San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Tomales Bay Oyster Company
Tomales Bay Oyster Company is an oyster farm in Marshall, California in the United States. It is located on California State Route 1 and is the oldest continuously run oyster farm in California. TBOC was founded in 1909. TBOC is co-owned by Tod Friend. Drew Alden is the proprietor. TBOC serves five types of Pacific customers must shuck their own oysters, they are in litigation with the California Coastal Commission regarding the farm's popularity, which the state says has increased beyond the capacity of its original permit allowance. The original permit, acquired in 1987, allows for Friday through Sunday retail sales and only eight employees. Starting in 2012, TBOC had over eight employees; the farm has so many visitors that the parking lot overflows onto Highway One, causing traffic congestion. The parking has been described as "chaotic" by the North Bay Bohemian. Official website
Dillon Beach, California
Dillon Beach is a census-designated place in Marin County, United States. Dillon Beach is located 3.25 miles west at an elevation of 89 feet. The population was 283 at the 2010 census. Dillon Beach was named after the founder, George Dillon, who settled there in 1858; the area includes a public access beach, as well as a private beach resort, the only private beach in California. Dillon Beach is located near the mouth of Tomales Bay, at 38°15′03″N 122°57′55″W; the Estero de San Antonio State Marine Recreational Management Area is a marine protected area located 1.5 miles north of Dillon Beach. Like an underwater park, this marine protected area helps conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of all land. Dillon sold out to John Keegan with the agreement that the beach would always be named Dillon Beach. Keegan platted the town, built the hotel which still stands as the restaurant. Keegan built cottages, one of which still stands along the road to the beach.
Keegan ran a stage coach from Dillon Beach to Tomales. Keegan sold the holdings to the Lawson family who owned it until the arrival of the Clines; the first post office at Dillon Beach opened in 1922. During the 1960s, Oceana Marin was developed north of town by John Keegan's grandson, James Keegan of Wells Fargo Bank and Henry Trione of Sonoma County Mortgage. Fancy modern coastal houses were built on the hillsides overlooking the quaint town of small cottages giving it a unique appeal. Dillon Beach Resort has been owned and operated by Fred and Nancy Cline of Sonoma Valley, California since 2001; the resort consists of a cafe, general store, three beachfront cabins available for rent, paid parking to access the resort's maintained beach. The resort is open year-round, it is the only owned beach in northern California. The undertow found at most beaches along the coast is weaker here, making swimming possible for those who can endure the coldness of the water. Surfers in wet suits are seen. Fog is common in summer.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Dillon Beach had a population of 283. The population density was 94.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Dillon Beach was 266 White, 3 Native American, 4 Asian, 10 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9 persons; the Census reported. There were 147 households, out of which 20 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 79 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6 had a female householder with no husband present, 2 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 6 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 48 households were made up of individuals and 26 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93. There were 87 families; the population was spread out with 28 people under the age of 18, 7 people aged 18 to 24, 44 people aged 25 to 44, 127 people aged 45 to 64, 77 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 57.4 years.
For every 100 females, there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. There were 440 housing units at an average density of 147.5 per square mile, of which 125 were owner-occupied, 22 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.3%. 84.5% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 15.5% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 319 people, 155 households, 103 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 107/sq mi. There were 415 housing units at an average density of 140/sq mi; the racial makeup of the CDP in 2010 was 90.8% non-Hispanic White, 1.1% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 3.5% from two or more races. 3.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 155 households out of which 17.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.47. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 14.4% under the age of 18, 1.3% from 18 to 24, 18.8% from 25 to 44, 43.6% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $47,679, the median income for a family was $52,000. Males had a median income of $40,714 versus $37,083 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $39,475. None of the families and 1.3% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64
Tomales Point is the North-Western tip of Point Reyes Peninsula. Bodega Bay is to the North, Tomales Bay is to the East, the Pacific Ocean is to the West; the point is accessible only via a 9.5 mile hike along Tomales Point Trail. The region is home to a tule elk population
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission, development of Marconi's law, a radio telegraph system. He is credited as the inventor of radio, he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". Marconi was an entrepreneur and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in the United Kingdom in 1897, he succeeded in making an engineering and commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1929, Marconi was ennobled as a Marchese by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, and, in 1931, he set up the Vatican Radio for Pope Pius XI. Marconi was born into the Italian nobility as Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi in Bologna on 25 April 1874, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi and his Irish/Scot wife Annie Jameson. Marconi had a brother, a stepbrother, Luigi.
