Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, United States. It is the top university and the most selective institution of higher education in the state of Louisiana; the school is known to attract a geographically diverse student body, with 85 percent of undergraduate students coming from over 300 miles away. The school was founded as a public medical college in 1834, became a comprehensive university in 1847; the institution was made private under the endowments of Paul Tulane and Josephine Louise Newcomb in 1884. Tulane is the 9th oldest private university in the Association of American Universities, which consists of major research universities in the United States and Canada; the Tulane University Law School and Tulane University Medical School are considered the 12th oldest and 15th oldest law and medical schools in the United States. Alumni include prominent entrepreneurs and inventors in technology, medical devices, retail, mass media and public policy.
S. State governors. S. Senators. S. Members of Congress. S. diplomats. At least two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university; the university was founded as the Medical College of Louisiana in 1834 as a response to the fears of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera in the United States. The university became only the second medical school in the South, the 15th in the United States at the time. In 1847, the state legislature established the school as the University of Louisiana, a public university, the law department was added to the university. Subsequently, in 1851, the university established its first academic department; the first president chosen for the new university was Francis Lister Hawks, an Episcopalian priest and prominent citizen of New Orleans at the time. The university was closed from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. After reopening, it went through a period of financial challenges because of an extended agricultural depression in the South which affected the nation's economy.
Paul Tulane, owner of a prospering dry goods and clothing business, donated extensive real estate within New Orleans for the support of education. This donation led to the establishment of a Tulane Educational Fund, whose board of administrators sought to support the University of Louisiana instead of establishing a new university. In response, through the influence of former Confederate general Randall Lee Gibson, the Louisiana state legislature transferred control of the University of Louisiana to the administrators of the TEF in 1884; this act created the Tulane University of Louisiana. The university was privatized, is one of only a few American universities to be converted from a state public institution to a private one. Paul Tulane's endowment to the school specified that the institution could only admit white students, Louisiana law passed in 1884 reiterated this condition. In 1884, William Preston Johnston became the first president of Tulane, he had succeeded Robert E. Lee as president of Lee University after Lee's death.
He had become president of Louisiana State University. In 1885, the university established its graduate division becoming the Graduate School. One year gifts from Josephine Louise Newcomb totaling over $3.6 million, led to the establishment of the H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College within Tulane University. Newcomb was the first coordinate college for women in the United States and became a model for such institutions as Pembroke College and Barnard College. In 1894 the College of Technology formed, which would become the School of Engineering. In the same year, the university moved to its present-day uptown campus on historic St. Charles Avenue, five miles by streetcar from downtown New Orleans. With the improvements to Tulane University in the late 19th century, Tulane had a firm foundation to build upon as the premier university of the Deep South and continued this legacy with growth in the 20th century. In 1901, the first cornerstone was laid for the F. W. Tilton Library, endowed by New Orleans businessman and philanthropist Frederick William Tilton.
During 1907, the school established a four-year professional curriculum in architecture through the College of Technology, growing into the Tulane School of Architecture. One year Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy were established, albeit temporarily; the School of Dentistry ended in 1928, Pharmacy six years later. In 1914, Tulane established a College of the first business school in the South. In 1925, Tulane established the independent Graduate School. Two years the university set up a School of Social Work the first in the southern United States. Tulane was instrumental in promoting the arts in New Orleans and the South in establishing the Newcomb School of Art with William Woodward as director, thus establishing the renowned Newcomb Pottery; the Middle American Research Institute was established in 1925 at Tulane "for the purpose of advanced research into the history, tropical botany (
Atlantic Coast Conference
The Atlantic Coast Conference is a collegiate athletic conference in the United States of America in which its fifteen member universities compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the highest levels for athletic competition in US-based collegiate sports. The ACC sponsors competition in twenty-five sports with many of its member institutions' athletic programs held in high regard nationally. Current members of the conference are Boston College, Clemson University, Duke University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Florida State University, North Carolina State University, Syracuse University, the University of Louisville, the University of Miami, the University of North Carolina, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Wake Forest University. ACC teams and athletes have claimed dozens of national championships in multiple sports throughout the conference's history.
