Tomb Raider known as Lara Croft: Tomb Raider between 2001 and 2007, is a media franchise that originated with an action-adventure video game series created by British gaming company Core Design. Owned by Eidos Interactive by Square Enix after their acquisition of Eidos in 2009, the franchise focuses on fictional British archaeologist Lara Croft, who travels around the world searching for lost artefacts and infiltrating dangerous tombs and ruins. Gameplay focuses on exploration of environments, solving puzzles, navigating hostile environments filled with traps, fighting numerous enemies. Additional media has been developed for the franchise in the form of film adaptations and novels. Development on the original Tomb Raider game began in 1994, it was first released in October 1996, its critical and commercial success prompted Core Design to develop a new game annually for the next four years, which put a strain on staff. The sixth game, The Angel of Darkness, faced difficulties during development and was considered a failure at release.
This prompted Eidos to switch development duties to Crystal Dynamics, the series' primary developer since then. Other developers have contributed to spin-off titles within the series and ports of mainline entries. Tomb Raider games have sold over 75 million copies worldwide; the series has met with critical acclaim, is noted as one of the pioneers of the action-adventure genre. Lara Croft herself has become one of the most recognisable video game protagonists in existence, winning numerous accolades and earning places on the Walk of Game and Guinness World Records. Alongside being praised for pioneering female characters in video games, she has been the subject of controversy due to her sex appeal being used for marketing; the first six Tomb Raider games were developed by Core Design, a British video game development company owned by Eidos Interactive. After the sixth game in the series released to a lukewarm reception in 2003, development was transferred to North American studio Crystal Dynamics, who have handled the main series since then.
Since 2001, other developers have contributed either to ports of mainline games or with the development of spin-off titles. The first entry in the series Tomb Raider was released in 1996 for personal computers, PlayStation and Sega Saturn consoles; the Saturn and PlayStation versions were released in Japan in 1997. The second game, Tomb Raider II, launched in 1997, again for PlayStation. A month before release, Eidos finalised a deal with Sony Computer Entertainment to keep the console version of Tomb Raider II and future games exclusive to PlayStation until the year 2000; the PlayStation version was released in Japan in 1998. Tomb Raider III launched in 1998; as with Tomb Raider II, the PlayStation version released in Japan the following year. The fourth consecutive title in the series, Tomb Raider: The Last Revelation, released in 1999. In 2000, with the end of the PlayStation exclusivity deal, the game released on the Dreamcast. In Japan, both console versions released the following year. Tomb Raider Chronicles released in 2000 on the same platforms as The Last Revelation, with the PlayStation version's Japanese release as before coming the following year.
After a three-year gap, Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness was released on the PC and PlayStation 2 in 2003. The PS2 version was released in Japan that same year; the next entry, Tomb Raider Legend, was released worldwide in 2006 for the PC, PS2, Xbox 360, PlayStation Portable, GameCube, Game Boy Advance and Nintendo DS. The 360, PS2 and PSP versions were released in Japan the same year. A year a remake of the first game titled Tomb Raider: Anniversary was released worldwide in 2007 for PC, PS2, PSP, Xbox 360 and the Wii; the next entry, Tomb Raider: Underworld, was released in 2008 on the PC, PlayStation 3, PS2, Xbox 360, Wii and DS. The PS3, PS2, Xbox 360 and Wii versions were released in Japan in 2009. In 2011, The Tomb Raider Trilogy was released for PlayStation 3 as a compilation release that included Anniversary and Legend remastered in HD resolution, along with the PS3 version of Underworld; the disc included avatars for PS Home, a Theme Pack, new Trophies, Developer's Diary videos for the three games, trailers for Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light as bonus content.
