many construction projects, reconstructed and transformed the royal château at Fontainebleau into a residence that became his favourite, as well as the residence of his mistress, duchess of Étampes.
From the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, every monarch, from Francis I to Louis XV, made important renovations at the Palace of Fontainebleau, including demolitions, reconstructions and embellishments of various descriptions, all of which endowed it with a character, a bit heterogeneous, but harmonious nonetheless. On 18 October 1685, Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there. Known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, this royal fiat reversed the permission granted to the Huguenots in 1598 to worship publicly in specified locations and hold certain other privileges; the result was that a large number of Protestants were forced to convert to the Catholic faith, killed, or forced into exile in the Low Countries, Prussia and in England. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, a secret agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, were at Fontainebleau.
During the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning "Fountain by the Mountain". On 29 October 1807, Manuel Godoy, chancellor to the Spanish king, Charles IV and Napoleon signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau, which authorized the passage of French troops through Spanish territories so that they might invade Portugal. On 20 June 1812, Pope Pius VII arrived at the château of Fontainebleau, after a secret transfer from Savona, accompanied by his personal physician, Balthazard Claraz. In poor health, the Pope was the prisoner of Napoleon, he remained in his genteel prison at Fontainebleau for nineteen months. From June 1812 until 23 January 1814, the Pope never left his apartments. On 20 April 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte, shortly before his first abdication, bid farewell to the Old Guard, the renowned grognards who had served with him since his first campaigns, in the "White Horse Courtyard" at the Palace of Fontainebleau. According to contemporary sources, the occasion was moving.
The 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau sent him into exile on Elba. Until the 19th century, Fontainebleau was a suburb of Avon, it developed as an independent residential city. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the town played host to the riding portion of the modern pentathlon event; this event took place near a golf course. In July and August 1946, the town hosted the Franco-Vietnamese Conference, intended to find a solution to the long-contested struggle for Vietnam’s independence from France, but the conference ended in failure. Fontainebleau hosted the general staff of the Allied Forces in Central Europe and the land forces command; these facilities were in place from the inception of NATO until France’s partial withdrawal from NATO in 1967 when the United States returned those bases to French control. NATO moved AFCENT to Brunssum in the AIRCENT to Ramstein in West Germany. (Note that the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe known as SHAPE, was located
The Sicilian Mafia known as the Mafia and referred to by its own members as Cosa Nostra, is a Mafia-terrorist-type organized crime syndicate originating in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organisational structure and code of conduct; the basic group is known as "clan", or cosca. Each family claims sovereignty over a territory a town or village or a neighbourhood of a larger city, in which it operates its rackets, its members call themselves "men of honour", although the public refers to them as mafiosi. The Mafia's core activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions. Following waves of emigration, the Mafia has spread to other countries such as Canada and the United States; the word mafia originated in Sicily. The Sicilian adjective mafiusu translates to mean "swagger," but can be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but fearless and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.
In reference to a woman, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive. The Sicilian word mafie refers to the caves near Trapani and Marsala, which were used as hiding places for refugees and criminals. Sicily was once an Islamic emirate, therefore mafia might have Arabic roots. Possible Arabic roots of the word include: ma'afi = exempted. In Islamic law, Jizya, is the yearly tax imposed on non-Muslims residing in Muslim lands, and people who pay it are "exempted" from prosecution. Mahyas = aggressive boasting, bragging marfud = rejected mu'afa = safety, protection Ma àfir = the name of an Arab tribe that ruled PalermoThe public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaspare Mosca; the words mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play. The play is about a Palermo prison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss, an initiation ritual, talk of "umirtà" and "pizzu".
The play had great success throughout Italy. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon; the word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo Filippo Antonio Gualterio. The term mafia has become a generic term for any organized criminal network with similar structure and interests. Giovanni Falcone, the anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Mafia in 1992, objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general: While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia"... nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term... I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organised crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia. According to Mafia turncoats, the real name of the Mafia is "Cosa Nostra".
Italian-American mafioso Joseph Valachi testified before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U. S. Senate Committee on Government Operations in 1963, he revealed. At the time, it was fostered by the FBI and disseminated by the media; the FBI added the article la to the term. In 1984, Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta revealed to anti-mafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone that the term was used by the Sicilian Mafia, as well. Buscetta dismissed the word "mafia" as a mere literary creation. Other defectors such as Antonino Calderone and Salvatore Contorno confirmed the use of Cosa Nostra by members. Mafiosi introduce known members to each other as belonging to cosa nostra or la stessa cosa, meaning "he is the same thing as you — a mafioso." The Sicilian Mafia has used other names to describe itself throughout its history, such as "The Honoured Society". Mafiosi are known among themselves as "men of honour" or "men of respect". Cosa Nostra should not be confused with other mafia-type organisations in Southern Italy, such as the'Ndrangheta in Calabria, the Camorra in Campania, or the Sacra Corona Unita in Apulia.
It is difficult to define the single function or goal of the phenomenon of the Mafia. Until the early 1980s, mafia was considered a unique Sicilian cultural attitude and form of power, excluding any corporate or organisational dimension; some used it as a defensive attempt to render the Mafia benign and romantic — not a criminal association, but the sum of Sicilian values that outsiders will never understand. Leopoldo Franchetti was an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, he saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining