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Tonalea, Arizona

Tonalea is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States. The population was 549 at the 2010 census, it has been known as Red Lake. Tonalea is located at 36°19′4″N 110°58′13″W, along U. S. Route 160. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.7 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 562 people, 123 households, 104 families living in the CDP; the population density was 58.2 people per square mile. There were 135 housing units at an average density of 14.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 99.11% Native American, 0.71% White, 0.18% from other races. 0.89 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 123 households out of which 55.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 23.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.4% were non-families. 14.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 4.57 and the average family size was 5.13. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 48.9% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 13.0% from 45 to 64, 3.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 19 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $32,059, the median income for a family was $32,206. Males had a median income of $36,333 versus $15,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $8,171. About 10.8% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over

Medical Council of Ireland

The Medical Council is the regulator of the medical profession in Ireland. It maintains the register of medical practitioners licensed to practice, has the power to place restrictions on or revoke such licences, in cases of questions about a doctor's fitness to practise; as of 2016 the president of the Council was Professor Freddie Wood, its chief executive officer was Bill Prasifka. The objective of the Medical Council is to protect the public by promoting and better ensuring high standards of professional conduct and professional education and competence among registered medical practitioners; the Council was established by the Medical Practitioners Act 1978 and commenced operation in April 1979. It replaced an earlier body, the Medical Registration Council, established under the provisions of the Medical Practitioners Act 1927, which took over certain functions from the General Medical Council, its powers are now dependent on the Medical Practitioners Act 2007. The principal functions of the Medical Council include: Establishing and maintaining the register of all medical practitioners in the Republic of Ireland.

Setting and monitoring standards for undergraduate and postgraduate medical programmes and the bodies that deliver them ensuring that curricula are in line with Medical Council rules, criteria and guidelines. Oversight of lifelong learning and skills development by ensuring that doctors maintain their professional competence by completing professional development and clinical audit activities. Specifying standards of practice for registered medical practitioners, including providing guidance on all matters related to professional conduct and ethics. Investigating allegations of breach of established professional standards of competence and ethics, instigating appropriate measures in respect of doctors against whom complaints have been upheld. Managing the register of doctors The Council maintains a publicly accessible searchable database of registered doctors with their qualifications. Lifelong learning and skills development In May 2011 the Medical Council introduced requirements for all registered doctors to maintain their professional competence, making it a legal duty to engage in formal arrangements for lifelong learning and skills development.

The Council oversees doctors to ensure. Handling complaints Anyone can make a complaint against a doctor to the Medical Council; the Council begins the formal complaint procedure by forwarding it to the Preliminary Proceedings Committee of the Medical Council, which considers all complaints made to the Council. After the Committee receives enough information about the complaint it decides whether to take further action. If so, the complaint is referred to the Fitness to Practise Committee for a Fitness to Practise inquiry. Alternatively, the Council could decide to take no further action, refer the complaint to another body or authority, or for mediation, or could refer the doctor for a performance assessment. Setting ethical standards The Medical Council gives guidance on all matters related to professional conduct and ethics for registered doctors; the Council includes both elected and appointed members. Under the provisions of the Medical Practitioners Act, 2007, the new Council is composed of 13 non-medical members and 12 medical members representing a range of medical specialities, teaching bodies, members of the public and stakeholders.

All appointments must be approved by the Minister for Health. The Council that took office in 2013 will remain in office until 2018; the Medical Council is required by law to establish an Education and Training Committee, a Preliminary Proceedings Committee, a Fitness to Practise Committee and a Health Sub-committee. Only members of the Medical Council may be eligible to Chair the Fitness to Practise Committee and the Preliminary Proceedings Committee; the Council may establish as many committees as it considers necessary to carry out specific functions. On 15 June 2009 the Medical Council moved to premises in Kingram House, Kingram Place, Dublin 2. Kingram House, located just off Fitzwilliam Square, is a singularly distinctive building characterised by its odd blend of Georgian and contemporary architecture. Front-of-house, a two-story listed building, was once home to an infant school and links directly on to a modern office suite; the Medical Council has a staff of over 50 who work in three directorates reporting to the chief executive officer.

