Xuanwu District, Nanjing
Xuanwu District is one of 11 districts of Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, China. Xuanwu District is an urban centre located in the north-eastern part of Nanjing, it is the site of the Nanjing Municipal Government. Xuanwu has administrative jurisdiction over the following 7 subdistricts: Defunct - Houzaimen Subdistrict merged into Meiyuan Xincun in 2012 The main industries in the district are the leisure and tourism, information technology and services, its economy is based upon the delivery of services. Industry zones include the Changjiang Road Cultural Area, Xinjiekou Central Economic Area, Xuzhuang Software Industry Base; the district has attracted multi-national corporations, such as 3M, American Express, Hyundai, Samsung, NYK Line, Cathay Life Insurance. There are more than 40 colleges and research institutes in the district, including Southeast University, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Forestry University and Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
There are about 35 academics from the Chinese Academy of Engineering and Chinese Academy of Sciences there, which represents about 50% of the academics from those academies in Jiangsu Province. Transportation within the district includes Line 1 and Line 2 of the Nanjing Metro have stations within the district. Other sources of transportation 20 or more minutes from the district are the Nanjing Railway Station, Shanghai-Nanjing Railway and Nanjing Lukou Airport; the scenic Xuanwu District is known for its tourists attractions like the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Xuanwu Lake and the Hongwu Emperor's Mausoleum, listed one of the Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties that are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The district has more than 58 percent green cover. Adjacent to Xuanwu Lake is the Nanjing International Exhibition Center
History of Brunei
The history of Brunei concerns the settlements and societies located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, under the influence of Indianised kingdoms and empires for much of its history. Islamisation of Brunei started in the fifteenth century, with the formation of the Bruneian Empire, a thalassocracy which covered the northern part of Borneo and the southern Philippines. At the end of 17th century, Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by Brunei Civil War and European colonial expansion. There was a brief war with Spain, in which Brunei lost Manila and evacuated their capital for a brief period until the Spanish withdrew; the empire lost much of its territory with the arrival of the Western powers, such as the Spanish in the Philippines and the British in Labuan and North Borneo. The decline of the Bruneian Empire accelerated in the nineteenth century when Brunei gave much of its territory to the White Rajahs of Sarawak, resulting in its current small landmass and separation into two parts.
Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin appealed to the British to stop further annexation in 1888. In the same year, the British signed a "Treaty of Protection" and made Brunei a British protectorate until 1984 when it gained independence and prospered due to the discovery of oil; the history of Brunei before the arrival of Magellan's ships is based on speculation and the interpretation of Chinese sources and local legends. Historians believe. One possible predecessor state was called Vijayapura, which existed in northwest Borneo in the 7th century, it was a subject state of the powerful Srivijaya empire based in Sumatra. One predecessor state was called Po-ni. By the 10th century Po-ni had contacts with first the Song dynasty and at some point entered into a tributary relationship with China. By the 14th century Po-ni fell under the influence of the Javanese Majapahit Empire; the book of Nagarakretagama, canto 14, written by Prapanca in 1365 mentioned Berune as a vassal state of Majahpahit. However this may have been nothing more than a symbolic relationship, as one account of the annual tribute owed each year to Majahpahit was a jar of areca juice obtained from the young green nuts of the areca palm.
The Ming dynasty resumed communications with Po-ni in the 1370s and the Po-ni ruler Ma-na-jih-chia-na visited the Ming capital Nanjing in 1408 and died there. The greater part of the official historical record for early Brunei until the arrival of Pigafetta is based on legends and assumptions; the historical account – lacking any real evidence – has been constructed in such a way that around 1370, Zhu Yuan Zhang sent representatives to Brunei and Indonesia, Brunei paid tribute to the Ming Chinese, which signified the strong influence of the Ming Dynasty and accounts for the combination of Ong Sum Ping's influence in Brunei. In these 30 years, the two main powers combined quickly; the Chinese expanded their influence from the East of the Kinabatangan River to Northern Borneo. In 1402, after the death of Sultan Muhammad Shah, his son Abdul Majid Hasan ascended the throne. Ong Sum Ping and Pengiran Temenggong became regents. Bruneian history has treated Hasan as the second Sultan. In 1406, after the death of Sultan Majid Hasan, there existed a two-year power vacuum.
During this two years, Bruneian nobles were locked in a power struggle. Ahmad thus became the second Sultan in Bruneian official History. Sultan Ahmad was married to a sister of Ong Sum Ping. To further cement his influence on the new sultan, Ong Sum Ping advised the sultan that a visit to China, a regional Asian power at that time was good. Thus, the new sultan sent Ong Sum Ping and several court officials as representatives to China to assure the new Ming Dynasty of continued tributary relationship. Ong Sum Ping and his entourage landed in the coastal region of Fujian. Advanced in age, Ong Sum Ping could not make the long journey back to Brunei, died in Nanjing. Prior to his death, he had pleaded with Emperor Yong Le to grant several wishes among which that Brunei continued to be a tributary kingdom, Sungai Kinabatangan and the surrounding area, decades ago under the province of the Mongol Yuan dynasty of China, be re-annexed as Chinese territory, that the highest mountain in the territory be named "Kinabalu" or "new China" or alternatively some say "Chinese Widow".