A reboot of the series, titled Tomb Raider, was released worldwide in 2013 for the PC, PS3 and Xbox 360. Its sequel, Rise of the Tomb Raider, was released in 2015 on Xbox One; the game was part of a timed exclusivity deal with Microsoft. Versions for the PlayStation 4 and Microsoft Windows were released in 2016. In November 2017, Square Enix announced that Shadow of the Tomb Raider would be revealed in 2018. In March 2018, Shadow of the Tomb Raider was confirmed by Square Enix, it is the final instalment in the rebooted origin story and was released worldwide on PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Microsoft Windows on 14 September 2018. An arcade game based on this incarnation was announced in 2018, to be released by Bandai Namco Amusements; the first spin-off title in the series was a game for the Game Boy Color titled Tomb Raider, developed by Core Design and released in 2000. Its sequel, Tomb Raider: Curse of the Sword, was released in 2001 for the GBC. In 2002, a new game for the GBA called Tomb Raider: The Prophecy, was developed by Ubi Soft Milan and published by Ubi Soft.
In 2003, four Tomb Raider titles for mobile phones were released. A platform-puzzler for mobile devices, Lara Croft Go, was released in 2015. Beginning in 2010, a separate subseries titled Lara Croft was in development, offering experiences separate from the development of the main series and existing in its own continuity; the first game in
Victor Watts, was a British toponymist, medievalist and academic, specialising in English place names. He served as Master of Grey College, Durham from 1989 until his sudden death in 2002, he had been a lecturer in English at Durham University from 1962, honorary director of the English Place-Name Survey from 1993, editor of the Journal of the English Place-Name Society from 1996. Watts was born on 18 April 1938, he was educated at Bristol Grammar School an all-boys independent school in Bristol. He studied at Merton College, at the University of London. In 1962, Watts jointed Durham University as a lecturer in English language, he was promoted to senior lecturer in 1974. His first association with Grey College, Durham was as a pastoral tutor. From 1984 to 1989, he served as the college's senior tutor and vice-master. In 1989, he was appointed Master of Grey College, he was, by his death, one of the longest serving head of college at Durham University. He additionally served as Dean of Colleges, leading the university's 15 colleges, between 1999 and 2002.
Outside of his university, he held a number of positions. He was an active member of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland: he served successively as vice-president and president of the society between 1983 and 1991. In 1993, he was appointed honorary director of the English Place-Name Survey, therefore of the English Place-Name Society, in succession to Kenneth Cameron, he served as general editor of the society's survey volumes from 1994, was editor of the Journal of the English Place-Name Society from 1996. Watts had Mary Watts: two daughters and a son. Having divorced Mary, he married Elaine. Watts died on 21 December 2002, aged 64, he had had a heart attack. Watts had been elected a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Boethius; the Consolation of Philosophy. Translated by Victor Watts. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140447804. Watts, Victor. A Dictionary of County Durham Place-names. Nottingham: English Place-Name Society.
ISBN 978-0904889659. Watts, Victor, ed.. The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names: based on the collections of the English Place-Name Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521362092. Fuller, David, ed.. Pearl. Translated by Victor Watts. London: Enitharmon Press. ISBN 978-1904634201
Miles Wedderburn Lampson, 1st Baron Killearn, was a British diplomat. Miles Lampson was the son of Norman Lampson, grandson of Sir Curtis Lampson, 1st Baronet, his mother was daughter of Peter Blackburn, MP for Stirlingshire. He was educated at Eton. Lampson entered the Foreign Office in 1903, he served as Secretary to Garter Mission, Japan, in 1906, as 2nd Secretary at Tokyo, between 1908 and 1910, as 2nd Secretary at Sofia, Bulgaria in 1911, as 1st Secretary at Peking in 1916, as Acting British High Commissioner in Siberia in 1920 and as British Minister to China between 1926 and 1933. In 1934 he was appointed High Commissioner for the Sudan; as a result of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty in December 1936 Britain loosened its grip on Egypt and the post title was changed to Ambassador to Egypt and High Commissioner for the Sudan in 1936. Lampson continued in this office until 1946; as ambassador to Egypt he forced King Farouk I to change the cabinet to a Wafdist one through surrounding the king's palace with tanks.