The Council's communications function sits within the CEO's office. The Medical Practitioners Act 2007 sets out Committees of the Council, it specifies functions reserved for the Minister for Health and Children, such as agreement to the creation of new specialities. The Act gives the CEO an independent responsibility to present disciplinary inquiries to the Fitness to Practise Committee, once a decision has been made that a prima facie case exists for an enquiry. To carry out this function, the CEO is empowered to collect evidence and employ legal representatives to present the case; the council is funded by the annual payments of registered medical practitioners. The annual retention fee for a registered medical practitioner was set at €490 in 2012. According to the Medical Council's 2011 Annual Report, there were 18,812 medical practitioners, including various registration categories, registered with the Medical Council. 380 new complaints against doctors were received in a five percent increase.

Of these new complaints, 15 doctors rec

Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition

The Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition was a world's fair held in Seattle in 1909, publicizing the development of the Pacific Northwest. It was planned for 1907, to mark the 10th anniversary of the Klondike Gold Rush, but the organizers found out about the Jamestown Exposition being held that year, rescheduled; the fairgrounds became the campus of the University of Washington. Godfrey Chealander proposed the idea for the fair. Chealander was Grand Secretary of the Arctic Brotherhood, was involved in the Alaska Territory exhibit at the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Oregon, he pitched William Sheffield of the Alaska Club and James A. Wood, city editor of the Seattle Times on the idea of a permanent exhibit in Seattle about Alaska; this merged with Wood's desire for an exposition to rival Portland. They soon gained the backing of Times publisher Alden J. Blethen—remarkably, for the time, without gaining the opposition of the rival Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Among other early proponents of the exposition was John Edward Chilberg, one of a line of prominent Seattle merchants in the Chilberg family, president of the Alaska Club, was given the title of president of the Exposition.

Edmond S. Meany proposed that the exposition be held on the largely forested campus of the University of Washington, which in 1905 had three buildings and little deliberate landscaping. At the time, this was considered rather far from the center of town, but Meany sold the others involved on the idea that the forested campus could, itself, be an attraction for out-of-town visitors and that the trolley ride from downtown would not be an obstacle to attendance. Of course, he was highly aware of what the landscaping and structures could do for the campus; the state legislature endorsed the fair, with the proviso that it would produce at least four permanent buildings, that any state monetary contribution would be focused on those buildings. King County stepped up with US$300,000 for a forestry exhibit—the largest log cabin built—and $78,000 for other exhibits; because the original Klondike gold strikes had been in Canada, the concept soon evolved to an "Alaska-Yukon Exposition". The Exposition became known as the "A-Y-P" for shortAlthough the fair certainly could have been ready for 1907, it was postponed so as not to conflict with the Jamestown Exposition.

This turned out to be good fortune for Seattle, because 1907 proved to be a bad year for the economy. If the exposition had been held that year it certainly would have been a financial failure, rather than the success it was in 1909; the Olmsted Brothers of Brookline, were selected to plan the Exposition. John C. Olmsted visited Seattle in October 1906 and saw the dominant form of Mount Rainier toward the southeast, he selected the mountain as the focus of the primary axis of the Exposition. This axis became the Rainier Vista of the University of Washington campus; the principal landscape architect for the fair was the Olmsted firm's James Frederick Dawson. His design centered on a long pool with a series of short waterfalls along Rainier Vista. John Galen Howard's firm and Galloway, based in San Francisco, was chosen as supervising architects for the Exposition buildings, they supervised construction of those designed by other architects. The fairgrounds were ready for the June 1, 1909, opening.

The only foreign countries to erect entire buildings at the fair were Japan and Canada, but their presence was enough to validate the "Pacific" theme along with the US territory of Hawaii and the Philippines ceded to the US by Spain. Other foreign countries were represented on a smaller scale; the popular King County exhibit included a scale model of the coal mine at nearby Newcastle and dioramas of several Seattle scenes, the originals of which were only a trolley ride away. The Woman's Building emphasized the role of women in pioneering the American West and in current charity work; the Pay Streak was featured games of chance and amusements. There was a reenactment of the American Civil War naval Battle of Hampton Roads; the gates opened at 8.30 AM on June 1, crowds entered immediately. At 9.30 AM, attendees watched performances by military bands from the Navy. Many sat in the fair's amphitheater, awaiting a signal scheduled to be given in Washington DC. At 3pm East Coast Time, in the East Room of the White House, President Taft sent the signal.