Between the ages of two and six and his elder brother Alfonso lived with their mother in the English town of Bedford. Marconi did not go on to formal higher education. Instead, he learned chemistry and physics at home from a series of private tutors hired by his parents, his family hired additional tutors for Guglielmo in the winter when they would leave Bologna for the warmer climate of Tuscany or Florence. Marconi noted an important mentor was professor Vincenzo Rosa, a high school physics teacher in Livorno. Rosa taught the 17-year-old Marconi the basics of physical phenomena as well as new theories on electricity. At the age of 18 back in Bologna Marconi became acquainted with University of Bologna physicist Augusto Righi, who had done research on Heinrich Hertz's work. Righi permitted Marconi to attend lectures at the university and to use the University's laboratory and library. From youth, Marconi was interested in electricity. In the early 1890s, he began working on the idea of "wireless telegraphy"—i.e. the transmission of telegraph messages without connecting wires as used by the electric telegraph.
This was not a new idea. A new development came from Heinrich Hertz, who, in 1888, demonstrated that one could produce and detect electromagnetic radiation. At the time, this radiation was called "Hertzian" waves, is now referred to as radio waves. There was a great deal of interest in radio waves in the physics community, but this interest was in the scientific phenomenon, not in its potential as a communication method. Physicists looked on radio waves as an invisible form of light that could only travel along a line of sight path, limiting its range to the visual horizon like existing forms of visual signaling. Hertz's death in 1894 brought published reviews of his earlier discoveries including a demonstration on the transmission and detection of radio waves by the British physicist Oliver Lodge and an article about Hertz's work by Augusto Righi. Righi's article renewed Marconi's interest in developing a wireless telegraphy system based on radio waves, a line of inquiry that Marconi noted that other inventors did not seem to be pursuing.
At the age of 20, Marconi began to conduct experiments in radio waves, building much of his own equipment in the attic of his home at the Villa Griffone in Pontecchio, Italy with the help of his butler Mignani. Marconi built on Hertz's original experiments and, at the suggestion of Righi, began using a coherer, an early detector based on the 1890 findings of French physicist Edouard Branly and used in Lodge's experiments, that changed resistance when exposed to radio waves. In the summer of 1894, he built a storm alarm made up of a battery, a coherer, an electric bell, which went off when it picked up the radio waves generated by lightning. Late one night, in December 1894, Marconi demonstrated a radio transmitter and receiver to his mother, a set-up that made a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench. Supported by his father, Marconi continued to read through the literature and picked up on the ideas of physicists who were experimenting with radio waves.
He developed devices, such as portable transmitters and receiver systems, that could work over long distances, turning what was a laboratory experiment into a useful communication system. Marconi came up with a functional system with many components: A simple oscillator or spark-producing radio transmitter. In the summer of 1895, Marconi moved his experiments outdoors on his father's estate in Bologna, he tried different arrangements and shapes of antenna bu
Sausalito is a city in Marin County, located 8 miles south-southeast of San Rafael, 4 miles north of San Francisco. Sausalito's population was 7,061 as of the 2010 census; the community is situated near the northern end of the Golden Gate Bridge, prior to the building of that bridge served as a terminus for rail and ferry traffic. Sausalito developed as a shipbuilding center in World War II, with its industrial character giving way in postwar years to a reputation as a wealthy and artistic enclave, a picturesque residential community, a tourist destination; the city is adjacent to, bounded by, the protected spaces of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The name of Sausalito comes from the Spanish sauzalito, meaning "small willow grove", from sauce "willow" + collective derivative -al meaning "place of abundance" + diminutive suffix -ito. Early variants of the name were Saucelito, San Salita, San Saulito, San Salito, Sancilito, Sousalita, Sousilito and Sauz Saulita, it is sometimes claimed that Sausalito was named for the district in Valparaíso, Chile where the bandit Joaquín Murrieta was born.
