University of Ljubljana
The University of Ljubljana is the oldest and largest university in Slovenia. It has 40.000 enrolled students. Although certain academies were established as Jesuit higher education in what is now Slovenia as early as the seventeenth century, the first university was founded in 1810 under the Écoles centrales of the French imperial administration of the Illyrian provinces; the chancellor of the university in Ljubljana during the French period was Joseph Walland, born in Upper Carniola. That university was disbanded in 1813, when Austria regained territorial control and reestablished the Imperial Royal Lyceum of Ljubljana as a higher-education institution. During the second half of the 19th century, several political claims for the establishment of a Slovene-language university in Ljubljana were made, they gained momentum in the fin de siècle era, when a considerable number of renowned Slovene academians worked throughout Central Europe, while more numerous Slovenian students were enrolled in foreign-language universities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the Austrian and Czech lands.
In the 1890s, a unified board for the establishment of a Slovenian university was founded, with Ivan Hribar, Henrik Tuma, Aleš Ušeničnik as its main leaders. In 1898, the Carniolan regional parliament established a scholarship for all those students who were planning a habilitation under the condition that they would accept a post at Ljubljana University when founded. In this way, a list of suitable faculty started to emerge. Unfavorable political circumstances prevented the establishment of the university until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the establishment of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in 1918, the founding of the university became possible. On November 23, 1918, the first meeting of the Founding Board of Ljubljana University was called, presided over by Mihajlo Rostohar, professor of psychology at the Charles University in Prague. Together with Danilo Majaron, Rostohar convinced the central government of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in Belgrade to pass a bill formally establishing the university.
The bill was passed on July 2, 1919. The first lectures started on December 3 of the same year. In 1919, the university comprised five faculties: law, technology and medicine; the seat of the university was in the central Congress Square of Ljubljana in a building that had served as the State Mansion of Carniola from 1902 to 1918. The building was first designed in 1902 by Jan Vladimír Hráský, was remodelled by a Czech architect from Vienna, Josip Hudetz. In the mid-1920s, the university was renamed the "King Alexander University in Ljubljana" and continued to grow despite financial troubles and constant pressure from Yugoslav governments’ centralist policies. In 1941, Jože Plečnik's National and University Library was completed, as one of the major infrastructure projects of the university in the interwar period. After the invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, the university continued to function under the Italian and Nazi German occupation, despite numerous problems and interference in its autonomous operation.
Several professors were arrested or deported to Nazi concentration camps and large numbers of students joined either the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People or the Slovenian Home Guard. Following the end of the Second World War, the first and only foreigner elected to hold the office of chancellor was the Czech professor Alois Král, who had lectured at Faculty of Technical Sciences since 1920 and held the position of dean thereof four times. After the establishment of Communist Yugoslavia in 1945, the university was again put under political pressure: numerous professors were dismissed, some were arrested and tried, the theological faculty was excluded from the university; some of the most brilliant students emigrated. The university maintained its educational role and regained a limited degree of autonomy from the mid-1950s onward, it suffered a serious setback in autonomy from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, when some professors were again dismissed by the authorities. In 1979 it was renamed "Edvard Kardelj University in Ljubljana" after the Communist leader.
In 1990, with the fall of Yugoslavia, it was regiven its original name. As of 2018, the university has 23 faculties and three academies, situated throughout urban Ljubljana: Academy of Theatre, Radio and Television Academy of Fine Arts and Design Academy of Music Faculty of Administration Faculty of Architecture Faculty of Arts Biotechnical Faculty Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy Faculty of Computer and Information Science Faculty of Economics Faculty of Education Faculty of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Law Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Social work Faculty of Sport Faculty of Theology Veterinary Faculty Faculty of Health SciencesThe university was located in the centre of Ljubljana where the central university building and the majority of its faculties are lo
Alan Mathison Turing was an English mathematician, computer scientist, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist. Turing was influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. Despite these accomplishments, he was never recognised in his home country during his lifetime, due to his homosexuality, a crime in the UK. During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre that produced Ultra intelligence. For a time he led Hut 8, the section, responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphers, including improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine.
Turing played a pivotal role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlantic, in so doing helped win the war. Counterfactual history is difficult with respect to the effect Ultra intelligence had on the length of the war, but at the upper end it has been estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by more than two years and saved over 14 million lives. After the war, Turing worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he designed the Automatic Computing Engine, one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. In 1948, Turing joined Max Newman's Computing Machine Laboratory at the Victoria University of Manchester, where he helped develop the Manchester computers and became interested in mathematical biology, he wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, first observed in the 1960s.
