The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Great Bahama Canyon
The Great Bahama Canyon is a V-shaped submarine canyon system in the Bahamas that cuts between the Abaco Islands to the north and Eleuthera island to the south. It forms one of the deepest underwater canyon systems known. There are three branches: the Tongue of the Ocean running south between Andros and New Providence, the northeast and northwest Providence Channel; the canyon walls reach heights of 5 kilometres. This canyon system has remained open through a process of submarine erosion
New Providence is the most populous island in The Bahamas, containing more than 70% of the total population. It is the location of the national capital city of Nassau, whose boundaries are coincident with the island; the island was under Spanish control following Christopher Columbus's discovery of the New World, but the Spanish government showed little interest in developing the island. Nassau, the island's largest city, was known as Charles-town, but it was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684, it was laid out and renamed Nassau in 1695 by Nicholas Trott, the most successful Lord Proprietor, in honor of the Prince of Orange-Nassau who became William III of England. The three branches of Bahamian Government: the executive, the legislative, the judiciary, are all headquartered on New Providence. New Providence functions as the main commercial hub of The Bahamas, it is home to more than 400 banks and trust companies, its hotels and port account for more than two-thirds of the four million-plus tourists who visit The Bahamas annually.
Other settlements on New Providence include Grants Town, Bain Town, Fox Hill, Yamacraw, South Beach, Coral Harbour, Lyford Cay, Paradise Island, Sea Breeze, The Grove and The Grove, Cable Beach, Gambier, Old Fort Bay, Love Beach. The name New Providence Island is derived from a 16th‐century governor who gave thanks to Divine Providence for his survival after a shipwreck; the "New" was added to distinguish it from Providencia off the Mosquito Coast used by pirates. After 1670, Bermudian salt rakers gathering sea salt in Grand Turk and Inagua became regular visitors to the island; the first lasting European occupation was on Eleuthera in 1648, New Providence in 1666. By 1670, there were over 900 people on the settlement of Charles-Town. Due to ineffective governors, Charles-Town was attacked by the French and Spanish navies, became a home base for pirates, was destroyed by a Spanish attack in 1684. However, two years in 1686, new English colonists from Jamaica came and settled, they were called back by the governor of Jamaica.
In 1695, Governor Nicolas Trott rebuilt the town and added a fort, both were called Nassau. However, the fort was damaged in a Spanish attack in 1700 and the colonists abandoned the fort in 1703 after a French and Spanish attack. Due to the lack of cannon and soldiers in the fort, New Providence soon became a home base for pirates. By 1713, there were over 1000 pirates in Nassau and they outnumbered the 400–500 law-abiding inhabitants. In 1718, Governor Woodes Rogers came in and offered a pardon for any pirate willing to give up their ways. Using his intelligence and threatening to execute them if they did not take the pardon, Rogers was able to rid Nassau of pirates. In February 1776, American Esek Hopkins led a squadron of over seven ships in an effort to raid the British-held island in order to secure supplies and munitions. In an event known as the Battle of Nassau, on March 3 and 4, Hopkins landed the first-ever amphibious assault by American military forces consisting of 250 Marines and sailors.
Under the covering fire of the Providence and Wasp, the attackers overwhelmed Fort Montague. The British retreated to Fort Nassau, but surrendered to Continental forces; the Americans managed to secure 88 cannon and 15 mortars, but most of the much desired gunpowder was evacuated before capture. Hopkins spent two weeks loading his ships with the booty before returning home; the frigate South Carolina, of the South Carolina Navy, arrived at Havana on 12 January 1782. At Havana, after negotiations between Alexander Gillon and the Spanish, the South Carolina joined a force of 59 vessels carrying Spanish forces under the overall command of Bernardo de Galvez. On 22 April the expedition sailed to capture New Providence. By May 6 the whole fleet had reached New Providence and on 8 May the British colony surrendered; this was the third capture of New Providence by a foreign force during the American Revolutionary War. After the American Revolution, several thousand Loyalists and their slaves emigrated to New Providence and nearby islands, hoping to re-establish plantation agriculture.
