Brisbane Roar FC
Brisbane Roar Football Club is a professional Australian soccer club based in Brisbane, Queensland. and has won the domestic title on three separate occasions, as well as holding the longest unbeaten record of 36 league matches without defeat. Brisbane competes in the country's premier competition, the A-League, under licence from Football Federation Australia; the club was formed in 1957 as Hollandia-Inala, became Brisbane Lions, before it transitioned into Queensland Roar, playing under that name from the inaugural 2005–06 season of the A-League until the 2008–09 season. Since joining the A-League, the club has won two league Premierships, three Championships and has competed in five AFC Champions League competitions. Brisbane Roar holds the record for the longest unbeaten run at the top level of any Australian football code, which stands at 36 league matches without defeat. Brisbane Roar are the first and only club to win back to back Hyundai A-League Championships; the club plays home matches at Suncorp Stadium, a 52,500 seat multi-use venue in Milton, with First team training taking place at Logan Heritage Park which hosts the clubs administration staff.
In March 2018, the club relocated its Playing and Administration Headquarters to a purpose built, $9 million Center-of-Excellence in Logan hosting training, sports science and medical facilities for the A League team, W-League team and over 16 youth development teams. The youth team competes in the National Youth League and the women's team competes in the W-League. Commencing in 2014, the youth and women's teams compete in the NPL Queensland in order to maintain fitness and further develop their abilities; the youth team competes in the senior men's division while the women's team compete in the U15 boy's division. The youth and women matches are played at various locations across Brisbane, including Heritage Park, Goodwin Park, QSAC, A. J. Kelly Park, Perry Park and Suncorp Stadium; the origins of Brisbane Roar are traced back to the founding of Hollandia-Inala in 1957, by Dutch immigrants. The club was based in the Brisbane suburb of Richlands. After adopting the name Brisbane Lions in the 1970s, the club joined the National Soccer League as one of the founding clubs in the 1977 season and competed until the end of the 1988 season before reverting down to the Brisbane Premier League thereafter.
In the 1990s, the club again changed its name to Queensland Lions after coming to an agreement with the Australian rules football club, Brisbane Lions. At the time of conception of the A-League, teams from several capital cities were preferred to form the foundation clubs. By June 2004, two of the twenty submissions for joining the league were sought by partnerships formed in Brisbane, the capital of Queensland. On 1 November 2004, the group headed by Queensland Lions were chosen as operators of the Brisbane team. On 2 March the following year, Queensland Roar FC were announced; the clubs's first-ever board consisted of chairman John Ribot, a former CEO of both National Rugby League clubs Brisbane Broncos and Melbourne Storm, deputy chairman Gary Wilkins, former Queensland and Australian international player, CEO Lawrence Oudendyk, Queensland Lions CEO. Miron Bleiberg was appointed as the Queensland Roar's inaugural manager on 2 March 2005. Under pressure from the fans to deliver on his promises of attractive and successful football he resigned on 12 November 2006 following a poor start to the 2006–07 season.
After much speculation, Bleiberg was replaced by former Australian national team coach, Frank Farina just three days after Bleiberg's resignation. Frank Farina's arrival led to a mini-revival which saw the club narrowly miss out on what would have been the Roar's first finals appearance, on goal difference; the 2007–08 season, saw Farina make up for the shortfall of the previous season, qualifying for the finals for the first time in the club's history. A memorable performance in the second leg of the semi-final saw the Roar defeat arch rivals 2–0 Sydney FC in front of a club record 36,221 fans to qualify for the preliminary final against the Newcastle Jets; the Roar would controversially lose 3–2 to the Newcastle side, who would go on to win the Grand Final. Farina again qualified for the finals in 2008–09, where the Roar dispatched of Central Coast Mariners 4–2 on aggregate, however they lost, again in the preliminary final, to Adelaide United after failing to capitalise on their dominance.