The ACC's top athletes and teams in any particular sport in a given year are considered to be among the top collegiate competitors in the nation. The conference enjoys extensive media coverage; the ACC was one of the five collegiate power conferences, which had automatic qualifying for their football champion into the Bowl Championship Series. With the advent of the College Football Playoff in 2014, the ACC is one of five conferences with a contractual tie-in to a New Year's Six bowl game, the successors to the BCS; the ACC was founded on May 8, 1953 by seven universities located in the South Atlantic States, with the University of Virginia joining in early December 1953 to bring the membership to eight. The loss of South Carolina in 1971 dropped membership to seven, while the addition of Georgia Tech in 1979 for non-football sports and 1983 for football brought it back to eight, Florida State's arrival in 1991 for non-football sports and 1992 for football increased the membership to nine. Since 2000, with the widespread reorganization of the NCAA, seven additional schools have joined, one original member has left to bring it to the current membership of 15 schools.
The additions in recent years extended the conference's footprint into the Midwest. ACC member universities represent a range of well-regarded private and public universities of various enrollment sizes, all of which participate in the Atlantic Coast Conference Academic Consortium whose purpose is to "enrich the educational missions the undergraduate student experiences, of member universities"; the ACC has 15 member institutions located within the borders of 10 states. Listed in alphabetical order, these 10 states within the ACC's geographical footprint are Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia; the geographic domain of the conference is predominantly within the Southern and Northeastern United States along the US Atlantic coast and stretches from Florida in the south to New York in the North and from Indiana in the west to Massachusetts farthest east. In two sports and baseball, the ACC is divided into two non-geographic divisions of seven teams each, labeled the "Atlantic" and "Coastal" divisions.
Notre Dame does not participate in ACC football and Syracuse does not participate in ACC baseball, leaving 14 total ACC schools for each of those sports. For all other sports, the ACC operates as a single unified league with no divisions; when Notre Dame joined the ACC, it chose to remain a football independent. However, its football team established a special scheduling arrangement with the ACC to play a rotating selection of five ACC football teams per season. Since July 1, 2014, the 15 members of the ACC are: On July 1, 2014, The University of Maryland departed for The Big Ten Conference as The University of Louisville joined from The American Athletic Conference. In 1971, The University of South Carolina left The ACC to become an independent joining The Metro Conference in 1983 and moving to its current home, The Southeastern Conference, in 1991. Full members Non-football members The ACC was established on June 14, 1953, when seven members of the Southern Conference left to form their own conference.
These seven universities became charter members of the ACC: Clemson, Maryland, North Carolina, North Carolina State, South Carolina, Wake Forest. They left due to that league's ban on post-season football play. After drafting a set of bylaws for the creation of a new league, the seven withdrew from the Southern Conference at the spring meeting on the morning of May 8, 1953 at the Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, North Carolina; the bylaws were ratified on June 14, 1953, the ACC was created, becoming the second conference formed by schools collectively withdrawing from the SoCon, after the Southeastern Conference. On December 4, 1953, officials convened in Greensboro, North Carolina, admitted Virginia, a SoCon charter member, independent since 1937, into the conference. In 1960, the ACC implemented a minimum SAT score for incoming student-athletes of 750, the first conference to do so; this minimum was raised to 800 in 1964, but was struck down by a federal court in 1972. On July 1, 1971, South Carolina left the ACC to become an independent.
The ACC operated with seven members until the addition of Georgia Tech from the Metro Conference, announced on April 3, 1978 and taking effect on July 1, 1979 except in football, in which Tech would remain an independent until joining ACC football in 1983. The total number of member schools reached nine with the addition of Florida State formerl
In North America, a bowl game is one of a number of post-season college football games that are played by teams belonging to the NCAA's Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. For most of its history, the Division I Bowl Subdivision had avoided using a playoff tournament to determine an annual national champion, instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players. In place of such a playoff, various cities across the United States developed their own regional festivals featuring post-season college football games. Prior to 2002, bowl game statistics were not included in players' career totals and the games were considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating teams. Despite attempts to establish a permanent system to determine the FBS national champion on the field, various bowl games continue to be held because of the vested economic interests entrenched in them. Bowl games featured the best teams in college football, with strict bowl eligibility requirements for teams to receive an invitation to a bowl game in a particular year.
