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Tomochichi

Tomochichi was the head chief of a Yamacraw town on the site of present-day Savannah, Georgia in the 18th century. He gave his land to James Oglethorpe to build the city of Savannah, he remains a prominent character of early Georgia history. As the principal mediator between the native population and the new English settlers during the first years of settlement, he contributed much to the establishment of peaceful relations between the two groups and to the ultimate success of Georgia. Although much of his early life is unknown, Tomochichi was exiled from the Creek nation for unclear reasons and, along with several followers, first settled what is now Savannah, Georgia, he was Creek and participated in their early activities with Englishmen in South Carolina, both peaceful and hostile. In about 1728 Tomochichi created his own tribe of Yamacraw from an assortment of Creek and Yamasee Indians after the two nations disagreed over future relations with the English and the Spanish, his group two hundred people, settled on the bluffs of the Savannah River because the location was the resting place of his ancestors and had close proximity to English traders.

When General James Oglethorpe and his fellow settlers reached the region in February 1733, they realized the need to negotiate with the neighboring Indian tribes or risk the success of their enterprise. Mary Musgrove, daughter of a Creek mother and an English father, her husband, served as interpreters for the general and the chief. Tomochichi had had previous contact with English colonists, making him cautious; the aging warrior had several different options available, but he decided to receive the new arrivals and to give them permission to establish Savannah in order to take advantage of trading and diplomatic connections. By the time of the establishment of the colonial charter of Georgia in 1732, Tomochichi remaining a lifelong friend of the early English colonists, helping the settlers in Georgia negotiate a treaty with the Lower Creeks. In an excerpt from the August 1733 British publication, The Gentleman's Magazine, an unidentified gentleman "... gives the following Part of a Letter from James Oglethorpe, Esq.

Dated the 9th of June Last. "There seems. I have had many Conversations with their chief Men, the whole Tenour of which shews there is nothing wanting to their Conversion, but one, who understands their Language well, to explain to them the Mysteries of Religion, they abhor Adultery, do not approve of Plurality of Wives. Theft is a thing not know among the Creek Nation, tho' frequent, honourable, amongst the Uchees. Murder they look upon as a most abominable Crime, but do not esteem the killing of an Enemy, or one that has injur'd them, Murder; the Passion of Revenge, which they call Honour, Drunkenness, which they learnt from our Traders, seem to be the two greatest Obstacles to their being Christians: But upon both these Points they hear Reason. As for Revenge, they say, as they have no executive Power of Justice amongst them, they are forced to kill the Man who has injured them, in order to prevent others from doing the like, they hold, that if a Man commits Adultery, the injur'd Husband is oblig'd to have Revenge, by cutting off the Ears of the Adulterer, which if he is too sturdy and strong to submit to the injured Husband kills him the first Time that he has an Opportunity so to do with Safety.

In Cases of Murder, the next in Blood is obliged to kill the Murderer, or else he is looked upon as infamous in the Nation where he lives. For there is no coercive power in any of their Nations, their Kings can do no more than persuade. All the Power that they have is no more than to call their old Men and their Captains together, to propound to them, without Interruption, the Measures they think proper. After they have done speaking, all the others have Liberty to give their Opinions and they reason together till they have brought each other into some unanimous Resolution; these Conferences in Matters of great Difficulty have sometimes lasted two Days, are always carried on with great Temper and Modesty. IF they do not come into some unanimous Resolution upon the Matter, the Meeting breaks up: but if they are Unanimous they call in the young Men, recommend to them the putting in Execution the Resolution, with their strongest and most lively Eloquence. And, they seem to me, both in Action and Expression, to be thorough Masters of true Eloquence.

They in their Speeches use Similies and Metaphors. Their Similies were quite new to me, wonderful proper and well carried on, but in the Conferences among their chief Men they are more concise. In fine, in speaking to their young Men they address to the Passions.