The shallow soils and sparse rainfall doomed this activity to failure, by the early 19th century the Bahamas had become a nearly vacant archipelago. Salt raking continued here and there, wreck gleaning was profitable in Grand Bahama, but New Providence was the only island with any prosperity because of the large British military establishment; the fortresses began to crumble and were abandoned by 1850. New Providence afterwards had two periods of high economic success: during the American Civil War of 1861–65, when it was a popular port for blockade-runners serving the Confederate States of America. By the late 19th century New Providence had begun billing itself as the "sanitarium of the western hemisphere". Testimonials by residents and visitors emphasized its mild climate with minimal daily temperature fluctuations and warm winters (a typical winter morning in the range of 70 °F to 74 °F, excellent drainage, ample variety and number of Christian churches, well-tended and rectilinear roads, modern luxurious facilities, native English-speakers.
Steam ships plied lines between the coastal southern United States and Nassau, and
The Bahamas, known as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago. The archipelagic state consists of more than 700 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, is located north of Cuba and Hispaniola, northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands, southeast of the U. S. state of Florida, east of the Florida Keys. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence; the designation of "the Bahamas" can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Royal Bahamas Defence Force describes the Bahamas territory as encompassing 470,000 km2 of ocean space; the Bahamas is the site of Columbus's first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taíno people. Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola; the islands were deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
The Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718. After the American Revolutionary War, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas. Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period; the slave trade was abolished by the British in 1807. Subsequently, the Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves. Today, Afro-Bahamians make up nearly 90% of the population; the Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973 with Elizabeth II as its queen. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance; the name Bahamas is most derived from either the Taíno ba ha ma, a term for the region used by the indigenous Native Americans, or from the Spanish baja mar reflecting the shallow waters of the area. Alternatively, it may originate from a local name of unclear meaning; the word The constitutes an integral part of the short form of the name and is, capitalised.
So in contrast to "the Congo" and "the United Kingdom", it is proper to write "The Bahamas." The name The Bahamas is thus comparable with certain non-English names that use the definite article, such as Las Vegas or Los Angeles. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the country's fundamental law, capitalizes the "T" in "The Bahamas." Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century, having migrated there from South America. They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayans inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in 1492. Columbus's first landfall in the New World was on an island; some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbus's log.
Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus exchanged goods with them; the Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; the population of the Bahamas was diminished. In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda; these English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They settled New Providence, naming it Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks. In 1670, King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America, they rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, appointing governors, administering the country. In 1684 Spanish corsair Juan de Alcon raided Charles Town.
In 1703, a joint Franco-Spanish expedition occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession. During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including Blackbeard. To put an end to the'Pirates' republic' and restore orderly government, Great Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers. After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy. In 1720, Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack. During the US War of Independence in the late 18th century, the islands became a target for US naval forces under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for 2 weeks. In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau; the city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Great Britain the following year, u
Andros Island is an archipelago within the Bahamas, the largest of the Bahamian Islands. Politically considered a single island, Andros in total has an area greater than all the other 700 Bahamian islands combined; the land area of Andros consists of hundreds of small islets and cays connected by mangrove estuaries and tidal swamplands, together with three major islands: North Andros, Mangrove Cay, South Andros. The three main islands are separated by "bights", estuaries that trifurcate the island, connecting the island's east and west coasts, it is 104 miles long by 40 miles wide at the widest point. Noteworthy for a unique combination of marine features and ecosystems, Andros is bordered on the east by the 6000 foot deep Tongue of the Ocean; the Andros Barrier Reef is the world's sixth longest. It runs for 142 miles; the extensive flats of the Great Bahama Bank lie to the west and south of Andros. The island has the world's largest collection of blue holes. Geographically, North Andros is the sixth largest island in the West Indies, at 6,000 km2 in area and 167 km long and 64 km wide at its widest point, the 153rd largest island on Earth.