Emperor Yong Le granted his wish and further conferred upon Ong's son Awang as the new ruler, named the mountain of Brunei as Chang Ning Mountainجبل السلام – mean Jabel Alsalam in Arabic. In 1408, Awang returned to Brunei under the escort of Chinese Imperial eunuchs and soldiers. Awang succeeded to the position of Ong Sum Ping in Brunei, continued to exercise political power and influence upon the sultan; the Chinese still referred to him as Chung Ping – General. In 1412, he paid tribute to Emperor Yong Le; the wife of Ong Sum Ping was buried in Brunei at a location which the local Malays called Bukit Cina. The sister of Ong Sum Ping, the wife of Sultan Ahmad gave birth to a daughter; this daughter inherited the throne and her consort became Sultan Sharif Ali, who came from the Arabian Peninsula. Sultan Sharif Ali was a descendant of Muhammad; the granddaughter and the Arabian were the ancestors of today's sultan of Brunei. Bruneians today, still bel
Tourist Attraction Rating Categories of China
Tourist Attraction Rating Categories of China is a rating system used by the Chinese authorities to determine the quality of the attraction relative to its peers in terms of safety, cleanliness and transportation. It is broken up into five categories which are A, AA, AAA, AAAA and AAAAA; the categories are awarded based on, amongst other factors, the importance of the site, tours as well as issues related to safety and sanitation. The system was established in 1999 and extended in 2004; the ratings are administered by the China National Tourism Administration and are based on the code "Categories and Rating Standard of Tourist Attractions". Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level AAAAA Tourist Attractions of China List of 66 AAAAA spots on en.cnta.gov.cn
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Brunei the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace, is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is surrounded by the Malaysian state of Sarawak, it is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state on the island of Borneo. Brunei's population was 423,196 in 2016. At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah is alleged to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo; the maritime state was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War. During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline; the Sultanate ceded Sarawak to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906.
After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British. Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country, it has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, is classified as a "developed country". According to the International Monetary Fund, Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; the IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries with a public debt at 0% of the national GDP. Forbes ranks Brunei as the fifth-richest nation out of 182, based on its petroleum and natural gas fields. According to local historiography, Brunei was founded by Awang Alak Betatar to be Sultan Muhammad Shah, reigning around AD 1400.
He moved from Garang in the Temburong District to the Brunei River estuary. According to legend, upon landing he exclaimed, Baru nah, he was the first Muslim ruler of Brunei. Before the rise of the Bruneian Empire under the Muslim Bolkiah Dynasty, Brunei is believed to have been under Buddhist rulers, it was renamed "Barunai" in the 14th century influenced by the Sanskrit word "varuṇ", meaning "seafarers". The word "Borneo" is of the same origin. In the country's full name, Negara Brunei Darussalam, darussalam means "abode of peace", while negara means "country" in Malay; the earliest recorded documentation by the West about Brunei is by an Italian known as Ludovico di Varthema, who said the "Bruneian people have fairer skin tone than the peoples he met in Maluku Islands". On his documentation back to 1550; the people are men of goodwill. Their colour is whiter than that of the other sort... in this island justice is well administered... The settlement known as Vijayapura was a colony to the Buddhist Srivijaya empire and was thought to be located in Borneo's Northwest which flourished in the 7th Century.
In the aftermath of the Indian Chola invasion of Srivijaya, Datu Puti lead some dissident datus from Sumatra and Borneo in a rebellion against Rajah Makatunao, a Chola appointed local Rajah. The dissidents and their retinue tried to revive Srivijaya in a new country called Madja-as in the Visayas islands in the Philippines. One of the earliest Chinese records of an independent kingdom in Borneo is the 977 AD letter to Chinese emperor from the ruler of Po-ni, which some scholars believe to refer to Borneo. In 1225, a Chinese official, Chau Ju-Kua, reported that Po-ni had 100 warships to protect its trade, that there was a lot of wealth in the kingdom. In the 14th century, the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the constituent state of Hindu Majapahit, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor. In 1369, Sulu, formerly part of Majapahit, had rebelled and attacked Po-ni, looting it of treasure and gold. A fleet from Majapahit succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack.