Turing was prosecuted in 1952 for homosexual acts. He accepted chemical castration treatment, as an alternative to prison. Turing died 16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is consistent with accidental poisoning. In 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". Queen Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous pardon in 2013; the Alan Turing law is now an informal term for a 2017 law in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts. Turing was born in Maida Vale, while his father, Julius Mathison Turing, was on leave from his position with the Indian Civil Service at Chatrapur in the Madras Presidency and presently in Odisha state, in India. Turing's father was the son of a clergyman, the Rev. John Robert Turing, from a Scottish family of merchants, based in the Netherlands and included a baronet.
Turing's mother, Julius' wife, was Ethel Sara Turing, daughter of Edward Waller Stoney, chief engineer of the Madras Railways. The Stoneys were a Protestant Anglo-Irish gentry family from both County Tipperary and County Longford, while Ethel herself had spent much of her childhood in County Clare. Julius' work with the ICS brought the family to British India, where his grandfather had been a general in the Bengal Army. However, both Julius and Ethel wanted their children to be brought up in Britain, so they moved to Maida Vale, where Alan Turing was born on 23 June 1912, as recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the house of his birth the Colonnade Hotel. Turing had John. Turing's father's civil service commission was still active and during Turing's childhood years Turing's parents travelled between Hastings in England and India, leaving their two sons to stay with a retired Army couple. At Hastings, Turing stayed at Baston Lodge, Upper Maze Hill, St Leonards-on-Sea, now marked with a blue plaque.
The plaque was unveiled on 23 June 2012, the centenary of Turing's birth. Early in life, Turing showed signs of the genius that he was to display prominently, his parents purchased a house in Guildford in 1927, Turing lived there during school holidays. The location is marked with a blue plaque. Turing's parents enrolled him at St Michael's, a day school at 20 Charles Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, at the age of six; the headmistress recognised his talent early on. Between January 1922 and 1926, Turing was educated at Hazelhurst Preparatory School, an independent school in the village of Frant in Sussex. In 1926, at the age of 13, he went on to Sherborne School, a boarding independent school in the market town of Sherborne in Dorset; the first day of term coincided with the 1926 General Strike in Britain, but he was so determined to attend, that he rode his bicycle unaccompanied 60 miles from Southampton to Sherborne, stopping overnight at an inn. Turing's natural inclination towards mathematics and science did not earn him respect from some of the teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics.
His headmaster wrote to his parents: "I hope. If he is to stay at public school
University of Zagreb
The University of Zagreb is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe. The history of the University began on September 23, 1669, when the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I issued a decree granting the establishment of the Jesuit Academy of the Royal Free City of Zagreb; the decree was accepted at the Council of the Croatian Kingdom on November 3, 1671. The Academy was run by the Jesuits for more than a century until the order was dissolved by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. In 1776, Empress Maria Theresa issued a decree founding the Royal Academy of Science which succeeded the previous Jesuit Academy. Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer proposed the founding of a University to the Croatian Parliament in 1861. Emperor Franz Joseph signed the decree on the establishment of the University of Zagreb in 1869; the Act of Founding was passed by the Parliament in 1874, was ratified by the Emperor on January 5, 1874.
On October 19, 1874, the Royal University of Franz Joseph I was opened. The University is composed of 29 faculties, 3 art academies and 1 university center with more than 70.000 students. The University is as of 2018 at the 463rd place out of 1000 on the list of Universities of the world made by the Center for University World Rankings; the beginnings of the university date back to 23 September 1669 when Emperor and King Leopold I Habsburg issued a decree granting the establishment of the Jesuit Academy of the Royal Free City of Zagreb. According to that document the study of philosophy in Zagreb acquired a formal and legal status as Neoacademia Zagrabiensis and became a public institution of higher education; the academy was run by the Jesuits for more than a century until the order was dissolved by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. Under a new leadership in 1772 the academy enrolled a total of 200 students. In 1776 Empress and Queen Maria Theresa issued a decree founding the Royal Academy of Science.