He "opened... the Exposition... by touching a gold key, studded with gold nuggets taken from the first mine opened in the Klondike region." The telegraphic spark that Taft sent was received by telegraphers at the fairgrounds. Opening Day, June 1, was declared a city holiday, 80,000 people attended. Attendance was higher—117,013—on "Seattle Day". Other big draws were days dedicated to various ethnic groups, fraternal organizations, U. S. states. By the time the fair closed on October 16, over 3,700,000 had visited; the fair had its own publicity department, it used newspapers and magazines to promote the upcoming exhibition well in advance. In early 1908, Seattle newspapers reported that the publicity department was a

Sir Arthur Elton, 10th Baronet

Sir Arthur Hallam Rice Elton, 10th Baronet was a pioneer of the British documentary film industry. Educated at Marlborough College and Jesus College, Cambridge, he was a schoolfriend of John Betjeman. After graduation, he worked as a scriptwriter in England and Germany, in 1931 was recruited into the Empire Marketing Board Film Unit by John Grierson, he worked as a director and producer on many films over the next two decades for the government, though 1932's Voice of the World was sponsored by His Master's Voice, the first example of industrial sponsorship of a documentary film. During the Second World War he became supervisor of films at the Ministry of Information, afterwards he became an advisor to the Shell Petroleum Company and production head of Shell Films. Elton married Margaret Ann Bjornson in 1948. On inheriting the Elton Baronetcy title and Clevedon Court on the death of his father in 1951, Elton restored the building and donated it to the National Trust in lieu of death duties, he took a keen interest in the town of Clevedon, becoming chairman of the printing company which produced the local paper.

He was prominent in the campaign to restore Clevedon Pier. On Elton's death, his collection of material relating to British industrial development was given to the Ironbridge Museum, he was succeeded by his son Charles, a television producer. Sir Arthur Elton biography and credits at the BFI's Screenonline Arthur Elton on IMDb Edgar Anstey Alberto Cavalcanti John Grierson Humphrey Jennings Paul Rotha Basil Wright Jonathan Dawson Arthur Elton in: Ian Aitken Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film, NY Routledge, 2006, pp 56– 61


Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish. Spoken in Spain and after the Edict of Expulsion spreading through the former territories of the Ottoman Empire as well as France, the Netherlands and England, it is today spoken by Sephardic minorities in more than 30 countries, with most of the speakers residing in Israel. Although it has no official status in any country, it has been acknowledged as a minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Israel and Turkey, it is formally recognised by the Royal Spanish Academy. The core vocabulary of Judaeo-Spanish is Old Spanish and it has numerous elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula: Old Aragonese, Astur-Leonese, Old Catalan, Galician-Portuguese and Mozarabic; the language has been further enriched by Ottoman Turkish and Semitic vocabulary, such as Hebrew and Arabic — in the domains of religion and spirituality — and most of the vocabulary for new and modern concepts has been adopted through French and Italian.

Furthermore, the language is influenced to a lesser degree by other local languages of the Balkans, such as Greek and Serbo-Croatian. The Rashi script and its cursive form Solitreo have been the main orthographies for writing Judaeo-Spanish. However, today it is written with the Latin alphabet, though some other alphabets such as Hebrew and Cyrillic are still in use. Judaeo-Spanish is known by many different names, mostly: Español, Judió or Jidió, Sefaradhí or Ḥaketía. In Turkey and in the Ottoman Empire, it has been traditionally called Yahudice in Turkish, meaning the Jewish language. In Israel, Hebrew speakers call the language Espanyolit, Spanyolit or Ladino. Judaeo-Spanish, once the trade language of the Adriatic Sea, the Balkans and the Middle-East and renowned for its rich literature in Salonika, today is under serious threat of extinction. Most native speakers are elderly, the language is not transmitted to their children or grandchildren for various reasons. In some expatriate communities in Latin America and elsewhere, there is a threat of dialect levelling resulting in extinction by assimilation into modern Spanish.