The number of bowl games has grown, reaching 20 games by the 1997 season rapidly expanding beyond 30 games by the 2006 season and 40 team-competitive games by the 2015 season. The increase in bowl games has necessitated a significant easing of the NCAA bowl eligibility rules, since reduced to allow teams with non-winning 6–6 records and losing 5–6 and 5–7 seasons to fill some of the many available bowl slots; the term "bowl" originated from the Rose Bowl stadium, site of the first post-season college football games. The Rose Bowl Stadium, in turn, takes its name and bowl-shaped design from the Yale Bowl, the prototype of many football stadiums in the United States; the term has since become synonymous with any major American football event collegiate football with some significant exceptions. Two examples are the Egg Bowl, the name of the annual matchup between the Mississippi State Bulldogs and the Ole Miss Rebels, the Iron Bowl, a nickname given to the annual game between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Auburn Tigers.
In professional football, the names of the National Football League's "Super Bowl" and "Pro Bowl" are references to college football bowl games. The use of the term has crossed over into collegiate Canadian football. A notable example is the annual Banjo Bowl between the Winnipeg Blue Bombers and Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League. U Sports plays two semi-final "bowl games" before the Vanier Cup national championship game, the Uteck Bowl and the Mitchell Bowl; the matchups are determined on a conference rotation basis, with the Uteck Bowl being played at the easternmost host team, while the Mitchell is at the westernmost host team. The history of the bowl game began with the 1902 Tournament East-West football game, sponsored by the Tournament of Roses Association between Michigan and Stanford, a game which Michigan won 49-0; the Tournament of Roses sponsored an annual contest starting with the 1916 Tournament East-West Football Game. With the 1923 Rose Bowl it began to be played at the newly completed Rose Bowl stadium, thus the contest itself became known as the Rose Bowl game.
The name "bowl" to describe the games thus comes from the Rose Bowl stadium. Other cities saw the promotional value for tourism that the Tournament of Roses parade and Rose Bowl carried and began to develop their own regional festivals which included college football games; the label "bowl" was attached to the festival name though the games were not always played in bowl-shaped stadiums. The historic timing of bowl games, around the new year, is the result of two factors—warm climate and ease of travel; the original bowls began in warm climates such as Southern California, Louisiana and Texas as a way to promote the area for tourism and business. Since commercial air travel was either non-existent or limited, the games were scheduled well after the end of the regular season to allow fans to travel to the game site. While modern travel is more convenient, all but 5 of 41 bowl games are still located in cities below 36° N. Currently, college football bowl games are played from mid-December to early January.
As the number of bowl games has increased, the number of games a team would need to win to be invited to a bowl game has decreased. With a 12-game schedule, a number of teams with only 5 wins have been invited to a bowl game; as of the completion of the 2016 season, the University of Alabama has played in more bowl games than any other school, with 64 appearances. Alabama holds the record for most bowl victories with 37; as of the 2016 season, Florida State has the record of consecutive bowl births at 36 bowl appearances, however, it is not recognized by the NCAA due to the NCAA vacated FSU's 2006 Emerald Bowl victory over UCLA due to an academic issue. Virginia Tech Hokies have the longest active streak of consecutive bowl appearances with 25 recognized by the NCAA; the Rose Bowl was the only major college bowl game in 1930. By 1940, there were five major college bowl games: the Rose Bowl, the Sugar Bowl, the Cotton Bowl Classic, the Orange Bowl, the Sun Bowl. By 1950, the number had increased to eight games.
This figure of eight bowl games persisted t
William Christopher "Dabo" Swinney is an American college football coach. He is the head football coach at Clemson University. Swinney took over as head coach for the Clemson Tigers midway through the 2008 season, following the resignation of Tommy Bowden. Swinney has led the Tigers to two national championships in 2016 and 2018, he has the second-most wins of head coach in Clemson history behind Frank Howard. Swinney was raised in Pelham and attended the University of Alabama, where he joined the Crimson Tide football program as a walk-on wide receiver in 1989, he earned a scholarship and lettered on three teams, including the Crimson Tide's 1992 National Championship team. During his time as an undergraduate at Alabama, Swinney was twice named an Academic All-SEC and SEC Scholar Athlete Honor Roll member. In three seasons at Alabama, he caught 7 passes for 81 yards, he received his degree in commerce and business administration in 1993 as well as a master's degree in business administration from Alabama in 1995.