He was Special Commissioner in Southeast Asia between 1946 and 1948. He was admitted to the Privy Council in 1941 and raised to the peerage as Baron Killearn, of Killearn in the County of Stirling, on 17 May 1943, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon of Japan and the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon of Japan. Lord Killearn married firstly Rachel, daughter of William Wilton Phipps, in 1912, they had two daughters: Graham Curtis Lampson, 2nd Baron Killearn. He died leaving daughters only, the youngest Hon. Nadine Marisa Lampson being married to Sir Nicholas Bonsor, Bt. Hon. Mary Lampson Hon. Margaret LampsonAfter Rachel's death in 1930 he married secondly Jacqueline Aldine Leslie Castellani, daughter of Aldo Castellani, KCMG, in 1934, they had two daughters: Victor Miles George Aldous Lampson, 3rd Baron Killearn. He has issue, including a heir apparent. Hon. Jacquetta Jean Frederica Lampson. Hon. Roxana Rose Catherine Naila Lampson, she married to Ian Ross, mother of six children, including the musician Atticus Ross and the model Liberty Ross.
Lampson was a close personal friend of Sir Edward Peel. Lord Killearn died in September 1964, aged 84, was succeeded in the barony by his son by his first marriage, Graham; as Graham died without male heirs, the title subsequently passed to Lord Killearn's son from his second marriage, Victor. The 3rd Lord Killearn took legal action in 2011 to prevent his mother selling off the family home, Haremere Hall. List of colonial heads of Egypt Military history of Egypt during World War II The Killearn Diaries, 1934–1946, London: Sidwick and Jackson, 1972. Yapp, M. E.: Politics and diplomacy in Egypt: The diaries of Sir Miles Lampson, 1935–1937, Oxford: Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press, 1997. Lord Killearn's Diaries: Custodial history: In the possession of Lord Killearn, the Lampson family, Drs Trefor Evans and David Steeds of the University of Aberystwyth. Reference code: GB165-0176. Dates of creation: 1926–1951. 8 boxes 25 volumes. Scope and content: 25 MS and TS volumes of diaries, 1926–51, covering his service in China and the Sudan, South-East Asia.
Cassandra Jardine: "Grande dame is still giving high society plenty of cause for gossip", in: The Independent, Sunday 27 January 2008. Describes the life and times of the Dowager Lady Killearn. O'Sullivan, Christopher D.: FDR and the End of Empire: The Origins of American Power in the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Miles Lampson, 1st Baron Killearn
Robert Bartnik is an Australian mathematician based at Monash University, where he holds the position of Professor of Pure Mathematics. He is known for his contribution to general relativity for demonstrating that the ADM mass of an asymptotically flat spacetime is a well-defined quantity, he gained his bachelor's and master's degrees from Melbourne University and his PhD from Princeton University in 1983. His dissertation subject was "Existence of Maximal Hypersurfaces", his doctoral advisor was Shing-Tung Yau. In 2004 he was elected as a fellow of the Australian Academy of Science at which time it was noted He is best known for his work with John McKinnon on particle-like solutions of the Einstein Yang–Mills equation, but he has worked on applications of geometry and analysis to the study of spacetime structure, he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1980-81. Bartnik, R.. "The mass of an asymptotically flat manifold". Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 39: 661. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.625.6978.