If all three main islands are included, Andros is the fifth-largest island in the West Indies, after Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Although comparable in total area to the state of Rhode Island together with Long Island, New York, Andros only has a population of 8000 all of whom are settled in a thin strip near the Queen Elizabeth Highway running along the island's eastern coast. Andros is 30 miles west across the Tongue of the Ocean from the Bahamas' national capital of Nassau on New Providence Island, its northern tip lies 138 miles from Florida. Geologically and geographically the Bahamas, including Andros, are not located in the Caribbean, whose northern boundary is the Windward Passage, but rather in the Atlantic Ocean; the nation was part of the British West Indies and is considered culturally to be part of the Caribbean. The Bahamian dialect of the English language is distinctively Caribbean in character, similar to those of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands formerly part of the British West Indies.
The township of Fresh Creek is home to the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, operated by the U. S. Navy; the United Kingdom and United States conduct special operations training, sonar and submarine research in the Tongue of the Ocean. The U. S. Coast Guard runs rescue and drug interdiction operations from AUTEC. Andros is known in the Bahamas by two nicknames, "The Sleeping Giant" and "The Big Yard"; the largest employers on Andros Island are the Bahamian government and the AUTEC base at Fresh Creek. Despite its small population, Andros Island has several ongoing commercial ventures. Western Air maintains its headquarters in a modern facility at the San Andros airport. A Mennonite mission-run commercial farm was founded near Blanket Sound in 1983, which grows everything from habanera peppers to sorghum and potatoes, has numerous fruit orchards and honey bee hives; the Mennonites run the largest car repair and carpentry shops on the island. Androsia, a hand-crafted batik factory founded at Fresh Creek in 1972, produces a vibrant, colourful fabric that has become part of the national dress and identity of the Bahamas.
GreenLife Growers, a Bahamian native tree nursery at Young Sound, provides landscaping material to real estate developers and government projects throughout the Bahamas. Commercial fishing remains a mainstay of the island's economy: conch, lobster and grouper are all commercially harvested for sale locally and in Nassau's fish markets. Seasonal crabbing—catching crabs and fattening them in pens for sale in Nassau—provides a cash crop for locals to supplement their income. Local handicrafts in the Black Seminole style—particularly wood carvings and woven baskets—are a cottage industry in the settlement of Red Bays. A sample of Red Bays baskets is held by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. A fledgling conservation industry on Andros is dedicated to preserving the island's unique ecosystems, working in partnership with the Bahamian government and such varied non-governmental organisations as The Nature Conservancy and Project AWARE of the Professional Association of Dive Instructors.
They supported legislation to found the Central Andros National Park in 2002. Most of the island's conservation efforts funnel through the non-profit nongovernmental organisation, Andros Conservancy & Trust Bahamas. ANCAT's efforts are tied to encouraging eco-tourism, to generate economic incentives to preserve the existing varied habitats of the island. GreenForce Global Volunteering/Bahamas, an international NGO based in the UK, conducts environmental research from its operation at Stafford Creek on North Andros, it offers 3- to 12-week dive training, marine and environmental science programs for conservationists and others. Tourism is Andros Island's largest industry, the largest private employer; the Bahamian tourism industry markets Andros as the least-explored island in the chain. From Nicholls Town in the north to Little Creek in the south are 35–40 hotels, resorts, guest houses and lodges, with a total of 400 rooms. Tourists are composed of scuba divers, attracted to the barrier reef, Tongue of the Ocean, the Blue Holes.
Andros Island was the site of two of the first dive-dedicated resorts in the world, the first in the Bahamas, both f
Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center
The United States Navy's Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center is a laboratory that performs integrated three-dimensional hydrospace/aerospace trajectory measurements covering the entire spectrum of undersea simulated warfare — calibration, classifications and destruction. Its mission is to assist in establishing and maintaining naval ability of the United States through testing and underwater research; the sophisticated facility includes three test ranges — the Weapons Range, the Acoustic Range, the FORACS Range — all located in the Tongue of the ocean, a deep-ocean basin 100 nautical miles long by 15 nautical miles wide, with depths as great as 6,000 feet. The main AUTEC support base and downrange tracking stations are on Andros Island in the Bahamas, just west of Nassau and about 180 nautical miles southeast of West Palm Beach, Florida; the deep water Weapons Range lies parallel to the east coast of Andros Island. It is the largest and most versatile of the AUTEC ranges, it is capable of tracking up to 63 in-water objects simultaneously.