Tropical Storm Norman (2000)

Tropical Storm Norman was a tropical cyclone that hit Mexico in September 2000. The sixteenth cyclone and fourteenth named storm of the 2000 Pacific hurricane season, Norman originated in a tropical wave that emerged from the coast of Africa on September 4, moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean; the disturbance organized into a tropical depression on early on September 20, that day the storm reached its peak intensity of 50 mph, subsequently made landfall to the west of Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán. After weakening to a tropical depression over land, the storm re-emerged over open waters, made a second landfall before dissipating shortly thereafter; the storm produced heavy rain. The origins of Tropical Storm Norman were from the same tropical wave that spawned Atlantic Hurricane Gordon, which emerged off the coast of Africa on September 4; the wave moved westward, with the southern portion of the wave crossing Central America while Gordon formed in the northwest Caribbean Sea. When the wave reached the eastern Pacific Ocean on September 16, it interacted with a pre-existing low-level circulation, which produced a large area of disturbed weather.

On September 18, the convection began contracting and organizing developing a circular area of thunderstorms with well-defined outflow. It is estimated that at 0000 UTC on September 20, the system developed into Tropical Depression Sixteen-E, about 205 miles south-southeast of Manzanillo, Colima. Upon first becoming a tropical cyclone, the depression was located within an area of weak steering currents, it was forecast to remain offshore. However, the circulation was difficult to locate, as such its exact motion was uncertain. Ships in the region confirmed the center of the storm as further northeast than thought, but confirmed tropical storm force winds. Strengthening continued, Norman attained peak winds of 50 mph, shortly prior to making landfall west of Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán, late on September 20; the storm was forecast to dissipate over land, although the possibility was noted for a westward turn, due to an anticyclone located over central Mexico. About 10 hours after moving ashore, Norman weakened to tropical depression status, while moving further inland its track turned to the northwest.

The center became ill-defined over the mountainous terrain of southwest Mexico, although stronger rainbands persisted offshore. Late on September 21, the poorly defined center of Norman emerged into open waters near Puerto Vallarta and subsequently turned northward. At first, the depression was forecast to re-intensify into a minimal tropical storm; the circulation remained close to the coastline, at 1500 UTC on September 22, Norman made landfall near Mazatlán, Sinaloa, as a weak tropical depression. Within a few hours, the cyclone dissipated over land. In response to Norman's upgrade into a tropical storm, a tropical storm warning was issued for the coast from Zihuatanejo to Manzanillo on September 20; the warning was dropped. No additional warnings were issued upon Norman's reemergence over water because it was never expected to restrengthen. Norman produced heavy rainfall across western Mexico peaking at 14 in at Callejones, Colima. At La Villita, Michoacán, total rainfall reached 9.5 in. However, the highest amount was at Petacalco/La Union.

The rainfall caused severe flooding and mudslides. Additionally, the heavy precipitation flooded homes as well as down trees. Four of the deaths occurred in the State of Chiapas as a result of a mudslide. Two more were swept away by raging rivers in the State of Veracruz, another two people drowned in the State of Guerrero. In Chiapas, authorities evacuated about 300 families due to the flooding. Other tropical cyclones named Norman

On Borrowed Time

On Borrowed Time is a 1939 film about the role death plays in life, how humanity cannot live without it. It is adapted from Paul Osborn's 1938 Broadway hit play; the play, based on a novel by Lawrence Edward Watkin, has been revived twice on Broadway since its original run. Academy Award winner Harold S. Bucquet directed; the story is a retelling of a Greek fable in which Death is tricked into climbing a pear tree, blessed by Saint Polycarp to trap anyone, trying to steal an old woman's pears. Set in small-town America, the film stars Beulah Bondi and Sir Cedric Hardwicke. Barrymore plays Julian Northrup, a wheelchair user, with his wife Nellie, played by Bondi, are raising their orphaned grandson, Pud. Hardwicke plays Mr. Brink, the personification of death. Brink has taken Pud's parents in an auto wreck. Brink comes for Gramps. Believing Brink to be an ordinary stranger, the crotchety old Gramps orders Mr. Brink off the property. Pud asks who the stranger was. Gramps is relieved that someone else could see the stranger.