In 2009, the club was renamed to Brisbane Roar Football Club due to two other Queensland-based clubs entering the competition. On 10 October 2009, Farina was arrested by Queensland Police for Driving under the influence, he was suspended by the Roar and asked to show cause as to why he should not be sacked for tarnishing the name of the club. It was announced that assistant manager, Rado Vidošić would step into a caretakers role until a decision had been made which would include the M1 Derby, which the Roar lost 1–0 at home. Farina was sacked on 14 October 2009, with the club tasked with finding a replacement for the remainder of the 2009–10 season. Ange Postecoglou arrived mid-season armed with the task of picking up the pieces of a season in tatters. Postecoglou's first season ended as the worst in the club's short history, finishing second from the bottom. Postecoglou completed a turn-around in the 2010–11 season, he made wholesale changes to the squad, commencing with the replacement of the "old-guard" of Charlie Miller, Craig Moore and Danny Tiatto and brought in his own squad, a mixture of youth and talented experience.
Under his brand of possession/attacking
Gold Coast City FC
Gold Coast City FC,is an Australian semi-professional soccer club based in Gold Coast, Queensland. The club was formed in 1966 as Palm Beach SC before changing their name in 2016 when joining the Queensland NPL; the club competes in the National Premier League Queensland. In 1964 Eddie Wardell organised a group of boys, one of, his son, to play football out of Palm Beach and compete in a three team football competition against Kingscliff and Twin Towns; the first game for Palm Beach was held at Salk Oval and the team members wore plain green T-shirts but the team would move to a council paddock located in Palm Beach. By 1965 the local Gold Coast Association football competition wanted a presence in Palm Beach and invited the team to join the local junior competitions; the first official playing strip was debuted in 1965, a plain T-shirt that embossed with a single blue stripe. In 1966 the team incorporated three teams. During sign on time it was decided the team needed to unofficially become a club and held its inaugural meeting in the Currumbin RSL.
Neville Cripps, a father of a Palm Beach player, was elected the first president and names for the club began being thrown around. Names such as Palm Beach Hotspurs and Palm Beach Pilchards were put forward at the meeting but Palm Beach Currumbin Soccer Club was voted the winner. In 1966 the club began wearing playing strip, a white shirt emblazoned with a large blue vee. 1971 saw the council reclaim the playing field of the club and urgent calls to council were made which led to a field behind the Tugun Bowls Club becoming their new home ground. With the team being located in Tugun their official name was changed to the Palm Beach Currumbin Tugun Soccer Club; the following year while John Neumann was developing the suburb of Palm Beach he suggested to the club that they should attempt to be given two recreational fields in Mallawa Drive, Palm Beach. Club president Mal Sutherland met with the council which would lead to the club being given two fields at their present location on Mallawa Drive.
The Palm Beach Currumbin Lions Football Club donated the blue and white striped strip that the club would begin wearing. The Gold Coast Association decided in 1975 to begin a senior football competition and the following year Palm Beach would enter their first senior team. By 1977 the building of a clubhouse began as well as the instalment of the floodlights which allowed the club to hold night training sessions. In 1979 a club meeting was held which resulted in the decision for the club to become the first soccer club on the Gold Coast to register as a limited company. 1979 saw Palm Beach enter an under 16s team in the Brisbane South competition in an attempt to attract higher quality players to begin playing on the Gold Coast and more at Palm Beach. 1983 saw the additional of more floodlights which allowed the club to host night matches as well as the club introducing the shark as the emblem and become the Palm Beach Sharks. In June 1992 the club was granted a full licence by the Licensing Commission which allowed the Sharks apply and be given permission to install poker machines.