It consisted of three studies or faculties of philosophy and law. The former political-cameral studies became part of the newly established faculty of law, thus were integrated into the academy; each of the faculties of the Royal Academy of Sciences had several chairs teaching one or several courses. The academy in Zagreb remained until 1874, despite numerous organizational changes, the focal institution of higher education in Croatia, educating most of the members of the Croatian intelligentsia. Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer in 1861 proposed to the Croatian Parliament the founding of a university at Zagreb. During his visit in 1869, the Emperor Franz Joseph signed the decree on the establishment of the University of Zagreb. Five years the Parliament passed the Act of Founding, ratified by the Emperor on 5 January 1874. On 19 October 1874, a ceremony was held in the name of the founding of the Royal University of Franz Joseph I in Zagreb, making it the third university in the Hungarian realm of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
In 1874 the University had four faculties: Law Theology Philosophy Medicine The Faculty of Medicine was not put into function in 1874. The Faculty of Philosophy served as the general scientific faculty. Since 1876 it had geology, physics and chemistry. In 1860, the Royal Agriculture and Forestry College was founded in Križevci. In 1898, the Academy of Forestry was founded as part of the Faculty of Philosophy, which encompassed all technical studies. In 1919, this school became the Faculty of Forestry. In 1919, the School of Technology was founded, transformed into a university faculty in 1926. In 1919 the School of Veterinary Medicine was founded. In the Faculty of Philosophy, major reorganization ensued in the 1920s, as mathematics and other sciences started to split off, first with the creation of separate mathematics and pharmaceutical departments in 1928, when the faculty was renamed into its current name Filozofski fakultet. In 1926, the university was composed of seven faculties: Theology Law Medicine Philosophy Philosophy dept.
Pharmacy dept. Husbandry and Forestry Veterinary Medicine Technology Construction dept. Engineering dept. Chemical engineering dept. During the Independent State of Croatia, the university was known as the Croatian University; the individual departments of the Faculty of Philosophy became separate faculties in 1942, 1946 when the Faculty of Sciences was formed, in 1963. In 1956, the Faculty of Technology was divided into four faculties: Architecture-Construction-Geodesy Electrical engineering Mechanical engineering-Shipbuilding Chemistry-Food technology-Mining These split up into the current layout. In 1999; the University decided to implement European Credit Transfer System - ECTS. When Croatia signed to be a part of The Bologna declaration, all of the universities in Croatia adopted this system of reada
International Mathematical Olympiad
The International Mathematical Olympiad is an annual six-problem mathematical olympiad for pre-college students, is the oldest of the International Science Olympiads. The first IMO was held in Romania in 1959, it has since been held annually, except in 1980. More than 100 countries, representing over 90% of the world's population, send teams of up to six students, plus one team leader, one deputy leader, observers; the content ranges from difficult algebra and pre-calculus problems to problems on branches of mathematics not conventionally covered at school and not at university level either, such as projective and complex geometry, functional equations and well-grounded number theory, of which extensive knowledge of theorems is required. Calculus, though allowed in solutions, is never required, as there is a principle that anyone with a basic understanding of mathematics should understand the problems if the solutions require a great deal more knowledge. Supporters of this principle claim that this allows more universality and creates an incentive to find elegant, deceptively simple-looking problems which require a certain level of ingenuity.
The selection process differs by country, but it consists of a series of tests which admit fewer students at each progressing test. Awards are given to the top-scoring 50% of the individual contestants. Teams are not recognized—all scores are given only to individual contestants, but team scoring is unofficially compared more than individual scores. Contestants must not be registered at any tertiary institution. Subject to these conditions, an individual may participate any number of times in the IMO; the International Mathematical Olympiad is one of the most prestigious mathematical competitions in the world. In January 2011, Google sponsored €1 million to the International Mathematical Olympiad organization; the first IMO was held in Romania in 1959. Since it has been held every year except in 1980; that year, it was cancelled due to internal strife in Mongolia. It was founded for eastern European member countries of the Warsaw Pact, under the USSR bloc of influence, but other countries participated as well.
Because of this eastern origin, the IMOs were first hosted only in eastern European countries, spread to other nations. Sources differ about the cities hosting some of the early IMOs; this may be because leaders are housed well away from the students, because after the competition the students did not always stay based in one city for the rest of the IMO. The exact dates cited may differ, because of leaders arriving before the students, at more recent IMOs the IMO Advisory Board arriving before the leaders. Several students, such as Zhuo Qun Song, Teodor von Burg, Lisa Sauermann, John Lian, Josh Li and Christian Reiher, have performed exceptionally well in the IMO, winning multiple gold medals. Others, such as Grigory Margulis, Jean-Christophe Yoccoz, Laurent Lafforgue, Stanislav Smirnov, Terence Tao, Sucharit Sarkar, Grigori Perelman, Ngô Bảo Châu and Maryam Mirzakhani have gone on to become notable mathematicians. Several former participants have won awards such as the Fields Medal; the examination consists of six problems.