Doi:10.1002/cpa.3160390505. Bartnik, Robert. "Particlelike Solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills Equations". Phys. Rev. Lett. 61: 141–144. Bibcode:1988PhRvL..61..141B. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.141. PMID 10039043. "Biographical page at School of Mathematics, Monash University". Monash University. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 22 June 2005. Retrieved 4 March 2008. "Australian Academy of Science fellows". Gazette of the Australian Mathematical Society. Australian Mathematical Society: 160. July 2004. Retrieved 4 March 2008. "Robert Andrzej Bartnik". Mathematics Genealogy Project. North Dakota State University Department of Mathematics, in association with the American Mathematical Society. Retrieved 4 March 2008
For the gadget, see wireless tour guide system. A tour guide or a tourist guide is a person who provides assistance, information on cultural and contemporary heritage to people on organized tours and individual clients at educational establishments and historical sites, at venues of other significant interest, attractions sites. In 18th-century Japan, a traveler could pay for a tour guide or consult guide books such as Kaibara Ekken's Keijō Shōran; the CEN definition for "tourist guide" – part of the work by CEN on definitions for terminology within the tourism industry – is a "person who guides visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the cultural and natural heritage of an area, which person possesses an area-specific qualification issued and/or recognized by the appropriate authority". CEN defines a "tour manager" as a "person who manages and supervises the itinerary on behalf of the tour operator, ensuring the programme is carried out as described in the tour operator's literature and sold to the traveller/consumer and who gives local practical information".
In Europe, tourist guides are represented by FEG, the European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations. In Europe, the tourist guiding qualification is specific to every country. In all cases it is embedded in the educational and training ethic of that country. EN15565 is a European Standard for the Qualification of Tourist Guides. In Australia, tour guides are qualified to a minimum of Certificate III Guiding.]. They belong to a couple of organisations, notably the Professional Tour Guide Association of Australia and Guides of Australia. In Japan, tour guides are required to pass a certification exam by the Commissioner of the Japan Tourism Agency and register with the relevant prefectures. Non-licensed guides caught performing guide-interpreter activities can face a fine up to 500,000 YenIn India its mandatory to own the license approved by the Ministry of Tourism to work as a tourist guide; the government provides the license to regional level tour guide and runs a Regional Level Guide Training Program.
These programs and training sessions are conducted under the guidance of Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management or other government recognized institutes. In South Africa tourist guides are required to register in terms of the Tourism Act 3, 2014. Training must be done through a trainer accredited by the Culture, Tourism and Sport Sector Education and Training Authority. Notes Salazar, Noel B.. Tourism and glocalization: ‘Local’ tour guiding. Annals of Tourism Research, 32, 628-646. Salazar, Noel B.. Touristifying Tanzania: Local guides, global discourse. Annals of Tourism Research, 33, 833-852. Salazar, Noel B.. "Enough stories!” Asian tourism redefining the roles of Asian tour guides. Civilisations, 57, 207-222. Salazar, Noel B.. Envisioning Eden: Mobilizing imaginaries in tourism and beyond. Oxford: Berghahn. MacCannell, Dean; the Ethics of Sightseeing. University of California Press, 2011. Pond, Kathleen Lingle; the Professional Guide: Dynamics of Tour Guiding. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.
Ruitenberg, Claudia W. "Learning by Walking: Non-Formal Education as Curatorial Practice and Intervention in Public Space." International Journal of Lifelong Education 31, no. 3: 261-275. Wynn, Jonathan R; the Tour Guide: Walking and Talking New York. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011. Wynn, Jonathan R. "City Tour Guides: Urban Alchemists at Work." City & Community 9, no. 2. World Federation of Tourist Guide Associations European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations
Bernarr Macfadden was an American proponent of physical culture, a combination of bodybuilding with nutritional and health theories. He founded the long-running magazine publishing company Macfadden Publications, he was the predecessor of Charles Atlas and Jack LaLanne, has been credited with beginning the culture of health and fitness in the United States. Born in Mill Spring, Macfadden changed his first and last names to give them a greater appearance of strength, he thought "Bernarr" sounded like the roar of a lion, that "Macfadden" was a more masculine spelling of his last name. As a young child, Macfadden was sickly. After being orphaned by the time he was 11, he was placed with a farmer and began working on the farm; the hard work and wholesome food on the farm turned him into a fit boy. When he was 13, however, he moved to St. Louis and took a desk job, his health reverted again and by 16 he described himself as a "physical wreck". He became a vegetarian, he regained his previous health. Macfadden founded Physical Culture magazine in 1899, was editor up to the August 1912 issue.
