Anthony Rendon (politician)
Anthony Rendon is an American politician serving as the Speaker of the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 63rd Assembly District in southeastern Los Angeles County. Rendon was born on March 1968 in Silver Lake, a neighborhood in central Los Angeles, his grandparents immigrated from Mexico to the United States during the 1920s. He grew up in a lower-middle-class family that moved around the Los Angeles area, his father, Tom Rendon, worked multiple jobs, including for a mobile home company, his mother, Gloria Rendon, was a teacher's aide at a Catholic school. Rendon attended California High School, graduating in 1986, he has stated that he was a "terrible student." At the age of 20, he enrolled in and attended Cerritos College, a community college in Norwalk, before earning a bachelor's degree and master's degree from California State University, Fullerton. After receiving a National Endowment for the Humanities fellowship, Rendon earned his Ph. D. in political science from the University of California, graduating in 2000.
He completed post-doctoral work at Boston University. Prior to becoming a member of the California State Assembly, Rendon was the executive director of Plaza de la Raza Child Development Services, an organization that provides child development and social and medical services throughout Los Angeles County, he was the interim executive director of the California League of Conservation Voters, a lobbying organization dedicated to environmental issues. He worked with the Mexican American Opportunity Foundation in early childhood education efforts. From 2001 to 2008, he was an adjunct professor in the Department of Political Science and Criminal Justice at California State University, Fullerton. During his first term in office, Rendon was chair of the Assembly Committee on Water and Wildlife and authored Proposition 1, the $7.5 billion state water bond, which voters approved in the November 2014 election. In 2013, Rendon authored Assembly Bill 711, a statewide ban on lead hunting ammunition, signed into law.
In 2015, Rendon was named chair of the Assembly Committee on Commerce. On September 3, 2015, Rendon was selected to be the next Assembly Speaker; the formal vote electing Mr. Rendon as Speaker occurred on January 11; the vote was unanimous, with the Republican leader seconding the motion. Rendon has stated his intention to bring back the tradition of past California Assembly Speakers of carrying no legislation himself, but focusing on empowering the members of the chamber. On June 23, 2017, Assembly Speaker Rendon announced that he would not advance California Senate Bill 562 by state Sens. Ricardo Lara and Toni Atkins to a policy hearing in his house, making it all but certain the measure would not be acted upon in 2017. Under the measure, California would have paid the healthcare costs for all residents, eliminating premiums and deductibles that are common fixtures in the current healthcare system. Protesting Rendon's decision not to advance the bill, University of Southern California law professor Stephen Elzie filed a "notice of intent to circulate a recall petition."
On July 25, 2017, the notice was mailed to Rendon's office after it had collected 60 signatures, 40 of which needed to be found valid for the effort to proceed. The following week, "the organizers of the recall received confirmation from the Secretary of State that the group’s Notice of Intent was reviewed for compliance with the California Elections Code and that the signatures on the Notice of Intent were verified by the County of Los Angeles." The petition drive is slated to begin sometime during the month of August. Rendon resides in California. In December 2014, Rendon married Annie Lam in a ceremony officiated by former California State Assembly Speaker John A. Pérez. Official website
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Governor of California
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U. S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve. Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced; the position was created in 1849, the year. The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom, inaugurated on January 7, 2019. Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take the following oath: I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California against all enemies foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California, that I take this obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.
Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election. There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office; the governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate. Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election; the voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor, on the same ballot they can vote a potential replacement. If a majority of the voters in the election vote to recall the governor the person who gains a plurality of the votes in the replacement race will become governor; the 2003 California recall began with a petition drive that forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election. It marked the first time in the history of California, he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921.
He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years; this becomes significant, since the California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the state of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. The lieutenant governor is the president of the California State Senate. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state.
Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state. Peter Burnett had 44 years, he left office in 1851 and died in 1895. Excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship, he died on a short three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858. Sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown was the oldest governor from 2011 to 2019. Earl Warren was the only governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Jerry Brown served as governor for eight years and returned to office 28 years to serve as governor for another eight years. Milton Latham served the shortest term in office of five days. Of the 38 governors who served in office, only eight were born in California: One was born in Santa Barbara. Five were born in San Francisco. One was born in Sacramento.