Each problem is worth seven points, so the maximum total score is 42 points. No calculators are allowed; the examination is held over two consecutive days. The problems chosen are from various areas of secondary school mathematics, broadly classifiable as geometry, number theory and combinatorics, they require no knowledge of higher mathematics such as calculus and analysis, solutions are short and elementary. However, they are disguised so as to make the solutions difficult. Prominently featured are algebraic inequalities, complex numbers, construction-oriented geometrical problems, though in recent years the latter has not been as popular as before; each participating country, other than the host country, may submit suggested problems to a Problem Selection Committee provided by the host country, which reduces the submitted problems to a shortlist. The team leaders arrive at the IMO a few days in advance of the contestants and form the IMO Jury, responsible for all the formal decisions relating to the contest, starting with selecting the six problems from the shortlist.
The Jury aims to order the problems so that the order in increasing difficulty is Q1, Q4, Q2, Q5, Q3 and Q6. As the leaders know the problems in advance of the contestants, they are kept separated and observed; each country's marks are agreed between that country's leader and deputy leader and coordinators provided by the host country, subject to the decisions of the chief coordinator and a jury if any disputes cannot be resolved. The selection process for the IMO varies by country. In some countries those in East Asia, the selection process involves several tests of a difficulty comparable to the IMO itself; the Chinese contestants go through a camp. In others, such as the United States, possible participants go through a series of easier standalone competitions that increase in difficulty. In the United States, the tests include the American Mathematics Competitions, the American Invitational Mathematics Examination, the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad, each of, a competition in its own right.
For high scorers in the final competition for the team selection, there is a summer camp, like that of China. In countries of the former Soviet Union and other eastern Europ
European Mathematical Society
The European Mathematical Society is a European organization dedicated to the development of mathematics in Europe. Its members are different mathematical societies in Europe, academic institutions and individual mathematicians; the current president is Pavel Exner, Scientific Director of the Doppler Institute for Mathematical Physics and Applied Mathematics in Prague. The Society seeks to serve all kinds of mathematicians in universities, research institutes and other forms of higher education, its aims are to Promote mathematical research, both pure and applied and advise on problems of mathematical education, Concern itself with the broader relations of mathematics to society, Foster interaction between mathematicians of different countries, Establish a sense of identity amongst European mathematicians, Represent the mathematical community in supra-national institutions. The EMS is itself an Affiliate Member of the International Mathematical Union and an Associate Member of the International Council for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
The precursor to the EMS, the European Mathematical Council was founded in 1978 at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Helsinki. This informal federation of mathematical societies was chaired by Sir Michael Atiyah; the European Mathematical Society was founded on 28 October 1990 in Mądralin near Warsaw, with Friedrich Hirzebruch as founding President. The EMS had 27 member societies; the first European Congress of Mathematics was held at the Sorbonne and Panthéon-Sorbonne universities in Paris in 1992, is now held every 4 years at different locations around Europe, organised by the EMS. The next ECM will be in 2020 in Portoroz in Slovenia. Friedrich Hirzebruch, 1990 - 1994 Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, 1995 - 1998 Rolf Jeltsch, 1999 - 2002 John Kingman, 2003 - 2006 Ari Laptev, 2007 - 2010 Marta Sanz-Solé, 2011 - 2014 Pavel Exner, 2015 - 2018 Volker Mehrmann, 2019 - 2023 The governing body of the EMS is its Council, which comprises delegates representing all of the societies which are themselves members of the EMS, along with delegates representing the institutional and individual EMS members.
The Council meets every 2 years, appoints the President and Executive Committee who are responsible for the running of the society. Besides the Executive Committee, the EMS has standing committees on: Applied Mathematics, Developing Countries, Mathematical Education, ERCOM, European Solidarity, Meetings and Electronic Dissemination, Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics, Women in Mathematics; the EMS's rules are set down in its Bylaws. The EMS is headquartered at the University of Helsinki; the European Congress of Mathematics is held every four years under the Society's auspices, at which ten EMS Prizes are awarded to "recognize excellent contributions in Mathematics by young researchers not older than 35 years". Since 2000, the Felix Klein Prize has been awarded to "a young scientist or a small group of young scientists for using sophisticated methods to give an outstanding solution, which meets with the complete satisfaction of industry, to a concrete and difficult industrial problem."
