Chloe Anthony Wofford Morrison, known as Toni Morrison, was an American novelist, book editor, college professor. Her first novel, The Bluest Eye, was published in 1970; the critically acclaimed Song of Solomon brought her national attention and won the National Book Critics Circle Award. In 1988, Morrison won the Pulitzer Prize for Beloved. Born and raised in Lorain, Morrison graduated from Howard University in 1953 with a B. A. in English. In 1955, she earned. In 1957 she returned to Howard University, was married, had two children before divorcing in 1964. In the late 1960s, she became the first black female editor in fiction at Random House in New York City. In the 1970s and 1980s, she developed her own reputation as an author, her most celebrated work, was made into a 1998 film. In 1996, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected her for the Jefferson Lecture, the U. S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. That year, she was honored with the National Book Foundation's Medal of Distinguished Contribution to American Letters.
On May 29, 2012, President Barack Obama presented Morrison with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 2016, she received the PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction. Toni Morrison was born in Ohio, to Ramah and George Wofford, she was the second of four children from a Black family. Her mother was born in Greenville and moved north with her family as a child, her father grew up in Georgia. When Wofford was about 15, a group of white people lynched two black businessmen who lived on his street. Morrison said: "He never told us that he'd seen bodies, but he had seen them. And, too traumatic, I think, for him." Soon after the lynching, George Wofford moved to the racially integrated town of Lorain, Ohio, in the hope of escaping racism and securing gainful employment in Ohio's burgeoning industrial economy. He worked odd jobs and as a welder for U. S. Steel. Ramah Wofford was a devout member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church; when Morrison was about two years old, her family's landlord set fire to the house in which they lived, while they were home, because her parents could not pay the rent.
Her family responded to what she called this "bizarre form of evil" by laughing at the landlord rather than falling into despair. Morrison said her family's response demonstrated how to keep your integrity and claim your own life in the face of acts of such "monumental crudeness."Morrison's parents instilled in her a sense of heritage and language through telling traditional African-American folktales, ghost stories, singing songs. Morrison read as a child, she became a Catholic at the age of 12 and took the baptismal name Anthony, which led to her nickname, Toni. Attending Lorain High School, she was on the debate team, the yearbook staff, in the drama club. In 1949, she enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D. C. seeking the company of fellow black intellectuals. It was while at Howard that she encountered racially segregated restaurants and buses for the first time, she graduated in 1953 with a B. A. in English and went on to earn a Master of Arts from Cornell University in 1955. Her master's thesis was titled "Virginia Woolf's and William Faulkner's treatment of the alienated."
She taught English, first at Texas Southern University in Houston from 1955-1957 at Howard University for the next seven years. While teaching at Howard, she met Harold Morrison, a Jamaican architect, whom she married in 1958, she was pregnant with their second son when she and Harold divorced in 1964. After her divorce in 1965, Morrison began working as an editor, for L. W. Singer, a textbook division of publisher Random House, in Syracuse, New York. Two years she transferred to Random House in New York City, where she became their first black woman senior editor in the fiction department. In that capacity, Morrison played a vital role in bringing Black literature into the mainstream. One of the first books she worked on was the groundbreaking Contemporary African Literature, a collection that included work by Nigerian writers Wole Soyinka, Chinua Achebe, South African playwright Athol Fugard, she fostered a new generation of Afro-American writers, including poet and novelist Toni Cade Bambara, radical activist Angela Davis, Black Panther Huey Newton and novelist Gayl Jones, whose writing Morrison discovered.