While completing work on his MBA, Swinney became a graduate assistant at Alabama under Gene Stallings. In December 1995, Swinney received his MBA from Alabama and became a full-time assistant coach for the Crimson Tide in charge of wide receivers and tight ends, he retained these posts under Mike DuBose. He was fired with all of DuBose's staff in early 2001. Swinney sat out the 2001 season while receiving his contractual payments from Alabama, his former strength coach at Alabama, Rich Wingo, had become president of Birmingham-based AIG Baker Real Estate and offered him a job. From April 2001 through February 2003, he did not coach and instead worked for AIG Baker Real Estate on development projects in Alabama. In 2002, his former position coach at Alabama, Tommy Bowden, made Swinney an offer to become wide receivers coach at Clemson, Swinney joined in 2003, he took over as Recruiting Coordinator from popular longtime coordinator Rick Stockstill. Swinney proved to be both an excellent wide receivers coach as well as recruiting coordinator, coaching ACC-leading receivers and being named one of the nation's top 25 recruiters in 2007 by Rivals.com.
Swinney was named the interim head football coach on October 13, 2008, after previous head coach Tommy Bowden resigned six games into the 2008 season. The Tigers had started the year ranked #9 in the preseason polls, but went 3–3 in their first six games. At the time he was informed of his promotion, he was working with the wide receivers on their upcoming game. With a reputation as a top-notch recruiter, Swinney was chosen over Clemson defensive coordinator Vic Koenning, associate head coach Brad Scott. Swinney's first actions as interim head coach were to fire offensive coordinator Rob Spence and introduce a new tradition, the "Tiger Walk", where all players and coaches walk through the parking lot outside Memorial Stadium about two hours before a game as they head inside for final game preparations. On November 1, 2008, Swinney claimed his first victory as the Tigers' head coach by defeating Boston College, breaking Clemson's six-game losing streak against the Eagles. On November 29, 2008, Swinney coached Clemson to a 31–14 win over South Carolina in the annual rivalry game, after which Clemson became bowl eligible.
After a vote of confidence from athletic director Terry Don Phillips, Swinney was formally named as Clemson's 27th head coach on December 1, 2008. In his first game as the full-time head coach, he lost the 2009 Gator Bowl to the Nebraska Cornhuskers 26-21. Swinney's recruiting reputation became evident when he produced five top-20 ESPN recruiting classes in a row, including top 10 classes in 2011 and 2012; as a result, Clemson was one of only 10 schools to be ranked in the top 20 of recruiting five years in a row, as of 2014 Swinney was one of only four active head coaches at the time accomplish the feat. Despite his recruiting reputation, Swinney was an unpopular hire among some Clemson fans; some fans and pundits noted. Others were skeptical. During the 2009 season, Swinney's first full season at the helm, Clemson was able to achieve several accomplishments; the 2009 team finished the season with a record of 9–5 to win the Atlantic Division title of the Atlantic Coast Conference. The 2009 season included three marquee wins: a win over #8 Miami in overtime on the road, a 16-point win over Florida State at home, a win over Kentucky 21–13 in the 2009 Music City Bowl.
Swinney coached the Clemson Tigers to a #24 AP Top 25 final season ranking for the 2009 football season. In 2010, Swinney led Clemson to a 6–6 regular season. Of the 6 losses in the 2010 season, 5 were by less than 10 points and 4 were by 6 points or less; the season included close losses to Cam Newton and the eventual national champion Auburn Tigers, the eventual division champion Florida State Seminoles. After the conclusion of the regular season, many fans called for the firing of both Swinney and athletic director Terry Don Phillips. Swinney would say years he expected to be fired after the regular season ended with a loss to South Carolina. Don Phillips instead allowed him to return for the 2011 season. Discontent with Swinney grew more after a bowl loss to South Florida made Clemson's final record 6-7, Clemson's first losing season since 1998. Swinney, 19-15
Kentucky Wildcats football
The Kentucky Wildcats football program represents the University of Kentucky in the sport of American football. The Wildcats compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Eastern Division of the Southeastern Conference; the Wildcats play their home games at Kroger Field in Lexington and are led by head coach Mark Stoops. Until about 1913, the modern University of Kentucky was referred to as "Kentucky State College" and nearby Transylvania University was known as "Kentucky University". In 1880, Kentucky University and Centre College played the first intercollegiate football game in Kentucky. Kentucky State first fielded a football team in 1881, playing three games against rival Kentucky University; the team was revived in 1891. Both the inaugural 1881 squad and the revived 1891 squad have unknown coaches according to university records in winning two games and losing three; the 1891 team's colors were blue and light yellow, decided before the Centre–Kentucky game on December 19.