Thirty year anniversary celebrations took place for the Sharks in 1997 at the Currumbin RSL, the venue in which the club held their first meeting 31 years earlier. In 2000 the Sharks were invited to compete in the Brisbane-based State League; the Sharks would prove their worth in 2005 by capturing the minor premiership, the premier cup as well as finishing runner up in the championship. In 2008 the club would withdraw senior teams from all Brisbane competition due to a lack of funds. In October 2012 it was announced that Football Federation Australia granted the Palm Beach Sharks a five-year licence into the newly formed National Premier Leagues Queensland along with teams from Brisbane, Moreton Bay, Sunshine Coast and Townsville. From 2016 Palm Beach teams competing in the National Premier Leagues Competitions are called Gold Coast City FC, to represent all the Gold Coast community. Brisbane Premier League Premiers: 2005 Brisbane Premier Cup Winners: 2005 NPL Queensland Champions: 2014 Premiers: 2014 Official website
Ipswich Town F.C.
Ipswich Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in Ipswich, England. They play in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system, having last appeared in the Premier League in the 2001–02 season; the club was founded in 1878 but did not turn professional until 1936, was subsequently elected to join the Football League in 1938. They play their home games at Portman Road in Ipswich; the only professional football club in Suffolk, they have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with Norwich City in Norfolk, with whom they have contested the East Anglian derby 148 times since 1902. The club's traditional home colours are white shorts. Ipswich have won the English league title once, in their first season in the top flight in 1961–62, have twice finished runners-up, in 1980–81 and 1981–82, they won the FA Cup in 1977–78, the UEFA Cup in 1980–81. They have competed in all three European club competitions, have never lost at home in European competition, defeating Real Madrid, A.
C. Milan, Inter Milan and Barcelona, among others; the club was founded as an amateur side in 1878 and were known as Ipswich A. F. C. until 1888 when they merged with Ipswich Rugby Club to form Ipswich Town Football Club. The team won a number of local cup competitions, including the Suffolk Challenge Cup and the Suffolk Senior Cup. After playing in the Norfolk & Suffolk League from 1899 and the South East Anglian League between 1903 and 1906, they joined the Southern Amateur League in 1907 and, with results improving became champions in the 1921–22 season; the club won the league a further three times, in 1929–30, 1932–33 and 1933–34, before becoming founder members of the Eastern Counties Football League at the end of the 1934–35 season. A year the club turned professional and joined the Southern League, which they won in its first season and finished third in the next. Ipswich were elected to The Football League on 30 May 1938, played in Division Three until the end of the 1953–54 season, when they won the title and promotion to Division Two.
The club were relegated back to Division Three the following year at the end of a poor season, but made better progress after Scott Duncan was replaced as team manager by Alf Ramsey in August 1955. The club won the Division Three title again in 1956–57, returned to the higher division; this time, Ipswich established themselves in Division Two, as the division champions, won promotion to the top level of English football, Division One, in 1960–61. In the top flight for the first time, Ipswich became Champions of the Football League at the first attempt in 1961–62; as English league champions, they qualified for the 1962–63 European Cup, defeating Maltese side Floriana 14–1 on aggregate before losing to A. C. Milan. Ramsey left the club in April 1963 to take charge of the England national team. Ramsey was replaced by Jackie Milburn. Two years after winning the league title, Ipswich slipped down to the Second Division in 1964, conceding 121 league goals in 42 games – one of the worst-ever defensive records in English senior football.
Milburn quit after just one full season and was replaced by Bill McGarry in 1964. The club remained in the Second Division for four years until McGarry guided Ipswich to promotion along with his assistant Sammy Chung in the 1967–68 season, winning the division by a single point ahead of Queens Park Rangers. McGarry left to manage Wolves and was replaced by Bobby Robson in January 1969. Robson led Ipswich to several seasons in top flight European football; the successful period began in 1973 when the club won the Texaco Cup and finished fourth in the league, qualifying for the UEFA Cup for the first time. In the 1974–75 season they reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup for the first time, losing to West Ham United after a replay, finished 3rd in the league. By the late 1970s, Robson had built a strong side with talent in every department, introducing the Dutch pair Arnold Mühren and Frans Thijssen to add flair to a team that featured British internationals including John Wark, Terry Butcher and Paul Mariner, although the Ipswich squad lacked the depth of established big clubs like Liverpool and Manchester United.