A Chinese report from 1371 described Po-ni as poor and controlled by Majapahit. During the 15th century, Po-ni had seceded from Majapahit and converted to Islam, thus transforming into the independent Sultanate of Brunei. Brunei became a Hashemite state when she allowed the Arab Emir of Mecca, Sharif Ali, to become her third sultan. Scholars claim that the power of the Sultanate of Brunei was at its peak between the 15th and 17th centuries, with its power extending from northern Borneo to the southern Philippines and in the northern Philippines which Brunei incorporated via territorial acquisition accomplished through royal marriages. However, Islamic Brunei's power was not uncontested in Borneo since it had a Hindu rival called Kutai in the sou
Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei. He is the first and incumbent Prime Minister of Brunei; the eldest son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Damit, he succeeded to the throne as the Sultan of Brunei, following the abdication of his father on 5 October 1967. Sultan Hassanal was known as the Chairman of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in 2001 and 2013 due to the hosting of the ASEAN summits to those due dates; the Sultan has been ranked among the wealthiest individuals in the world. After Queen Elizabeth II, the Sultan is the world's second longest-reigning current monarch. On 5 October 2017, the Sultan celebrated his Golden Jubilee to mark the 50th year of his reign on the throne. In April 2019, it was announced that he had sponsored legislation to punish adultery and gay sex by stoning to death; the Sultan was born on 15 July 1946, in Istana Darussalam, Brunei Town as Pengiran Muda Hassanal Bolkiah. The Sultan received high school education at Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, after which he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom, graduating in 1967.
He became the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam on 5 October 1967. His coronation was held on 1 August 1968, made him the Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei. Like his father, he has been knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, of which Brunei was a protectorate until 1984. Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the Sultan is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers since 1962. On 9 March 2006, the Sultan was reported to have amended Brunei's constitution to make himself infallible under Bruneian law. Bolkiah, as Prime Minister, is the head of government. In addition, he holds the portfolios both of Minister of Minister of Finance; as Minister of Defense he is therefore the Supreme Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces, as well as an Honorary General in the British and Indonesian armed forces and an Honorary Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy. He appointed himself as Inspector General of Police of the Royal Brunei Police Force. Bolkiah addressed the United Nations General Assembly on Brunei Darussalam's admission to the United Nations in September 1984.
In 1991, he introduced a conservative ideology to Brunei called Melayu Islam Beraja, which presents the monarchy as the defender of the faith. He has favoured Brunei government democratisation and declared himself Prime Minister and President. In 2004, the Legislative Council, dissolved since 1962, was reopened, his designated successor is Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah. The Sultan's official residence is the Istana Nurul Iman, with 1,788 rooms, 257 bathrooms, a floor area of 2,152,782 square feet; the Istana houses several offices of government, including that of the Office of the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan, the Office of the Grand Chamberlain, as well as the offices within the Prime Minister's Department. Parts of the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Finance are located at the palace; the Crown Prince, the Senior Minister, works from offices at the Istana. Hyatt Borneo Management Services and HM The Sultan's flight maintain offices there; the University of Brunei Darussalam and Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University were established.
Technical and vocational institutions were built, such as the Brunei Technological University, Sultan Saiful Rijal Technical College, vocational schools. The religious Institute Tahfiz Al-Quran Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah was established. Scholarships for study in the country and abroad were provided for educational purposes; the Royal Brunei Armed Forces were expanded with the establishment of three major branches of the Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy and Royal Brunei Air Force. Medicines and medical treatment are free of charge to children and members of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces in hospitals and government clinics, subject to a small charge for others. There is one doctor per 949 patients; the life expectancy of the people and the country's population is 74.2 years for men and 77.3 years for women. Other facilities offered include various National Housing Plan Scheme, Land Allocation Scheme, the additional monthly pension on the elderly, subsistence allowances for widows and people with disabilities.
Hassanal Bolkiah established the Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation. In January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners created the honour of ‘Companion of the College’ to mark its 60th anniversary; the Sultan became the first recipient of this award in recognition of the work he has done to promote healthcare in Brunei and abroad. An auditorium in the College's headquarters at 30 Euston Square, London - where the Sultan was inaugurated - was named in his honour. Brunei Darussalam is a member of various international and regional organisations such as ASEAN, the Organisation of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement. Hassanal Bolkiah was chairman of Summit APEC Leaders in 2000 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit. Hassanal Bolkiah was the chairman of ASEAN Summit in 2013 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit. Hassanal Bolkiah attended various meetings of internatio
Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level
A Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level abbreviated as guobao, is one of 4,295 monuments listed as of significant historical, artistic or scientific value by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, the cultural relics administrative department of the State Council of China. Selected among Sites Protected at lower levels, Sites Protected at the National Level are lawfully the monuments with protection of the highest level in China, it is prohibited to demolish them. An approval by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage is required before a potential removal of such sites. In 1999 it was reported that there were some 350,000 immovable cultural properties in China, of which 70,000 were protected at one of the three main levels, in addition to some 10,000,000 movable cultural properties held by state institutions alone. Of these, as of October 2013, 4,295 Sites Protected at the National Level have been designated by the State Administration, they were announced in 7 batches and several supplemental batches: Sites Protected for Their Historical and Cultural Value or Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at various levels include: Major Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the National Level Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the Provincial Level Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the Level of a City Divided into Districts or at the Level of an Autonomous Prefecture Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the County Level Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China World Heritage Sites in China Tourist Attraction Rating Categories of China