A student asked "What color blue?" and varsity letterman Richard C. Stoll pulled off his necktie, held it up; this is still held as the origin of Kentucky's shade of blue. The next year light yellow was changed to white; the 1892 team was coached by A. M. Miller, went 2–4–1; the greatest UK team of this era was the 1898 squad, known to Kentuckians as "The Immortals." To this day, the Immortals remain the only undefeated and unscored upon team in UK football history. The Immortals were coached by W. R. Bass and ended the year a perfect 7–0–0, despite an average weight of 147 pounds per player. Victories came for this squad, as the Immortals raced by Kentucky University, Company H of the 8th Massachusetts, Louisville Athletic Club, Centre, 160th Indiana and Newcastle Athletic Club. Head coach Jack Wright led the team to a 7–1 record in 1903, losing only to rival and southern champion Kentucky University. Fred Schacht died unexpectedly after his second season. J. White Guyn had success leading the Wildcats, posting a 17–7–1 record in his three years.
Edwin Sweetland resigned due to poor health. Sweetland served as Kentucky's first athletics director; the 1909 team upset the Illinois Fighting Illini. Upon their welcome home, Philip Carbusier said that they had "fought like wildcats," a nickname that stuck. John J. Tigert coached Kentucky for two seasons with each season having one loss. 1915 captain Charles C. Schrader was All-Southern; the 1916 team fought the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association co-champion Tennessee Volunteers to a scoreless tie. The year's only a loss, 45 to 0 to the Irby Curry-led Vanderbilt Commodores, was the dedication of Stoll Field. Quarterbacks Curry and Kentucky's Doc Rodes were both selected All-Southern at year's end. Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin stated "If you would give me Doc Rodes, I would say he was a greater player than Curry."Coach Harry Gamage had a 32–25–5 record during his seven seasons from 1927 to 1933. A. D. Kirwan, who would go on to be the president of the university, coached the Wildcats from 1938 to 1944 and posted a 24–28–4 record in those six seasons.
Longtime athletics director Bernie Shively served as Kentucky's head football coach for the 1945 season. Coach Paul "Bear" Bryant was Kentucky's head football coach for eight seasons. Bear Bryant came to Kentucky from Maryland. Under Bryant's tutelage, the Wildcats won the 1947 Great Lakes Bowl, lost the 1950 Orange Bowl, won the 1951 Sugar Bowl and the 1952 Cotton Bowl Classic. In final AP polls, the Wildcats were ranked No. 11 in 1949, No. 7 in 1950, No. 15 in 1951, No. 20 in 1952 and No. 16 in 1953. The final 1950 poll was taken prior to the bowl games. Bryant won SEC Coach of the Year honors in 1950 and left after eight seasons to accept the head football coach position at Texas A&M. Assistant coaches at Kentucky under Bryant who went on to become head coaches include Paul Dietzel, Frank Moseley, Jim Owens and Phil Cutchin. Notable players who played for Bryant at Kentucky include Howard Schnellenberger, Jim Mackenzie, Jerry Claiborne, Steve Meilinger, George Blanda, Vito Parilli, Bob Gain.
Cleveland Browns assistant Blanton Collier was hired to replace Bryant as head football coach at Kentucky in late 1953. After completing his first season at Kentucky, Collier was named SEC Coach of the Year after posting a 7–2 record. Collier's assistants during his tenure at Kentucky included the likes of Bill Arnsparger, Chuck Knox, Howard Schnellenberger, Don Shula. Despite having a winning record, 41–36–3 in eight seasons, Collier was fired. Collier struggled to recruit for much of his tenure, about which frustrated fans wrote letters of complaint to the university. Collier is the last Kentucky head football coach to leave the Wildcats with a winning record. Charlie Bradshaw, an Alabama assistant under Bear Bryant, was hired to replace the fired Collier. Despite all the hype about being a Bear Bryant assistant, Bradshaw's tenure turned out to be a disappointment, as he was unable to have much success with the Wildcats, he had a 25–41–5 record in seven seasons. Bradshaw is the last Kentucky coach to defeat Tennessee twice in Knoxville, the last Kentucky coach to defeat Auburn twice.
