Tom and Jerry is an American animated franchise and series of comedy short films created in 1940 by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera. Best known for its 161 theatrical short films by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the series centers on a friendship/rivalry between the title characters Tom, a cat, Jerry, a mouse. Many shorts feature several recurring characters. In its original run and Barbera produced 114 Tom and Jerry shorts for MGM from 1940 to 1958. During this time, they won seven Academy Awards for Animated Short Film, tying for first place with Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies with the most awards in the category. After the MGM cartoon studio closed in 1957, MGM revived the series with Gene Deitch directing an additional 13 Tom and Jerry shorts for Rembrandt Films from 1961 to 1962. Tom and Jerry became the highest-grossing animated short film series of that time, overtaking Looney Tunes. Chuck Jones produced another 34 shorts with Sib Tower 12 Productions between 1963 and 1967. Three more shorts were produced, The Mansion Cat in 2001, The Karate Guard in 2005, A Fundraising Adventure in 2014, making a total of 164 shorts.
A number of spin-offs have been made, including the television series The Tom and Jerry Show, The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show, Tom & Jerry Kids and Jerry Tales, The Tom and Jerry Show. The first feature-length film based on the series and Jerry: The Movie, was released in 1992, 13 direct-to-video films have been produced since 2002, with an upcoming animated/live-action hybrid film to be released in 2020. A musical adaptation of the series, titled Tom and Jerry: Purr-Chance to Dream, debuted in Japan in 2019 in advance of Tom and Jerry's 80th anniversary; the series features comic fights between an iconic pair of a house cat and a mouse. The plots of each short center on Tom and Jerry's numerous attempts to have the best of each other and the mayhem and destruction that follows. Tom succeeds in getting the best of Jerry because of Jerry's cleverness, cunning abilities, luck. However, on several occasions, they have displayed genuine friendship and concern for each other's well-being. At other times, the pair set aside their rivalry in order to pursue a common goal, such as when a baby escapes the watch of a negligent babysitter, causing Tom and Jerry to pursue the baby and keep it away from danger, in the shorts Busy Buddies and Tot Watchers respectively.
Despite their endless attacks on one another, they have saved each other's lives every time they were in danger. The cartoons are known for some of the most violent cartoon gags devised in theatrical animation: Tom may use axes, firearms, explosives and poison to kill Jerry. On the other hand, Jerry's methods of retaliation are far more violent, with frequent success, including slicing Tom in half, decapitating him, shutting his head or fingers in a window or a door, stuffing Tom's tail in a waffle iron or a mangle, kicking him into a refrigerator, getting him electrocuted, pounding him with a mace, club or mallet, letting a tree or electric pole drive him into the ground, sticking matches into his feet and lighting them, tying him to a firework and setting it off, so on; because of this and Jerry has been criticized as excessively violent. However, there is no gore in any scene. Music plays a important part in the shorts, emphasizing the action, filling in for traditional sound effects, lending emotion to the scenes.
Musical director Scott Bradley created complex scores that combined elements of jazz and pop music. There is little dialogue as Tom and Jerry never speak. For example, the character Mammy Two Shoes has lines in nearly every cartoon. Most of the vocal effects used for Tom and Jerry are gasping screams. Tom is a white mute domestic shorthair cat, he is but not always, portrayed as living a comfortable, or pampered life, while Jerry is a small, brown mute, house mouse who always lives in close proximity to Tom. Despite being energetic and much larger, Tom is no match for Jerry's wits. Jerry possesses surprising strength for his size the equivalent of Tom's, lifting items such as anvils with relative ease and withstanding considerable impacts. Although cats chase mice to eat them, it is quite rare for Tom to try to eat Jerry, but only to hurt or compete with him as usual in a more intimidating strategy to just taunt Jerry, sometimes to obtain a reward from a human for catching Jerry. By the final "fade-out" of each cartoon, Jerry gets the best of Tom.
However, other results may be reached. On rare occasions, Tom triumphs when Jerry becomes the aggressor or he pushes Tom a little too far. In The Million Dollar Cat Jerry learns that Tom will lose his newly acquired wealth if he harms any animal mice. In Timid Tabby Tom's look-alike cousin pushes Jerry over the edge, and ironically, they both lose because Jerry's last trap or attack on Tom backfires on him or he overlooks something. In Chuck Jones' Filet Meow, Jerry orders a shark from the pet store to scare To
The following is a list of public holidays in Abkhazia. The working days are marked in cursive. Государственные праздники Республики Абхазия. Администрация Президента Республики Абхазия. Retrieved 2009-10-31. Календарь праздничных и выходных дней в Абхазии. Sputnik-abkhazia.ru. Retrieved 2019-10-19
Abdelhali "Appie" Chaiat is a Dutch-Moroccan footballer who last played professionally for Dutch second division side AGOVV Apeldoorn as a striker. Chaiat began his professional career at FC Utrecht. On 11 April 2003, he made his debut in an Eredivisie-match against Willem II which ended 1–1. In his first season in Utrecht, he scored two goals; the following year, he was on the bench or a reserve. In the 2004-05 season, Chaiat was signed by FC Volendam, who played in the Eerste Divisie, he stayed in Volendam for four years and won the league in 2008, therefore promotion to the Eredivisie. Subsequently, Chaiat becomes injured in a friendly against the Suriprofs. De Graafschap had signed him on a pre-contract prior to the injury. On 20 July 2010, his contract was terminated after he gained too much weight, after more than a year of medical rehabilitation, since the injury. Hereafter, Chaiat signed a contract with AGOVV Apeldoorn, he played for amateur sides Presikhaaf and NVC. Abdelhali Chaiat at Voetbal International