Murrieta was the leader of bandits who settled at the northern end of the future Golden Gate bridge after being banned from San Francisco in the bandit wars. However, this theory cannot be true because Murrieta was from Mexico, not Chile, because he did not arrive in California until the Gold Rush around 1849; the Rancho Saucelito had been granted to William Richardson in 1838. Located at 37°51′33″N 122°29′07″W, Sausalito encompasses both steep, wooded hillside and shoreline tidal flats. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.2 square miles. Notably, only 1.8 square miles of it is land. A full 21.54% of the city is under water, has been so since its founding in 1868. Prominent geographic features associated with Sausalito include Pine Point; when Sausalito was formally platted, it was anticipated that future development might extend the shoreline with landfill, as had been the practice in neighboring San Francisco. As a result, entire streets and given names like Pescadero and Teutonia, remain beneath the surface of Richardson Bay.
The legal, if not actual, presence of these streets has proved a contentious factor in public policy, because some houseboats float directly above them. According to the San Francisco Chronicle, "State agencies say owned houseboats can't be located above the underwater streets because the streets are public trust lands intended for public benefit." The California State Lands Commission is pursuing a compromise which would move not the houseboats, but the theoretical streets instead. Sausalito has a Mediterranean climate with far lower temperatures than expected because of its adjacency to San Francisco Bay and the resultant onshore breezes. Sausalito was once the site of a Coast Miwok settlement known as Liwanelowa; the branch of the Coast Miwok living in this area were known as the Huimen. Early explorers of the area described them as hospitable. According to Juan de Ayala, "To all these advantages must be added the best of all, that the heathen Indians of the port are so faithful in their friendship and so docile in their disposition that I was pleased to receive them on board."
Such placidity was a contributing factor to their complete displacement, which took place within the span of a few generations. As historian Jack Tracy has observed, "Their dwellings on the site of Sausalito were explored and mapped in 1907, nearly a century and a half by an archaeological survey. By that time, nothing was left of the culture of those who had first enjoyed the natural treasures of the bay; the life of the Coastal Miwoks had been reduced to archaeological remnants, as though thousands of years had passed since their existence." The first European known to visit the present-day location of Sausalito was Don José de Cañizares, on August 5, 1775. Cañizares was head of an advance party dispatched by longboat from the ship San Carlos, searching for a suitable anchorage for the larger vessel; the crew of the San Carlos came ashore soon after, reporting friendly natives and teeming populations of deer, bear, sea lions and otters. More for maritime purposes, they reported an abundance of large, mature timber in the hills, a valuable commodity for shipwrights in need of raw materials for masts and planking.
Despite these and positive reports, the Spanish colonial government of Upper California did little to establish a presence in the area. When a military garrison and a Franciscan mission were founded the following year, they were situated on the opposite, southern shore of the bay, where no portage was necessary for overland traffic to and from Monterey, the regional capitol; as a result, the far shore of the Golden Gate strait would remain wilderness for another half-century. The development of the area began at the instigation of William A. Richardson, who arrived in Upper California in 1822, shortly after Mexico had won its independence from Spain. An English mariner who had picked up a fluency in Spanish during his travels, he became an influential presence in the now-Mexican territory. By 1825, Richardson had assumed Mexican citizenship, converted to Catholicism and married the daughter of Don Ignacio Martínez, commandant of the Presidio and holder of a large land grant, his ambitions now expanding
The Coast Miwok are an indigenous people, the second largest group of Miwok people. The Coast Miwok inhabited the general area of modern Marin County and southern Sonoma County in Northern California, from the Golden Gate north to Duncans Point and eastward to Sonoma Creek; the Coast Miwok included the Bodega Bay Miwok, from authenticated Miwok villages around Bodega Bay, the Marin Miwok. The Coast Miwok spoke their own Coast Miwok language in the Utian linguistic group, they lived by hunting and gathering, lived in small bands without centralized political authority. In the springtime they would head to the coasts including seaweed. Otherwise their staple foods were acorns—particularly from black and tan oak–nuts and wild game, such as deer and cottontail rabbits and black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, a coastal subspecies of the California mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus; when hunting deer, Miwok hunters traditionally used Brewer's angelica, Angelica breweri to eliminate their own scent.