The range is supported by the Main Base and various smaller sites located to the south along the east coast of Andros Island. AN/WQC-2A Sonar Communications Sets and Bi-Directional Communications Nodes provide underwater voice communications for mobile target and emergency command signal coverage, while HF, UHF, VHF radio communications are available over the entire range. In-air tracking is provided by radars and various other in-air tracking systems such as LATR, the Hyperbolic In-Air Tracking System, Differential GPS; these in-air systems cover the AUTEC Weapons Range up to a distance of 500 nautical miles from Site 1 and a height of 70,000 feet. Surveillance radars operate to support surface safety; the in-water portion of the Weapons Range covers 500 square nautical miles. This range can be divided into two distinct tracking areas consisting of 250 square nautical miles; this flexibility allows for the unique operation of two distinct individual exercises. Use of the total range is referred to as "Weapons Range", while dividing the range into two distinct portions, the northern section is referred to as "Weapons Range North", whereas the southern portion is called "Weapons Range South".
Electronic Warfare Threat Simulator is a real-time system that can generate complex, electromagnetic signal environments at the radio frequency level. With this system, AUTEC offers capabilities to test different platform receivers in an open-air, over-the-water range; the system consists of a radar simulator and controller, high-power amplifiers, calibration equipment, an operator workstation. The system is located on a 74-foot tower; the typical task performed at AUTEC is testing and certifying the proficiency of U. S. Navy submarine captains and their crews, as well as the accuracy of their undersea weapons. During the 1940s and 1950s, the U. S. Navy's need for a deep water test facility became so apparent that in 1958 the Chief of Naval Operations established an advisory group to determine the location and specifications for testing underwater vehicles and weapon systems; as a result of the extensive studies of this group, the United States Secretary of the Navy in November 1959 directed establishment of the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center under the Bureau of Ships to provide a deep water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurement, testing sonar, providing accurate underwater and air tracking data on ships and weapons in support of the U.
S. Navy's undersea research and development programs; the area chosen for AUTEC was the Tongue of the Ocean located between the islands of Andros, New Providence, Exuma Sound in the Bahamas. Chosen because of its ideal natural characteristics, its climate which permits year-round operations, the TOTO is a U-shaped flat-bottomed trench 20 miles wide by 150 miles long with a depth which varies from 3,600 feet in the south to 6,600 feet in the north, its only exposure to the open ocean is at the northern end, except for this ocean opening, the TOTO is surrounded by numerous islands and shoals which make a peripheral shelter isolating it from ocean disturbances high ambient noise which degrades undersea tests and evaluations. A joint United States/United Kingdom Agreement signed in 1963 with the concurrence of the Bahamian Government, enabled the United States to develop this area of water and certain territory on the east coast of Andros Island accessible to the TOTO, there install equipment to build three offshore test ranges.
Under this agreement, the Royal Navy has equal access to the test facility. Construction of the Navy's Main Base and the downrange tracking sites on Andros Island began in March 1964, the initial cadre of officers and men arrived by U. S. Navy LST in August 1965. In October of that year, Commander G. P Barney arrived as the first permanent Officer-in-charge, Andros Ranges, the official dedication of AUTEC was held on 14 April 1966; the complex electronics installation was accomplished from fall of 1965 to fall of 1966, in September 1966 RCA Service Company was awarded the Maintenance and Operations Contract for AUTEC. Temporary U. S. Mainland Headquarters was opened at the Orlando Air Force Base in September 1966 with Captain L. L. Jackson, Jr. being assigned as Prospective Commanding Officer. Following a study of possible locations for a permanent headquarters t