Since 2012, the Otto Neugebauer Prize has been awarded to a researcher or group of researchers'"for original and influential work in the field of history of mathematics that enhances our understanding of either the development of mathematics or a particular mathematical subject in any period and in any geographical region". Here are the awardees so far. EMS Prizes: Richard Borcherds F – Jens Franke – Alexander Goncharov – Maxim Kontsevich F – François Labourie – Tomasz Łuczak – Stefan Müller – Vladimír Šverák – Gábor Tardos – Claire Voisin EMS Prizes: Alexis Bonnet – Timothy Gowers F – Annette Huber-Klawitter – Aise Johan de Jong – Dmitry Kramkov – Jiří Matoušek – Loïc Merel – Grigori Perelman F, declined – Ricardo Pérez-Marco – Leonid Polterovich EMS Prizes: Semyon Alesker – Raphaël Cerf – Dennis Gaitsgory – Emmanuel Grenier – Dominic Joyce – Vincent Lafforgue – Michael McQuillan – Stefan Nemirovski – Paul Seidel – Wendelin Werner FFelix Klein Prize: David C. Dobson EMS Prizes: Franck Barthe – Stefano Bianchini – Paul Biran – Elon Lindenstrauss F – Andrei Okounkov F – Sylvia Serfaty – Stanislav Smirnov F – Xavier Tolsa – Warwick Tucker – Otmar Venjakob Felix Klein Prize: Not Awarded EMS Prizes: Artur Avila F – Alexei Borodin – Ben J. Green – Olga Holtz – Boáz Klartag – Alexander Kuznetsov – Assaf Naor – Laure Saint-Raymond – Agata Smoktunowicz – Cédric Villani FFelix Klein Prize: Josselin Garnier EMS Prizes: Simon Brendle - Emmanuel Breuillard - Alessio Figalli F - Adrian Ioana - Mathieu Lewin - Ciprian Manolescu - Grégory Miermont - Sophie Morel - Tom Sanders - Corinna Ulcigrai - Felix Klein Prize: Emmanuel Trélat Otto Neugebauer Prize: Jan P. Hogendijk EMS Prizes: Sara Zahedi - Mark Braverman - Vincent Calvez - Guido de Philippis - Peter Scholze F - Péter Varjú
The Slovenes known as Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, to Italy and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture and speak Slovene as their native language. Most Slovenes today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia. In the Slovenian national census of 2002, 1,631,363 people ethnically declared themselves as Slovenes, while 1,723,434 people claimed Slovene as their native language; the autochthonous Slovenian minority in Italy is estimated at 83,000 to 100,000, the Slovene minority in southern Austria at 24,855, in Croatia at 13,200, in Hungary at 3,180. Significant Slovene expatriate communities live in the United States and Canada, in other European countries, in Argentina, in Australia; the largest population of Slovenes outside of Slovenia is in Ohio. In total 39-36% of 399-458 sampled Slovenian males belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a, more frequent than in South Slavic peoples, constituting 41% in the capital region and greater in some regions.
Slovenian population displays close genetic affiliations with West Slavic populations. The homogenous genetic strata of the West Slavic populations and the Slovenian population suggest the existence of a common ancestral Slavic population in central European region; the M458 branch constitutes 4%, while the dominant clade is Z280 its R1a-CTS3402 clade, the same as that of their Slavic and not Slavic neighbours. The Z92 branch of Z280, significant among East Slavs is recorded as absent among Slovenes. Of 100 sampled Slovenians, 18% belong to R1b, of which 8% of R1b belongs to the P312 branch, 6% to the eastern and 4% to U106; the Dinaric-North haplotypes of I2a1b are with overwhelming higher frequency than Dinaric-South in regions with high frequency. In the 6th century AD, Slavic people settled the region between the Alps and the Adriatic Sea in two consecutive migration waves: the first wave came from the Moravian lands around 550, while the second wave, coming from the southeast, moved in after the retreat of the Lombards to Italy in 568.