Miwok did not hunt bears. Yerba buena tea leaf were used medicinally. Tattooing was a traditional practice among Coast Miwok, they burned poison oak for a pigment, their traditional houses, called "kotcha" were constructed with slabs of tule grass or redwood bark in a cone-shaped form. Miwok people are skilled at basketry. A recreated Coast Miwok village called; the Coast Miwok language is no longer natively spoken, but the Bodega dialect is documented in Callaghan. The original Coast Miwok people world view included animism, one form of this took was the Kuksu religion, evident in Central and Northern California; this included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual mourning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world and an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms. Kuksu was shared with other indigenous ethnic groups of Central California, such as their neighbors the Pomo Maidu, Ohlone and northernmost Yokuts; however Kroeber observed less "specialized cosmogony" in the Miwok, which he termed one of the "southern Kuksu-dancing groups", in comparison to the Maidu and other northern California tribes.
Coast Miwok mythology and narratives were similar to those of other natives of Central and Northern California. The Coast Miwok believed in animal and human spirits, saw the animal spirits as their ancestors. Coyote was seen as their creator god. In their case the earth began with land formed out of the Pacific Ocean. In their myths, legends and histories, the Coast Miwok participated in the general cultural pattern of Central California; the authenticated Coast Miwok villages are: On Bodega Bay: Helapattai, Hime-takala, Ho-takala, Tiwut-huya, Tokau. In this vicinity: Awachi, Kennekono. On Tomales Bay: Echa-kolum, Shotommo-wi, Utumia At the present-day City of Petaluma: Etem, Petaluma. In this vicinity: Tuchayelin, Meleya, Tulme, Wotoki. At the present-day City of San Rafael: Awani-wi. At the present-day City of Sonoma: Huchi. In this vicinity: Temblek, Wugilwa. At the present-day City of Cotati: Kotati, Lumen-takala. In this vicinity: Payinecha. At the present-day town of Nicasio: Echa-tamal. At the present-day town of Olema: Olema-loke.
At the present-day City of Sausalito: Liwanelowa. Near the present-day town of Bolinas: Bauli-n Near the present-day town of Freestone: Oye-yomi, Patawa-yomi. Near the present-day town of Ignacio: Ewu, Shotokmo-cha. Near the present-day City of Novato: Chokeche, Olompolli. Near the present-day town of Valley Ford: Ewapalt, Uli-yomi. Near the present-day town of Salmon Creek: Pulya-lakum. Documentation of Miwok peoples dates back as early as 1579 by a priest on a ship under the command of Sir Francis Drake. Other verification of occupancy exists from Spanish and Russian voyagers between 1595 and 1808. Over 1000 prehistoric charmstones and numerous arrowheads have been unearthed at Tolay Lake in Southern Sonoma County - some dating back 4000 years; the lake was thought to be a sacred site and ceremonial gathering and healing place for the Miwok and others in the region. Coast Miwok would camp on the coast and bays at peak fishing seasons. After the Europeans arrived in California, the population declined from diseases introduced by the Europeans.
Beginning in 1783, mission ecclesiastical records show that Coast Miwok individuals began to join Mission San Francisco de Asis, now known as Mission Dolores. They started joining that mission in large numbers in 1803, when the marriages of 49 couples from their Huimen and Guaulen local tribes appeared in the Mission San Francisco Book of Marriages. Local tribes from farther and farther north along the shore of San Pablo Bay moved to Mission San Francisco through the year 1812. In 1814 the Spanish authorities began to split the northern groups—Alagualis, Chocoimes and Petalumas—sending a portion of each group to Mission San Francisco and another portion to Mission San Jose in the southeast portion of the San Francisco Bay Area. By the end of