Tommaso Buscetta

Tommaso Buscetta was an Italian mobster, a member of the Sicilian Mafia, who became one of the first of its members to turn informant and explain the inner workings of the organization. Buscetta participated in criminal activity in Italy, the United States and Brazil before being arrested and extradited from Brazil to Italy, he became disillusioned with the Mafia after the murders of several of his family members, in 1984, decided to cooperate with the authorities. He provided important testimony at the 1986/87 Maxi Trial, the largest anti-Mafia trial in history. After the murder of the judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, Buscetta gave further testimony to the Antimafia Commission linking Italian politicians to the Mafia. Buscetta entered the Witness Protection Program in the United States, where he remained until his death in 2000. Tommaso Buscetta was born on 13 July 1928, in Palermo, the youngest of 17 children. Buscetta was raised in a poverty-stricken area of Palermo, which he escaped by getting involved with crime at a young age.

He first became involved with the Sicilian Mafia in 1945, in the following years he became a full-fledged member of the Porta Nuova mandamento, where he worked in cigarette smuggling. Buscetta had three children. In 1949, he moved to Argentina and to Brazil, where he opened a glassworks store, but in 1956, he returned to Palermo where he joined Angelo La Barbera and Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco together with mafiosi Antonino Sorci, Pietro Davì and Gaetano Badalamenti, dealing with the cigarette and drug smuggling, he had one child. Two years he married his third wife Cristina De Almeida Guimarães after moving to Brazil, had four children. In 1958 he was arrested for cigarette smuggling and criminal association during an investigation conducted by the Guardia di Finanza against the Corsican Pascal Molinelli and the Tangerian Salomon Gozal, indicated as major suppliers of cigarettes and drugs for the Sicilian gangs. After the Ciaculli Massacre in 1963, part of an internal Mafia conflict known as the First Mafia War, he was wanted by police.

Buscetta fled to Switzerland, Mexico and the United States. In 1968, Buscetta was convicted in absentia by an Italian court of two murders related to the Ciaculli Massacre. On 25 August 1970, Buscetta was arrested in Brooklyn, New York, but was released on 4 December 1970. On 21 July 1971, an arrest warrant was issued by Italian police. Buscetta moved to Brazil, having undergone plastic surgery and vocal cord surgery, he set up a drug trafficking network, but on 3 November 1972, was arrested by the Brazilian military government, subsequently extradited to Italy one month where he began a ten year sentence at Palermo's Ucciardone prison for drug trafficking, reduced to eight years after appeal, he was transferred to the Le Nuove prison in Turin. In February 1980, he was granted "half-freedom" fleeing back to Brazil to escape the brewing Second Mafia War instigated by Salvatore Riina. On 11 September 1982, Buscetta's two sons from his first wife and Antonio, never to be found again, which prompted his collaboration with Italian authorities.

This was followed by the deaths of his brother Vincenzo, son-in-law Giuseppe Genova, brother-in-law Pietro and four of his nephews and Benedetto Buscetta, Orazio and Antonio D'Amico. The war subsequently led including Stefano Bontade. Buscetta was arrested in Sao Paulo, Brazil once again on 23 October 1983, he was extradited to Italy on 28 June 1984. Buscetta asked to talk to the anti-Mafia judge Giovanni Falcone, began his life as an informant, referred to as a pentito. Buscetta revealed information to Falcone for 45 days, explaining the inner workings and hierarchical structures of Cosa Nostra including the Sicilian Mafia Commission, until were unclear because of the strict code of silence; this became known as the "Buscetta theorem". However, Buscetta refused to speak with Falcone of the political ties of Cosa Nostra because, in his opinion, the State was not ready for statements of that magnitude, proved to be quite general on that subject. In December 1984, he was extradited to the United States where he received a new identity from the government, American citizenship and placed in the Witness Protection Program in exchange for new revelations against the American Mafia.

He testified in the Pizza Connection Trial, which took place in 1985 in New York and saw defendants Gaetano Badalamenti and other Sicilian-American mafiosi accused of drug trafficking. He testified in 1986 at the largest anti-Mafia trial in history, the Maxi Trial in Palermo, arising from the statements made to Falcone, Buscetta helped judges Falcone and Paolo Borsellino achieve significant success in the fight against organized crime that led to 475 Mafia members indicted, 338 convicted, sentences upheld in 1992. In mid-1992, following the bomb attacks in which Falcone and Borsellino were killed, Buscetta began to speak of the political ties of the Cosa Nostra with magistrates, accusing Salvo Lima, killed a few months earlier, Giulio Andreotti of being the main political referents of the organization.

Danny K. Davis

Daniel K. Davis is an American politician, the U. S. Representative from Illinois's 7th congressional district, elected in 1996; the district serves much including the Loop. It includes several of Chicago's inner western suburbs, such as Bellwood, Oak Park, River Forest. Davis is a Democrat and a member of the Congressional Black Caucus, the Progressive Caucus. Davis was one of 31 U. S. Representatives who voted against counting the electoral votes from Ohio in the 2004 presidential election. Davis was born in Parkdale and educated at Arkansas Agricultural and Normal College, Chicago State University, the Union Institute & University in Cincinnati, Ohio. Davis worked as a government clerk, a high school teacher, executive director of the Greater Lawndale Conservation Commission, director of training at the Martin L. King Neighborhood Health Center, executive director of the Westside Health Center before entering politics, where he represented Chicago's 29th Ward on the Chicago City Council from 1979 until 1990.

