The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South Central America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its domestication and use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Aztecs used tomatoes in their cooking at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, after the Spanish encountered the tomato for the first time after their contact with the Aztecs, they brought the plant to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century. Tomatoes are a significant source of umami flavor; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits—botanically classified as berries—they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year.
Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height. They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla.
The 2014 FIA World Rally Championship-2 was the second season of the World Rally Championship-2, an auto racing championship recognized by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, running in support of the World Rally Championship. It was created when the Group R class of rally car was introduced in 2013; the Championship was open to cars complying with Group N regulations. The Championship is composed by thirteen Rallies, Drivers and Teams must nominate a maximum of seven event; the best six results were counted towards the championship. Former Formula One driver Robert Kubica did not return to defend his 2013 title as he joined the sport's premier category; the Title went to Nasser Al-Attiyah finishing six the last event, winning the championship by three points over Jari Ketomaa. Lorenzo Bertelli finished the championship in third position; the 2014 calendar was announced at a meeting of the FIA World Motor Sport Council in Croatia on 27 September 2013. The 2014 championship was contested over thirteen rounds in Europe, North America, South America and Oceania.
Rally Australia and Rally New Zealand abandoned the event-sharing arrangement established in 2008 that saw each event host a round of the championship every other year. After hosting an event in 2013, Rally Australia remains on the calendar throughout 2014 and 2015 before the arrangement is due to be renegotiated; the Rallye Monte Carlo relocated its base from Valence in the French province of Rhône-Alpes to the town of Gap in the neighbouring province of Hautes-Alpes. The 2014 calendar saw the Rally of Poland return to the championship for the first time since 2009; the event crossed the border into Lithuania for one day of competition. Its inclusion came at the expense of the Acropolis Rally, removed after struggling with its financial obligations to the championship; the Acropolis Rally moved to the European Rally Championship for the 2014 season. The rallies of Brazil and China had been considered for inclusion on the WRC calendar before the FIA approved of the Rally of Poland. Reigning World Rally Championship-3 champion Sébastien Chardonnet moved up to the WRC-2.
Jari Ketomaa took part in his first full season of competition, having made regular guest appearances in a variety of WRC championships for the past decade. Kristian Sohlberg returned to the World Rally Championship after a six-year absence. Sohlberg drove a Ford Fiesta R5 run by Autotek Motorsport, he last competed at World level in the now-defunct Production World Rally Championship in 2007. After losing his seat with the M-Sport World Rally Team in 2013, Ott Tänak alternated between contesting the WRC-2 season and competing in the WRC at rallies which are not nominated for points. All competitors registered in the Championships–WRC, WRC-2, WRC-3 and the Junior WRC—were obliged to use a colour-coded windscreen sticker to distinguish its category. Drivers were no longer assigned permanent numbers, except upon request. Notes: ^1 – The Monte Carlo Rally was shortened when a competitor stopped on Stage 14, blocking traffic and forcing organisers to abandon the stage. Points are awarded to the top 10 classified finishers.
Official website of the World Rally Championship Official website of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile
Oxaflozane is an antidepressant and anxiolytic drug, introduced by Solvay in France in 1982 for the treatment of depression but has since been discontinued. It is a prodrug of flumexadol, reported to act as an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors and, to a much lesser extent, of the 5-HT2A receptor. In addition to its serotonergic properties, oxaflozane may produce anticholinergic side effects at high doses, namely in overdose. Fluminorex Fludorex Fenfluramine TFMPP Befiradol Rascol A, Maurel H, David J, Layani M. "". Thérapie. 29: 95–9. PMID 4603757. Hache J, Duchene-Marullaz P, Streichenberger G. "". Thérapie. 29: 81–93. PMID 4849381. Constantin M, Pognat JF. "Comparative study of oxaflozane urinary metabolism in the dog and the rat. Identification of the principal metabolites". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 29: 109–14. PMID 582104. Bertolino A, palermo M, Porro V. "Un nouvel antidépresseur non tricyclique, l'oxaflozane, dans le traitement des syndromes anxio-dépressifs". Acta Therapeutica. 11: 209–218.
Aguglia E. "On the therapetic value of oxaflozane: Its application in the treatment of emotional disturbances of the anxious-depressive type accompanied by somatic manifestations". Acta Therapeutica. 12: 259–268