Ipswich featured in the top five of the league and in the UEFA Cup. At their peak in the 1979–80 season, they beat Manchester United 6–0 in a league game at Portman Road, a game where United goalkeeper Gary Bailey saved three penalties; the defeat cost United two points – the margin which separated them and champions Liverpool. Major success came in 1978 when Ipswich beat Arsenal at Wembley Stadium to win their only FA Cup trophy; the triumph was followed by a UEFA Cup victory in 1981 with a 5–4 victory over AZ Alkmaar in the two-legged final. The run to the final included a 4–1 win at St Etienne, captained at the time by Michel Platini.. The club finished as league runners-up in 1981 and 1982. Robson's success with Ipswich had attracted the attention of many bigger clubs, he had been linked with the Manchester United job when Dave Sexton was sacked in May 1981, but the job went to Ron Atkinson instead, it was the Football Association who lured Robson away from Portman Road a year when he accepted their offer to manage the England national team in July 1982.
His successor at Ipswich was his assistant manager Bobby Ferguson. Under Ferguson, Town finished mid-table twice, but worsening performances meant that they began to struggle in the top division; the recent construction of an expensive
2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup
The 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup was the 18th FIFA U-20 World Cup. Colombia hosted the tournament between 29 July and 20 August 2011, with matches being played in eight cities; the tournament was won by Brazil. At a FIFA Executive Committee meeting held in Sydney on 26 May 2008, Colombia beat the only other candidate country, for the right to organize the U-20 World Cup, it was suggested by the then-Vice President of Colombia Francisco Santos Calderón that it was needed to withdraw from the race with Brazil to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup so the nation could concentrate on hosting the "best possible games". In an inspection tour of development works in March 2010, Jack Warner the vice president of FIFA, said that the completion of this tournament could provide Colombia with a launch pad to become a possible host for the 2026 World Cup; the official song of the tournament was "Nuestra Fiesta" by Colombian singer Jorge Celedón. The venues that were confirmed on 29 September 2010 are located in Bogotá, Medellín, Armenia, Cartagena and Barranquilla.
During an announcement about the ticketing procedures for Colombian residents, it was confirmed that the opening game would be held at the Estadio Metropolitano Roberto Meléndez in Barranquilla, with the Estadio El Campín hosting the final match. In addition to host nation Colombia, 23 nations qualified from six separate continental competitions; the draw for the group stage was held on 27 April 2011, at the Julio Cesar Turbay Ayala Convention Centre in Cartagena. The seedings were; the winners and runners-up from each group, as well as the best four third-placed teams, will qualify for the first round of the knockout stage. Tie-breaking criteriaWhere two or more teams end the group stage with the same number of points, their ranking is determined by the following criteria: goal difference in all group matches. Ranking of third place teams in each group are determined by the following criteria, top four advances to the round of 16: number of points goal difference in all group matches. All times are in Colombia Time.
5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal 1 own goal The following awards were given: In late 2009 the Colombian Football Federation unveiled the budget for conducting the event, to be COP 150 billion. On 30 September 2009, the presidents of both FIFA and Colombia announced that the logo would show a steaming cup of coffee with the colours of the Colombian tricolour. Prior to the start of the tournament, the Estadio Metropolitano Roberto Meléndez in Barranquilla hosted the Opening Ceremony, involving local musical performances and guests including Jorge Celedón, Barranquilla's Carnival Performers, Checo Acosta and Maía; the Estadio El Campín in Bogotá hosted the Closing Ceremony. The show was managed by the Ibero-American Theater Festival and Teatro Nacional de Colombia and, like the opening ceremony, included musical performances. FIFA U-20 World Cup Colombia 2011, FIFA.com RSSSF > FIFA World Youth Championship > 2011 FIFA Technical Report
Harold Kewell is an Australian football coach and former player, most the manager of League Two club Notts County. Kewell played for Leeds United, Galatasaray, Melbourne Victory, Al-Gharafa and Melbourne Heart. While at Leeds he was named the PFA Young Player of the Year in 2000. Internationally he has received 58 caps, scored 17 goals, while playing for the Australian national team. A left winger capable of playing as an attacking midfielder or second striker, he is regarded within the media as "Australia's finest football export", despite his career being blighted with injury. In 2012, Kewell was named Australia's greatest footballer in a vote by Australian fans and media. Kewell scored a goal against Croatia which took Australia through to the knockout stages of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the Australian national team's second World Cup, he is a member of the Executive Committee of the Australian Professional Footballers' Association. Kewell has a British passport through his father's heritage.