He challenged Congresswoman Cardiss Collins in Democratic primaries in 1984 and 1986, but lost both races. Davis was elected to the Cook County Board of Commissioners, serving from 1990 to 1996 before entering the House. Davis had waged an unsuccessful campaign against Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley in the 1991 Democratic mayoral primary. On December 6, 1995, Davis announced his candidacy for the 7th Congressional District, adding his name to the announced Democratic candidates, including Alderman Percy Z. Giles, Cook County Board of Commissioners member Bobbie L. Steele, Alderman Ed Smith, Alderman Dorothy Tillman. Five other Democratic candidates entered the race later: S. Mendenhall, Joan Sullivan, G. Winbush, Anthony Travis, Joan Powell, making it the largest field of candidates for U. S. Congress in Illinois for 1996. Davis resided a block outside the 7th Congressional District. Davis ran on the progressive Democratic platform popular in the district, he was pro-choice and supported gay rights, the ERA, single-payer health care, some federal support for child nutrition and care.

In early January 1996, the FBI revealed its Operation Silver Shovel, which included an investigation into Alderman Percy Z. Giles. What Operation Silver Shovel may have done to undermine Giles's chances for election are unclear as he was lagging with a mere 3% among Democratic primary voters in a mid-December poll compared to Davis’ 33%, Smith’s 8%, Tillman’s 7%, Steele’s 6%. However, up until Operation Silver Shovel Giles did have Mayor Richard M. Daley's support and that of other well-known area figures—some of whom continued their support during the controversy. On March 10, 1996, during a radio debate hosted by WMAQ-AM, Tillman and Smith called for Davis to reject the endorsement of former alderman candidate Wallace "Gator" Bradley, spokesman for convicted Gangster Disciples leader Larry Hoover. "Why do you keep badgering me with this question?" Davis replied. "You got a problem with something? You're not going to catch me going around saying I hate Gator Bradley… I'm not in the business of disavowing individuals.

The good Lord said he hated sin, but not sinners. I'm not hating Gator Bradley. I disagree with those who commit crime and those who'd use drugs, but you won't catch me going around saying that I hate Gator Bradley." Davis never rejected Bradley’s endorsement during the campaign and after winning the primary claimed that Bradley’s endorsement played no role in the outcome, though Bradley asserted the contrary. During the campaign, Tillman highlighted comments Davis made in an August 1970 issue of Ebony: "he white female gives the black man certain kinds of recognition that the black woman does not give him." The Davis campaign countered that Davis was speaking as a psychologist in his role as a training director at a health center. Although Davis was promoted as a Democratic candidate, he ran as a New Party candidate. Supporting this was New Party’s celebration of him as the "first New Party member elected to the U. S. Congress." Although the State of Illinois did not permit fusion voting, New Party advocated fusion voting as a means to promote their party and party agenda and to project New Party ideology into the mainstream Democratic Party.

Candidates were referred to as "NP Democrats" and were required to sign a contract mandating a "visible and active relationship" with New Party. During this timeframe, New Party was experiencing substantial growth. Davis received the endorsement of the Chicago Democratic Socialists of America of which he is a member and had a relationship pre-dating his congressional run. ACORN, AFL-CIO, Sierra Club, International Brotherhood of Teamsters are included in other groups endorsing Davis in his bid. In the March 20 Democratic primaries, Davis received more votes than the two closest candidates — Tillman and Smith — combined; the first five announced candidates all received more than double the five late-entering candidates with none of the latter receiving more than 2,700 votes. In the November 5 general election, Davis won with over 82 percent of the votes cast over Republican Randy Borow and third-party candidates Chauncey L. Stroud, Toietta Dixon, Charles A. Winter. United States House Committee on Ways and Means Chair of the Congressional Postal Caucus Regional Whip Congressional Progressive Caucus Congressional Arts Caucus Davis expressed interest in replacing John Stroger on the ballot in the 2006 race for President of the Cook County B

Celery powder

Celery powder is a dried, ground concentrate prepared from fresh celery, used as a seasoning and as a food preservative in organic meat products. Several commercial preparations exist, it can be made using a food dehydrator; some celery powders are prepared from celery juice. Celery powder contains a significant amount of occurring nitrate and is treated with bacterial cultures to produce nitrite. In the United States, treated celery powder is sometimes used as a food preservative in organic meat products, allowed per USDA regulations because the nitrate/nitrite is occurring. USDA regulations do not allow artificially added nitrate or nitrite to be used directly in organic food products. Meats preserved with celery powder include bacon. Celery powder prepared from celery juice has been shown to have a nitrate content of 2.75%. Beau monde seasoning Celery salt Garlic powder List of culinary herbs and spices Onion powder Video: Celery powder in cure meats, dyspelling myths.