She brought to publication the 1975 autobiography of the outspoken boxing champion Muhammad Ali, The Greatest: My Own Story. In addition, she published and promoted the work of Henry Dumas, a little-known novelist and poet who in 1968 had been shot to death by a transit officer in the New York City Subway. Among other books Morrison developed and edited is The Black Book, an anthology of photographs, illustrations and other documents of black life in the United States from the time of slavery to the 1920s. Random House received good reviews. Alvin Beam reviewed the anthology for the Cleveland Plain Dealer, writing: "Editors, like novelists, have brain children—books they think up and bring to life without putting their own names on the title page. Mrs. Morrison has one of these in the stores now, magazines and newsletters in the publishing trade are ecstatic, saying it will go like hotcakes." Morrison had begun writing fiction as part of an informal group of poet
Gdynia Cisowa railway station is a railway station serving the city of Gdynia, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. The station is located on the Gdańsk Śródmieście -- Rumia railway; the train services are operated by SKM Tricity. The station is served by the following service: Szybka Kolej Miejska services Wejherowo - Reda - Rumia - Gdynia - Sopot - Gdansk Media related to Gdynia Cisowa train station at Wikimedia Commons This article is based upon a translation of the Polish language version as of October 2016
The Palouse to Cascades State Park Trail known as the John Wayne Pioneer Trail, is a rail trail that spans most of the U. S. state of Washington. It follows the former railway roadbed of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad for 300 miles across two-thirds of the state, from the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains to the Idaho border; the former Milwaukee Road roadbed was acquired by the state of Washington via a quitclaim deed, is used as a non-motorized recreational trail managed by the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission and by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources. State legislation "railbanked" the corridor with provisions that allow for the reversion to railroad usage in the future; the trail was named the John Wayne Pioneer Trail in honor of the John Wayne Pioneer Wagons and Riders Association for their assistance in creating the trail. The 100-mile portion from Cedar Falls to the Columbia River south of Vantage has been developed and is managed as the Iron Horse State Park.
In 2002, it was designated a National Recreation Trail. In 2018, the trail was renamed to the Palouse to Cascades State Park Trail by the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. In 2015, two Washington state representatives from the 9th district attempted to include language in an amendment to the state's 2015 capital budget that would close a 130-mile-long section of the trail east of the Columbia River, it was revealed that a typo, referring to the closed section as "from the Columbia River to the Columbia River", nullified the amendment temporarily. In April 2018, Washington State Parks proposed renaming the trail and Iron Horse State Park to resolve confusion; the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission adopted a new name, the Palouse to Cascades State Park Trail, in May. Access points to the developed portion of the trail, managed by Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, are at: Rattlesnake Lake, Cedar Falls – western terminus and connection to the Snoqualmie Valley Regional Trail Twin Falls Hyak – provides access to the 2.3-mile long Snoqualmie Tunnel through the crest of the Cascade Mountains.
In winter this site provides a public sledding area and ski trails groomed for track and skate style cross country skiing from Hyak eastward. Washington DOT Sno-pass parking is required at this site in winter. Within walking/snowing/skiing distance is a state parks owned lodge. Easton – descending the eastern slope of the Cascades Cle Elum – provides access to the Upper Yakima River Canyon Thorp – near the historic Thorp Mill Kittitas, Washington – in the open farm valley of the Yakima River drainage east of Ellensburg, Washington Army West – at the western edge of the stretch passing through the shrub-steppe country of the U. S. Army's Yakima Training Center Army East – at the eastern edge of the stretch passing through the Yakima Training Center as it reaches the Columbia River The trail features six tunnels, including the longest trail tunnel in the world, the 11,894-foot Snoqualmie Tunnel, #50 on the railroad's numbering system; the other five tunnels in order are the Boylston, Picnic Area and Whittier.
The Boylston Tunnel was known as the Johnson Creek tunnel to the railroad and sometimes tunnels #46 and #47 are known as the Thorp Tunnels. Access points to the undeveloped portion of the trail, managed by Washington State Department of Natural Resources, have not been formally opened to the public. However, the trail provides access to the unique geological erosion features of the Channeled Scablands regions of the state of Washington, several stretches have been recognized as providing access to this area created by the cataclysmic Missoula Floods that swept periodically across eastern Washington and down the Columbia River Plateau during the Pleistocene epoch. At Malden, once home to the largest railroad turntable in the world, Washington State Parks is planning a trailhead in the former rail yard. Media related to John Wayne Pioneer Trail at Wikimedia Commons