One was born in Los Angeles. Two governors were born outside the United States: John G. Downey was born in Ireland. Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria. Only two governors have died in office: Washington Bartlett on September 12, 1887 James Rolph on June 2, 1934 Ronald Reagan had the longest life-span of any governor, 93 years. J. Neely Johnson had the shortest life-span of 47 years. Both governors who died in office, Washington Bartlett in 1887 and James Rolph in 1934, served as Mayor of San Francisco shortly before becoming governor. Two governors are related: Pat Brown was the father of twice-governor Jerry Brown. Five governors have resigned: Peter Burnett in 1851 "as a result of certain personal prejudices" in favor of slavery Milton Latham in 1860 to become a United States Senator Newton Booth in 1875 to become a United States Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917 to become a United States Senator Earl Warren in 1953 to be
Richard M. "Dick" Murphy is a former American politician who served as the 33rd Mayor of San Diego, California from 2000 to 2005. Murphy was born 1942 in Illinois, he was the first Class President of Proviso West High School in its first graduating class in 1961. He graduated from the University of Illinois with a degree in Economics, he received his Master of Business Administration from Harvard University and his law degree from Stanford University. Murphy served as an officer in the U. S. Army, in The Pentagon and as a military aide to the Nixon administration. In the early 1970s he moved to San Diego, where he was Marketing Director for Bank of America, an attorney at the law firm of Luce, Hamilton & Scripps. In 1980, he was elected to the San Diego City Council, served from 1981 through 1985. In 1985, he was appointed municipal court judge by Governor George Deukmejian. In 1989, the governor elevated him to superior court judge. Murphy was first elected mayor in November 2000, his election was a long shot against Ron Roberts.
He campaigned on providing "Leadership With 2020 Vision"—a promise to set forth a clear long term vision for the city and to provide the leadership to implement that vision. Murphy had served one term on the San Diego City Council representing the Seventh District. While elections for municipal offices in California are non-partisan, he is a registered Republican. During his first term in office, Murphy set ten goals for the city and had success in accomplishing many of them; the most significant included establishing the city's first ethics commission, completing construction of a new downtown ballpark for the San Diego Padres baseball team, forming the San Diego Regional Airport Authority, creating the San Diego River Conservancy, building the Veterans Memorial Garden in Balboa Park, jump starting plans for a new central library, implementing a plan to underground all overhead utility lines in the city. Murphy ran for a second term in 2004 again against Ron Roberts, his re-election campaign saw controversy with a last minute write-in candidate, Donna Frye, a member of the San Diego City Council.
A number of voters did not follow the proper procedure for supporting a write-in candidate, either misspelling the name of Donna Frye or writing her name in the blank but neglecting to fill in the corresponding bubble to indicate their preference. After a legal imbroglio involving three lawsuits, these votes were not counted, resulting in Murphy winning the official tally by 2,000 votes. During Murphy's second term, the city faced serious fiscal problems from years of financial mismanagement by past city governments, problems including an underfunded pension program and a series of credit-score downgrades. Facing mounting criticism over his controversial election victory and failure to adequately address the pension underfunding problem, Murphy announced his plans to resign as Mayor and resigned July 15, 2005; the City of San Diego Mayor's Office
San Diego Metropolitan Transit System
The San Diego Metropolitan Transit System is the public transit service provider for Central, South and Southeast San Diego County, in the United States. MTS operating subsidiaries include the San Diego Trolley and San Diego Transit Corporation. Average daily ridership among all public transit services provided by MTS was 271,500 in the Fourth Quarter of 2017. MTS is one of the oldest transit systems in Southern California, dating back as early as the 1880s. Although the d/b/a names have changed over the years, the two modes of transportation – buses and light rail – have remained consistent over most of the past 125 years. MTS owns Arizona Eastern Railway. MTS licenses and regulates taxicabs and other private for-hire passenger transportation services provided by contract for the cities of San Diego, El Cajon, Imperial Beach, La Mesa, Lemon Grove and Santee. MTS is a joint powers authority agency, or JPA. Member cities include San Diego, Chula Vista, Coronado, El Cajon, Imperial Beach, La Mesa, Lemon Grove, National City, Poway and San Diego County.