He was the last to defeat a No. 1 ranked team in the country until Rich Brooks in 2007. Bradshaw, a harsh, brutal coach, was the head coach of the infamous Thin Thirty Kentucky team. Kentucky had 88 players when Bradshaw arrived, but b
Tulane Green Wave football
The Tulane Green Wave football team represents Tulane University in the sport of American football. The Green Wave compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the American Athletic Conference; the football team is coached by Willie Fritz, plays its home games in Yulman Stadium on its campus in Uptown New Orleans. Tulane has affiliated with multiple conferences. Independent Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Southern Conference Southeastern Conference Independent Conference USA American Athletic Conference Tulane has won nine conference football championships in four different conferences, its three Southeastern Conference titles are more than seven current members of the SEC: Arkansas, Mississippi State, South Carolina, Texas A&M, Vanderbilt. † Co-championship † Co-championship Tulane has played in 12 official bowl games, with the Green Wave garnering a record of 5–7. Tulane played in the Bacardi Bowl in 1909, playing the Havana Athletic Club, losing 11–0.
This was not sanctioned by the NCAA, thus the Green Wave do not recognize the bowl appearance. Notably, Tulane's first bowl win was the inaugural Sugar Bowl, played in their home stadium; the team has had 39 head coaches and 1 interim head coach since Tulane began playing football in 1893. 12 coaches have led the program to postseason bowl games: R. R. Brown, Bernie Bierman, Ted Cox, Red Dawson, Jim Pittman, Bennie Ellender, Larry Smith, Vince Gibson, Mack Brown, Tommy Bowden, Chris Scelfo, Curtis Johnson. While Tommy Bowden led the 1998 team to a perfect 11–0 regular season and the 1998 Liberty Bowl, Chris Scelfo coached the team during that game. Six coaches led the team to conference championships: Clark Shaughnessy, Bernie Bierman, Ted Cox, Red Dawson, Henry E. Frnka, Tommy Bowden. Clark Shaughnessy and Chris Scelfo are tied as the all-time leaders in games coached at Tulane with 94 each. Clark Shaughnessy is the all-time leader in total wins; the Green Wave have played their home games in Yulman Stadium on its Uptown campus since 2014.
Prior to that season, Tulane played home games in the Louisiana Superdome for nearly 40 seasons, in its previous on-campus venue, the third Tulane Stadium, before that. The Green Wave have played at the second Tulane Stadium, first Tulane Stadium, Athletic Park and Crescent City Base Ball Park; because Tulane's campus is landlocked within Uptown New Orleans, Yulman is fit within its athletic footprint and directly abutting the surrounding neighborhood. The stadium was constructed with the ability to expand. Tulane's biggest and oldest rival was LSU, it began in 1893 with a 34–0 Green Wave victory over the Tigers. The teams stopped meeting every year in the Battle for the Rag in 2009; the rivalry became less competitive after 1948, until Tulane broke a 25-game non-winning streak in 1973 with a 14–0 victory in front of a Tulane Stadium record crowd of 86,598 in the final installment of the long-time rivalry played on Tulane's campus. Between 1979 and 1982, Tulane won three out of four games against the Tigers.
The two schools stopped playing annually after the 1994 game. As a condition of the broken series agreement made in 2006, a potential future game will be played in a future season in New Orleans. LSU leads the series 69–23–7 through the 2018 season. Known as the Battle for the Bell, Tulane's rivalry with Southern Miss was played yearly from 1979 until 2006 and alternates sites between New Orleans and Hattiesburg, Mississippi; as a result of Conference USA splitting into East and West divisions in 2005, the game was played two out of every four years. The rivalry was put on hold as a result of Tulane's move to The American Athletic Conference in 2014, but in 2017 the schools announced new games slated for 2022, 2023, 2026, 2027. Southern Miss leads the series 23–7 through the 2018 season. Tulane leads the series with Auburn 17–14–6 through the 2018 season. Ole Miss leads the series 43–28 through the 2018 season; the Tulane University Marching Band was founded in 1920 as a military band. It dissolved shortly after the team's move to the Superdome in the 1970s and did not formally return until 2006.