Aided by long-time Supervising Editor Fulton Oursler, Macfadden grew a publishing empire, including Liberty, True Detective, True Story, True Romances, Dream World, Ghost Stories, the once-familiar movie magazine Photoplay, the tabloid newspaper, The New York Graphic. Macfadden's magazines included SPORT, a preeminent sports magazine prior to Time Inc.'s Sports Illustrated. Ghost Stories was a nod in the direction of the growing field of pulp magazines, though it was a large-size magazine that preserved Macfadden's confessional style for most of its stories. In 1928, Macfadden made more overt moves into the pulps with, for example, Red Blooded Stories, Flying Stories, Tales of Danger and Daring; these were all unsuccessful. In 1929, Macfadden underwrote the Good Story Magazine Company. Macfadden titles like Ghost Stories and Flying Stories continued as Good Story publications. Other intended Macfadden pulps, like Thrills of the Jungle and Love and War Stories, originated as Good Story magazines.
In 1931, Macfadden purchased the assets of the Mackinnon-Fly magazine publishers, which gave him the pioneering sci-fi pulp Amazing Stories, several other titles. This made Good Story expendable and financial support was withdrawn immediately; the Teck titles lasted under Macfadden control until being sold in the late'30s, after which Macfadden was absent from the pulp field. Macfadden contributed to many articles and books including The Virile Powers of Superb Manhood, MacFadden's Encyclopedia of Physical Culture, Fasting for Health, The Milk Diet. Macfadden popularized the practice of fasting, associated with illnesses such as anorexia nervosa, he felt that fasting was one of the surest ways to physical health. Many of his subjects would fast for a week in order to rejuvenate their body, he claimed that "a person could exercise unqualified control over all types of disease while revealing a degree of strength and stamina such as would put others to shame" through fasting. He saw fasting as. Macfadden had photographs of himself taken before and after fasts to demonstrate their positive effects on the body.
For example, one photograph showed Macfadden lifting a 100-pound dumbbell over his head after a seven-day fast. He promoted fasting by appealing to racial prejudices, suggesting that fasting was a practice of self-denial that only civilized white men would choose to embrace. Macfadden acknowledged the difficulties of fasting and did not support it as an ascetic practice but rather because he believed its ultimate benefits outweighed its costs, he was opposed to the consumption of white bread, which he called the "staff of death". Macfadden established many "healthatoriums" in the eastern and midwestern states; these institutions offered educational programs such as "The Physical Culture Training School". Although he gained his reputation for physical culture and fitness, he gained much notoriety for his views on sexual behavior, he viewed intercourse as a healthy activity and not a procreative one. This was a different attitude, he attempted to found a "Physical Culture City" in Monroe Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, which folded after a few years and became the vacation-cabin neighborhood, suburban development of Outcalt.
Nicknamed "Body Love Macfadden" by Time – a moniker he detested – he was branded a "kook" and a charlatan by many, arrested on obscenity charges, denounced by the medical establishment. Throughout his life, he campaigned tirelessly against processed foods and prudery. Macfadden made an unsuccessful attempt to found a religion, "cosmotarianism", based on physical culture, he claimed that his regimen would enable him to reach the age of 150. His Macfadden Foundation established two boarding schools for young boys and girls in Westchester County, New York, the Macfadden School in Briarcliff Manor and the Tarrytown School in Tarrytown; the Macfadden School took the younger children, with some being as young as 3. On March 7, 1943, the advertisement in The New York Times Magazine for the Tarrytown School read: "To Meet the Needs of a Nation at War"; the boys at the Tarrytown School wore uniforms and were subject to military t