It is experiencing, however, a minor revival among Sephardic communities in music. In recent decades in Israel, the United States and Spain, the language has come to be referred to as Ladino meaning "Latin". However, some of its speakers consider that term to be incorrect, thinking of Ladino rather as the "semi-sacred" language used in word-by-word translations from the Bible, but not the spoken vernacular; the language is called Judeo-Espagnol, Judeoespañol, Sefardí, Judío, Espanyol or Español sefardita. Spoken Ladino may be referred to as Judesmo, considered offensive by some native speakers, or as unknown in the native press. However, in limited parts of Macedonia, its former use in the past as a low-register designation in informal speech by unschooled people has been documented; the dialect of the Oran area of Algeria was called Tetuani, after the Moroccan city of Tétouan since many Orani Jews came from there. In Hebrew, the language is called ספאניולית. An entry in Ethnologue claims, "The name'Judesmo' is used by Jewish linguists and Turkish Jews and American Jews.

That does not reflect the historical usage. In the Judaeo-Spanish press of the 19th and 20th centuries the native authors referred to the language exclusively as Espanyol, the name that its native speakers spontaneously gave to it for as long as it was their primary spoken language. More the bookish Judeo-Espanyol has been used since the late 19th century; the derivation of the name Ladino is complicated. Before the Expulsion of Jews from Spain, the word meant literary Spanish, as opposed to other dialects or Romance in general, as distinct from Arabic. Following the Expulsion, Jews spoke of "the Ladino" to mean the traditional oral translation of the Bible into Old Spanish. By extension, it came to mean that style of Spanish in the same way that Targum has come to mean Judeo-Aramaic and sharħ has come to mean Judeo-Arabic. Informally in modern Israel, many speakers use Ladino to mean Judaeo-Spanish as a whole; the language used to be regulated by a body called the Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino in Israel.

More however, the term is confined to the style used in translation. According to the website of the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki, Ladino is not spoken, rather, it is the product of a word-for-word translation of Hebrew or Aramaic biblical or liturgical texts made by rabbis in the Jewish schools of Spain. In these translations, a specific Hebrew or Aramaic word always corresponded to the same Spanish word, as long as no exegetical considerations prevented this. In short, Ladino is only Hebrew clothed in

Bediani (title)

Bediani was a medieval title, or a territorial epithet, of the Dadiani, the ruling family of Mingrelia in western Georgia, derived from the canton of Bedia, in Abkhazia, in use from the end of the 12th century into the 15th. Bediani was used as a praenomen; the extent of the fief of Bedia is difficult to define. The title of Bediani should not be confused with that of Bedieli, although derived from the same toponym, was the one used by the bishops seated at the Bedia Cathedral. Bediani appears in the Georgian—both narrative and epigraphic—and Western European sources from the early 13th century to the latter half of the 15th century, first in the Histories and Eulogies of the Sovereigns, a part of the Georgian Chronicles, in the list of the Georgian "dukes" under Queen Tamar. In the 15th century, Bediani was used as a designation of the Prince of Mingrelia by the Italian visitors to the Caucasus—Ludovico da Bologna in 1460 and Giosafat Barbaro and Ambrogio Contarini in the early 1470s. Barbaro, reported that Bendiani of Mingrelia possessed, inter alia, two fortified cities on the Black Sea, called Vathi and Sauastopoli, the former identified with Batumi in Guria, the latter being Sukhumi in Abkhazia.

Early in the 20th century, the Georgian historian Ivane Javakhishvili introduced the term "Sabediano", based on a standard Georgian geographic circumfix sa⟩ ⟨o, to refer to a polity—semi-independent of the kings of Georgia—which had come into being, by the 1470s, to bring together Mingrelia and Guria under the aegis of the Dadiani princes with the style of Bediani. This view and the associated neologism were accepted by several Soviet-era scholars, including Zurab Anchabadze, however, dated the emergence of the principality of Sabediano back to the end of the 14th century, when the Mingrelian princes were reported by the Georgian sources to have had dispossessed their Abkhazian counterparts of their holdings up to and including Anacopia; the suggested boundaries of the principality, at its largest extent, were from the Chorokhi river to the Greater Caucasus crest and from the Tskhenistsqali to the Black Sea. Other historians, such as Cyril Toumanoff and Tamaz Beradze, dismissed the possibility of existence of the Dadiani-ruled unified polity such as Sabediano, with Abkhazia and Guria as its parts.

According to Toumanoff, "Guria was a fief of the secundogeniture of the Dadianis, separate from Mingrelia, as early as 1352."