Former Middlesbrough midfielder-turned pundit Robbie Mustoe named Kewell as one of the greatest players he had played against but questioned his consistency and attitude after his initial injuries. Former German international Michael Ballack has highlighted Kewell's ability and inconsistency. Kewell has represented Australia at the 1995 FIFA U-17 World Championship, the 1997 FIFA Confederations Cup, where Australia finished runners-up, the 2004 OFC Nations Cup, which Australia claimed for the fourth time, the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the 2007 AFC Asian Cup, the 2010 FIFA World Cup and the 2011 AFC Asian Cup, where Australia finished runners-up. Kewell was born on 22 September 1978 in Sydney to an English father, an Australian mother, Helen. Harry grew up supporting Liverpool in English football's First Division. Kewell received his early schooling at Smithfield Public School and secondary schooling at St. Johns Park High School before transferring to Westfield Sports High School. During his time at Westfields Sports High School, Kewell played at representative level for both school and club competitions.
He played in the New South Wales Youth League representing the under-13 to under-15 Marconi Stallions teams, coached by Stephen Treloar, while attending other specialised training with the NSW Junior Soccer Academy, coached by David Lee. At age 14, Kewell travelled to Thailand and England with the successful Marconi under-14 team that had won the state titles; the team played games against the junior team of Milan, as well as apprenticeship sides in England. This was the first time Kewell had been out of the country but provided him his first taste of football in Europe, having attended a Premier League match for the first time as a spectator. At age 15, Kewell was offered the opportunity to travel back to England and trial with Premiership football club Leeds United for a period of four weeks as part of the Big Brother Movement in Australia. Kewell travelled to England with his future Socceroo teammate Brett Emerton. Both were successful during their trials at Leeds, however only Kewell was able to take up the club's offer due to his father's English heritage, which satisfied the visa requirements.
Kewell played for three seasons in the Leeds United youth team. His first match for the youth team was against Sunderland in 1995, he scored his first hat-trick against Rotherham on 7 December 1996. Kewell was handed his first team debut at age 17 in a 1–0 home defeat against Middlesbrough on 30 March 1996. In 1997, Kewell was part of the Leeds United youth-team that claimed the 1996–97 FA Youth Cup final in a 3–1 aggregate win against Crystal Palace; the first goal he scored for Leeds came some time in October 1997, in a 3–1 League Cup victory over Stoke City. Around that time, he was flatmates with Leeds goalkeeper Nicky Byrne, who would become a member of boyband Westlife. Kewell was sent off in the Leeds United-Galatasaray 1999–2000 UEFA Cup semi-final match. Playing in a left midfield role and in attack, Kewell became one of Leeds' young stars in a troop of promising youngsters playing alongside fellow Australian Mark Viduka. In the 1999–2000 season, on the back of his most successful season at Leeds where he won PFA Young Player of the Year was selected in the PFA Team of the Year, Italian giants Internazionale had bid £25 million for Kewell, but Leeds rejected the offer, citing his value to their side.