Elected officials from each jurisdiction, including San Diego County, serve as the Board of Directors. The city of San Diego has the most representation with four members. A county resident is elected by the Board of Directors to serve as the Chairman. A system of horse- or mule-drawn street cars was established in Downtown San Diego in 1886. In 1887 electric street car service was begun, serving a more widespread area including Old Town and University Heights; the direct ancestor of MTS, the San Diego Electric Railway Company, was founded in 1891 by John D. Spreckels. Spreckels converted them all to electric operation. In the 1920s and 1930s the rail lines began to be replaced by motor buses. In 1949 the last rail service was discontinued, making San Diego the first major city in California to convert to an all-bus system. In 1948 Jesse Haugh renamed it the San Diego Transit System; the system was purchased by the City of San Diego in 1967. MTDB was formed in 1976 and launched the San Diego Trolley in 1981.
The San Diego Transit system of bus lines was transferred from the city to MTDB in 1985. MTDB changed its logo to Metropolitan Transit System in 1986. Today, the agency is one of two child agencies of SANDAG, the county-level MPO that zones land and sets the transit fares. More recent developments at MTS are summarized below. MTS adopts its current logo and livery, first applied to buses entering service that summer. MTS assumes control over National City Transit from the City of National City, amid the City's reluctance to implement findings of the COA, retires its 600-series bus route numbers, replaces them with the current 960-series numbers. MTS is named the Outstanding Public Transit System for 2009 by the American Public Transportation Association. In fiscal year 2009, MTS set a record for ridership with over 92 million rides from July 1, 2008, to June 31, 2009. September 24: San Diego Trolley places an order for 57 Ultra Short Low Floor Model S70 LRVs, at a total cost of $205 million. San Diego Trolley beings construction on the "Trolley Renewal Project".
The project is expected to last five years and renovates all stations and existing infrastructure to handle the new Low Floor S70 LRVs purchased the previous year. MTS begins work on a study to evaluate the feasibility of reconnecting Balboa Park, the San Diego Zoo and Downtown San Diego through a fixed-guideway, electrified streetcar line. MTS begins weekend and holiday service of the Silver Line, which operates around Downtown San Diego and features renovated PCC streetcars with a partnership with the San Diego historic streetcar society. MTS receives first two shipments of 4th generation trolley vehicles and begins operating new LRVs on the Green Line MTS realigns trolley system so all three lines terminate in downtown, eliminating the need for the special event line; the green line now serves special events. Low floor trains operate on the Orange Line for the first time, marking the end of the first phase of the trolley renewal project. First of the next-gemeration Gillig Low Floor buses arrive and are placed into service First buses for the BRT network arrive The first line in the Rapid BRT network goes into operation.
Low floor trains operate on the Blue Line for the first time in January, after new station platforms, advanced electronic signage, overhead catenary wires, larger shelters and track replacements are implemented. The Transit Optimization Plan is adopted Additional Low floor trolley cars Arrive at shop. Numbered in the 5000-series, 9 of the cars are set to start testing for Blue and Orange Lines as early as Spring 2019; the other 36 will be set to run for the mid-coast extension releasing in 2021. The South Bay Rapid entered the Otay Mesa Port of Entry. New trolley cars, the 5000-series, due to enter service in the Summer. August:Electric buses to enter service MTS administers several public transportation services, including the San Diego Trolley's three daily Light rail lines, 93 fixed-route bus services, paratransit service. About half of its fixed-route bus services are contracted out to Transdev, First Transit, with First Transit providing paratransit services. Light rail service is operated by Incorporated.
It is referred to as "The Trolley". Three daily lines are operated, are designated by their colors: the Blue Line, the Green Line, the Orange Line.