Pud tells Gramps. Because his apples are being stolen, Gramps wishes that anyone who climbs up his apple tree will have to stay there until he permits them to climb down. Pud inadvertently tests the wish when he has trouble coming down from the tree himself, becoming free only when Gramps says he can. Pud's busybody Aunt Demetria has designs on Pud and the money left him by his parents. Gramps spends much time fending off her efforts to adopt the boy. Brink takes Granny Nellie in a peaceful death; when Mr. Brink returns again for Gramps, the old man realizes who his visitor is. Determined not to leave Pud to Demetria, Gramps tricks Mr. Brink into climbing the apple tree. While stuck in the tree, he cannot take Gramps or anyone else; the only way anyone or anything can die is if Gramps touches the apple tree. Demetria plots to have Gramps committed to a psychiatric hospital when he claims that Death is trapped in his apple tree. Gramps proves his story first by proving that his doctor, Dr. Evans, cannot kill a fly they have captured.

He offers further proof of his power by shooting Mr. Grimes, the orderly who has come to take him to the asylum. Dr. Evans is now a believer, but he tries to convince Gramps to let Death down so people who are suffering can find release. Gramps refuses, so the doctor arranges for the local sheriff to commit Gramps while Pud is delivered to Demetria's custody. With the help of his housekeeper, Gramps tricks Dr. Evans and Demetria into believing they are scheduled to go with Mr. Brink when he comes down from the tree, they beg Gramps to convince Brink otherwise, Demetria vows never to bother Gramps or Pud again. Gramps realizes that sooner or he will have to let Brink down, he tries to say goodbye to Pud, who tries to run away. Mr. Brink dares him to climb the tree. Pud climbs to the top of the fence Gramps falls. Distraught, Gramps lets Death down from the tree, he takes both Pud, who find they can walk again. In the final scene, they walk together up a beautiful country lane and hear Granny Nellie calling to them from beyond a brilliant light.

Lionel Barrymore as Julian Northrup Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Mr. Brink Beulah Bondi as Nellie Northrup Una Merkel as Marcia Giles, the Northrups' housekeeper Bobs Watson as John'Pud' Northrup Nat Pendleton as Mr. Grimes Henry Travers as Dr. James Evans Grant Mitchell as Ben Pilbeam, Gramps' lawyer Eily Malyon as Demetria Riffle James Burke as Sheriff Burlingame Charles Waldron as Reverend Murdock Ian Wolfe as Charles Wentworth Phillip Terry as Bill Lowry, Ben Pilbeam's assistant and Marcia's boyfriend Truman Bradley as James Northrup Barbara Bedford as Mrs. James Northrup Frank S. Nugent said the film "isn't nearly so effective on the screen as it was on the stage", pointing out the "Hays code required the toning down of the salty dialogue, at once the most comically shocking and endearing virtue" of Gramps and Pud. According to Nugent: The picture, like the play, is a tender thing and wistful, fantastic in its way, yet rooted in human soil, it is absurd and it is charming and it is not at all stupendous.

And it has, we are pleased to report, a company of players who have fallen admirably under the spell of their drama's mood. Best among them, to our mind, are Beulah Bondi's Granny, young Bobs Watson's Pud, Sir Cedric Hardwicke's Mr. Brink and Eily Malyon's Aunt Dimmy. Mr. Barrymore's Gramps is well enough, we suppose, it is unfair to hold his Lionel Barrymorism against him. There are many archaic lines of dialogue in the movie. Early in the film, Mr. Brink tells Gramps he is there to take him "where the woodbine twineth." This is a reference to an 1870 poem by Septimus Winner euphemizing death and the afterlife. Gramps dismissively tells Pud. Gramps would have been a child himself around the 1870s, would have heard that phrase in a popular song of that era. On Borrowed Time at AllMovie On Borrowed Time on IMDb On Borrowed Time at the TCM Movie Database On Bor