The high point of this period was when Kewell helped Leeds to the semi-final of the UEFA Champions League in 2000–01. The club, began to suffer financial difficulties and, by 2002–03, having sold many of their best players, Kewell's efforts in front of goal delayed Leeds' slide from being relegated from the Premiership. Kewell's efforts at Leeds United gained him international recognition for his talents, he scored 45 goals in over 180 appearances for Leeds over eight years. Kewell left Leeds under acrimonious circumstances. In an interview given to the BBC shortly before his move to Liverpool, Kewell criticised the staff at the club, stating that the medical staff loved Lucas Radebe and that his teammates had ostracised him. Having rejected more financially enticing offers from Milan, Manchester United and Barcelona, Kewell moved to the club he supported as a boy, Liverpool for the start of the 2003–04 season. Kewell was handed the famous number seven shirt, surrendered by Vladimír Šmicer. Kewell's transfer was controversial because it was alleged by former England captain Gary Lineker in an article in July 2003 that a significant portion went to Kewell's unregistered agent Bernie Mandic to ensure that he ended up at Anfield.
In a related matter, Kewell sued Linek
Gold Coast, Queensland
The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland 66 kilometres south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and north of the border with New South Wales. With a census-estimated 2016 population of 638,090, the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, Queensland's second-largest city; the Gold Coast region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. In 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents. After the establishment of the Surfers Paradise Hotel in the late 1920s, the Gold Coast region grew significantly; the area boomed in the 1980s as a leading tourist destination and in 1994, the City of Gold Coast local government area was expanded to encompass the majority of the Gold Coast's metropolitan area, becoming the second most populous local government area in Australia after the City of Brisbane.
Today, the Gold Coast is a major tourist destination with its sunny subtropical climate and has become known for its surfing beaches, high-rise dominated skyline, theme parks and rainforest hinterland. The city is part of the nation's entertainment industry with television productions and a major film industry; the city hosted the 21st Commonwealth Games which ran from 4 to 15 April 2018. The Gold Coast is the ancestral home of a number of Indigenous clans of the Yugambeh people, including the Kombumerri and Tulgi-gi-gin clans. Lieutenant James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in HMS Endeavour. Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Wales, sailed past in 1802. Escaped convicts from the Moreton Bay penal settlement hid in the region; the region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach, named after seeing a cutter named Mermaid.
The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. A number of small townships developed in the hinterland; the western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry and by 1870 a town reserve had been set aside. By 1873, the town reserve of Burleigh Heads had been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. In 1875, the small settlement opposite the boat passage at the head of the Nerang River, known as Nerang Heads or Nerang Creek Heads, was surveyed, renamed Southport with the first land sales scheduled to take place in Beenleigh. Southport grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents; the Gold Coast was known as the South Coast. However, inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of "Gold Coast" from 1950. South Coast locals considered the name "Gold Coast" derogatory. However, soon the "Gold Coast" became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to Coolangatta.
The Town of South Coast was formed through the amalgamation of Town of Coolangatta and Town of Southport along with the coastal areas from the Shire of Nerang on 17 June 1949 with the effect of having the present-day Gold Coast coastal strip as a single local government area. As the tourism industry grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term Gold Coast in their names, on 23 October 1958 the Town of South Coast was renamed Town of Gold Coast; the area was proclaimed a city less than one year on 16 May 1959. In 1995, the Albert Shire was amalgamated into the City of Gold Coast. In 2007, the Gold Coast overtook the population of Newcastle, New South Wales, to become the sixth largest city in Australia and the largest non-capital city. Today the Gold Coast is known for its golden sanded surf beaches, theme parks and rainforest hinterlands; the Gold Coast hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The Gold Coast is half covered by forests of various types; this includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, patches of coastal heathlands and farmland with areas of uncleared eucalypt forest.
Of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain. Gold Coast City lies in the southeast corner of Queensland, to the south of Brisbane, the state capital; the Albert River separates the Gold Coast from a suburban area of Brisbane. Gold Coast City stretches from Beenleigh and Russell Island to the border with New South Wales 56 km south, extends from the coast west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in World Heritage listed Lamington National Park; the southernmost town of Gold Coast City, includes Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Heads located directly across the NSW border. At 28.1667°S 153.55°E / -28.1667. From Coolangatta forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, further on Stradbroke Island; the suburbs of Southport and Surfers Paradise form the Gold Coast's commercial centre.
The major river in the area is the Nerang River. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland were once wetlands drained by this river, but th
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under