Jerry Sanders (politician)
Gerald Robert "Jerry" Sanders is a former American politician and law enforcement officer from San Diego, California. He is the former Chief of Police; as of December 2012, he is the CEO of the San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce. Sanders was born 1950 in San Pedro in California, his alma maters are San Diego Miramar College, San Diego State University, National University. He was a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity while at San Diego State. Sanders lives in the Kensington neighborhood of San Diego with his wife Rana Sampson, he has two daughters and Jamie. His brother, Tom Sanders, was an Oscar nominated production designer. During his senior year at San Diego State University, Jerry Sanders became a police officer with the San Diego Police Department, he served in the police department from 1973 until 1999, served as Chief of Police from 1993 until 1999. As chief of police and the department's employees gained national recognition for work with community policing and achieving a 40% decrease in crime, including a 67% drop in murders during his six-year term as chief.
Sanders re-organized the department, making it more responsive to the community, reaching out to neighborhoods, utilizing more than 1,000 volunteers to address San Diego's public safety needs. Prior to his assignments as division commander, police captain, Sanders police lieutenant, was the police academy commander at the San Diego Criminal Justice Training Center - Police Academy at Miramar College, he was commander of the San Diego SWAT team during the 1984 San Ysidro McDonald's massacre, his management of the tragedy, which resulted in twenty-one deaths, earned him criticism from the city's Mexican-American community. As a result, the newspaper La Prensa San Diego called Sanders "unfit to be mayor." Sanders left the Police Department in 1999 to become president and CEO of the United Way of San Diego County. He served as United Way Community Campaign Chair in 2002. In July 2002, Sanders was appointed to the board of the American Red Cross San Diego/Imperial Counties Chapter after the previous CEO was fired in the aftermath of controversy concerning a wildfire in Alpine, CA. Sanders helped recruit retired Navy Rear Admiral Ronne Froman to be CEO, supported the turnaround of the local chapter, which resulted in support for victims of the Cedar wildfire, praise from former critics for the transparency of fund raising efforts, a staff re-organization that reduced overhead costs.
Sanders had been active in the private sector, serving as founding partner and consultant for local high-tech start-ups involved with homeland security and infrastructure assessment. He is board chair of the San Diego Police Foundation, established to raise private funds for SDPD equipment and programs, he serves on the board of STAR/PAL, the San Diego Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, San Diego State University's Dean's Advisory Board, Coronado First Bank. Sanders has served on the Wells Fargo Community Bank Board, the Mediation Center's Board, the National Conference for Community and Justice Board, the Vera Institute of Justice's Advisory Board on Foster Children, the Children's Initiative. Sanders has been nominated to the National Red Cross Board of Governors. Jerry Sanders was elected mayor in a special run-off election held November 8, 2005, following the resignation of Mayor Dick Murphy in the wake of the San Diego pension scandal, he received 54% of the vote against city council member Donna Frye.
Sanders was the first mayor under San Diego's "strong mayor system" of city government. Sanders is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, an organization formed in 2006 and co-chaired by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and Boston mayor Thomas Menino. Coincidentally, when Bloomberg left the Republican Party in 2007, San Diego became the largest U. S. city with a Republican mayor. On September 19, 2007, Sanders abruptly reversed his public opposition to same-sex marriage before signing a City Council resolution aimed at overturning the state's ban on same-sex weddings, he gave a tearful speech in which he explained that he could not tell his daughter Lisa, gay, that her relationship with a partner is not as important as that of a straight couple and that he had "decided to lead with my heart...to take a stand on behalf of equality and social justice."Sanders won reelection over businessman Steve Francis in 2008. He left office on December 2012 due to term limits; the next day he became the CEO of the San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce.
In the 2012 episode "Butterballs" of the sixteenth season of South Park, Sanders appears during a song about masturbating in San Diego where he's promoting the city and suggests people should "try spanking it on one of our charming city streets." Video of Mayor's September 19, 2007 Press Conference on Same Sex Marriage
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students