From 623 to 658 Slavic peoples between the upper Elbe River and the Karavanke mountain range united under the leadership of King Samo in what was to become known as "Samo's Tribal Union". The tribal union collapsed after Samo's death in 658, but a smaller Slavic tribal principality, remained, with its centre in the present-day region of Carinthia. Faced with the pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, the Carantanians accepted a union with Bavaria in 745, in the 8th century recognized Frankish rule and accepted Christianity; the last Slavic state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocel, lost its independence in 874. Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank due to pressure from Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians in the Pannonian plain; the first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century. During this period, the first books in Slovene were written by the Protestant preacher Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the development of standard Slovene.
In the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. At the beginning of the 17th century, Protestantism was suppressed by the Habsburg-sponsored Counter Reformation, which introduced the new aesthetics of Baroque culture; the Enlightenment in the Habsburg monarchy brought significant social and cultural progress to the Slovene people. It facilitated the appearance of a middle class. Under the reign of Maria Theresa and Emperor Joseph II many reforms were undertaken in the administration and society, including land reforms, the modernization of the Church and compulsory primary education in Slovene; the start of cultural-linguistic activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a national revival and the birth of the Slovene nation in the modern sense of the word. Before the Napoleonic Wars, some secular literature in Slovene emerged. During the same period, the first history of the Slovene Lands as an ethnic unity was written by Anton Tomaž Linhart, while Jernej Kopitar compiled the first comprehensive grammar of Slovene.
Between 1809 and 1813, Slovenia was part of the Illyrian Provinces, an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire, with Ljubljana as the capital. Although the French rule was short-lived, it contributed to the rise of national consciousness and political awareness of Slovenes. After the fall of Napoleon, all Slovene Lands were once again included in the Austrian Empire. A distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, the quest for a political unification of all Slovenes became widespread. In the 1820s and 1840s, the interest in Slovene language and folklore grew enormously, with numerous philologists advancing the first steps towards a standardization of the language. Illyrian movement, Pan-Slavic and Austro-Slavic ideas gained importance. However, the intellectual circle around the philologist Matija Čop and the Romantic poet France Prešeren was influential in affirming the idea of Slovene linguistic and cultural individuality, refusing the idea of merging Slovenes into a wider Slavic nation.
In the 1840s, the Slovene national movement developed far beyond literary expression. In 1848, the first Slovene national political programme, called United Slovenia, was wr
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, quantity, space and change. One of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. The number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was "All is number", it was the Pythagoreans who coined the term "mathematics", with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins. The first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria, she succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote many works on applied mathematics. Because of a political dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked and scraping off her skin with clamshells.
Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and modes of funding varied based on scholars. It was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. Funding for translation of scientific texts in other languages was ongoing throughout the reign of certain caliphs, it turned out that certain scholars became experts in the works they translated and in turn received further support for continuing to develop certain sciences; as these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences. An example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many scholars working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were polymaths. Examples include the work on optics and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham; the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on science to Europe.
During this period of transition from a feudal and ecclesiastical culture to a predominantly secular one, many notable mathematicians had other occupations: Luca Pacioli. As time passed, many mathematicians gravitated towards universities. An emphasis on free thinking and experimentation had begun in Britain's oldest universities beginning in the seventeenth century at Oxford with the scientists Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle, at Cambridge where Isaac Newton was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics & Physics. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking.” In 1810, Humboldt convinced the King of Prussia to build a university in Berlin based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas. Thus and laboratories started to evolve. British universities of this period adopted some approaches familiar to the Italian and German universities, but as they enjoyed substantial freedoms and autonomy the changes there had begun with the Age of Enlightenment, the same influences that inspired Humboldt.
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge emphasized the importance of research, arguably more authentically implementing Humboldt’s idea of a university than German universities, which were subject to state authority. Overall, science became the focus of universities in the 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge; the German university system fostered professional, bureaucratically regulated scientific research performed in well-equipped laboratories, instead of the kind of research done by private and individual scholars in Great Britain and France. In fact, Rüegg asserts that the German system is responsible for the development of the modern research university because it focused on the idea of “freedom of scientific research and study.” Mathematicians cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level.
In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of a student's understanding of mathematics. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in real life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, localized constructs, applied mathematicians work in the study and formulation of mathematical models. Mathematicians and applied mathematicians are considered to be two of the STEM careers; the discipline of applied mathematics concerns