The TUMB performs in Mardi Gras parades each spring. Riptide the Pelican debuted in 1998 with the re-branding of Tulane athletics. Prior to that, the school used an angry wave nicknamed "Gumby" by fans, before that a John Chase creation named "Greenie." Tulane has had 19 players named to first-team All-America teams. Of those 19, five were consensus selections, with one being a unanimous selection. Records current as of November 24, 2018 Staff as of November 23, 2018. Announced schedules as of December 14, 2018. Beginning in 2015 with the addition of Navy as a football-only member, the American Athletic Conference began its two-division alignment, with Tulane in the West Division with Houston, Navy, SMU, Tulsa. Division members play each other each year, as well as 3 members each year from the opposite division, on a rotating basis. American Athletic Conference List of NCAA Division I FBS football programs Official website
Bowl Championship Series
The Bowl Championship Series was a selection system that created five bowl game match-ups involving ten of the top ranked teams in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of American college football, including an opportunity for the top two teams to compete in the BCS National Championship Game. The system was in place for the 1998 through 2013 seasons and in 2014 was replaced by the College Football Playoff; the BCS relied on a combination of polls and computer selection methods to determine relative team rankings, to narrow the field to two teams to play in the BCS National Championship Game held after the other college bowl games. The American Football Coaches Association was contractually bound to vote the winner of this game as the BCS National Champion and the contract signed by each conference required them to recognize the winner of the BCS National Championship game as the official and only champion; the BCS was created to end split championships and for the champion to win the title on the field between the two teams selected by the BCS.
The system selected match-ups for four other prestigious BCS bowl games: the Rose Bowl Game, Fiesta Bowl, Sugar Bowl and Orange Bowl. The ten teams selected included the conference champion from each of the six Automatic Qualifying conferences plus four others; the BCS was created by formal agreement by those six conferences and the three FBS independent schools, evolved to allow other conferences to participate to a lesser degree. For the 1998 through 2005 seasons eight teams competed in four BCS bowls, it had been in place since the 1998 season. The BCS replaced the Bowl Alliance, in place from 1995 to 1997, which had followed the Bowl Coalition, in place from 1992 to 1994. Prior to the Bowl Coalition's creation in 1992, the AP Poll's number one and two teams had met in a bowl game only eight times in 56 seasons; the AP's top two teams met 13 out of the 16 seasons. In the 2014 season, the BCS was discontinued and replaced by the College Football Playoff, which organizes a four-team playoff and national championship game.
The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision is the only NCAA-sponsored sport without an organized NCAA tournament to determine its champion. Instead, the postseason has consisted of individual bowl games; the bowl system began in 1902 with the first East-West game in Pasadena, held at Tournament Park on New Year's Day in conjunction with the Tournament of Roses parade. This game was an exhibition game pitting a rated team from the west coast against a team from east of the Mississippi River; this was an ideal time for a postseason game, as fans could take off work or school during this holiday period to travel to the game. In the first game, the University of Michigan Wolverines represented the east and defeated the west's representative Stanford by a score of 49–0. Due to the lopsided victory the game did not resume until 1916; the game was renamed the Rose Bowl in the 1920s when play shifted to the Rose Bowl stadium, built by the city of Pasadena in conjunction with the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association.
By the 1930s, the Cotton Bowl Classic, Orange Bowl, the Sugar Bowl were held on January 1 to showcase teams from other regions of the country. By the 1940s, college football conferences began signing contracts that tied their championship team to a particular bowl. In 1947, the Big Ten Conference and the Pacific Coast Conference, a forerunner of today's Pac-12 Conference, agreed to commit their champions to play in the Rose Bowl every year, an agreement that continued under the BCS; this system raised the possibility that the two top-ranked teams in the final poll would not play each other in a bowl game in situations when there was a clear-cut top two. Indeed, since the AP began releasing its final poll after the bowl games in 1968, the two top-ranked teams in the final regular-season AP Poll had only played each other in a bowl six times until special bowl arrangements began in 1992. Under these circumstances, it was not uncommon to have the Coaches Poll crown a different national champion than the AP Poll, resulting in a split championship.
This situation arose a total of ten different seasons. For example, in 1991, the University of Miami Hurricanes and the University of Washington Huskies both finished the regular season undefeated and were considered the strongest teams in the nation. Since the Huskies were locked into the Rose Bowl as the Pac-10 Conference champion against Big Ten champion Michigan, they could not play then-independent Miami, who played in the Orange Bowl. Both teams won their bowl games convincingly and shared the national championship, Miami winning the Associated Press poll and Washington earning the top spot in the Coaches Poll. A split national championship has happened on several occasions since as well. Other teams have won the national championship despite playing weaker schedules than other championship contenders; the BYU Cougars ended the 1984 season as the only undefeated and untied team in the nation, the nine-time defending champions of the Western Athletic Conference. The Cougars opened the sea