Fidelio, Op. 72, is Ludwig van Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto was prepared by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, with the work premiering at Vienna's Theater an der Wien on 20 November 1805; the following year, Stephan von Breuning helped shorten the work from three acts to two. After further work on the libretto by Georg Friedrich Treitschke, a final version was performed at the Kärntnertortheater on 23 May 1814. By convention, both of the first two versions are referred to as Leonore; the libretto, with some spoken dialogue, tells how Leonore, disguised as a prison guard named "Fidelio", rescues her husband Florestan from death in a political prison. Bouilly's scenario fits Beethoven's aesthetic and political outlook: a story of personal sacrifice and eventual triumph. With its underlying struggle for liberty and justice mirroring contemporary political movements in Europe, such topics are typical of Beethoven's "middle period". Notable moments in the opera include the "Prisoners' Chorus", an ode to freedom sung by a chorus of political prisoners, Florestan's vision of Leonore come as an angel to rescue him, the scene in which the rescue takes place.
The finale celebrates Leonore's bravery with alternating contributions of soloists and chorus. The work has a long and complicated history of composition: it went through three versions during Beethoven's career, some of the music was first written as part of an earlier, never-completed opera; the distant origin of Fidelio dates from 1803, when the librettist and impresario Emanuel Schikaneder worked out a contract with Beethoven to write an opera. The contract included free housing for Beethoven in the apartment complex, part of Schikaneder's large suburban theater, the Theater an der Wien. Beethoven was to set a new libretto by Schikaneder, entitled Vestas Feuer, he spent about a month composing music for it abandoned it when the libretto for Fidelio came to his attention. The time Beethoven spent on Vestas Feuer was not wasted, as two important numbers from Fidelio, Pizarro's "'Ha! Welch’ ein Augenblick!" and the duet "O namenlose Freude" for Leonora and Florestan, both originated as music for Vestas Feuer.
Beethoven remained as a resident of the Theater an der Wien for some time after he had abandoned Vestas Feuer for Fidelio, was freed from his obligations to Schikaneder when the latter was fired from his post as theater director in 1804. Fidelio itself, which Beethoven began in 1804 after giving up on Vestas Feuer, was first performed in 1805 and was extensively revised by the composer for subsequent performances in 1806 and 1814. Although Beethoven used the title Leonore, oder Der Triumph der ehelichen Liebe, the 1805 performances were billed as Fidelio at the theatre's insistence, to avoid confusion with the 1798 opera Léonore, ou L’amour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux, the 1804 opera Leonora by Ferdinando Paer. Beethoven published the 1806 libretto and, in 1810, a vocal score under the title Leonore, the current convention is to use the name Leonore for both the 1805 and 1806 versions and Fidelio only for the final 1814 revision; the first version with a three-act German libretto adapted by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly premiered at the Theater an der Wien on 20 November 1805, with additional performances the following two nights.
The success of these performances was hindered by the fact that Vienna was under French military occupation, most of the audience were French military officers. After this premiere, Beethoven was pressured by friends to revise and shorten the opera into just two acts, he did so with the help of Stephan von Breuning; the composer wrote a new overture. In this form the opera was first performed on 10 April 1806, with greater success. Further performances were prevented by a dispute between the theatre management. In 1814 Beethoven revised his opera yet again, with additional work on the libretto by Georg Friedrich Treitschke; this version was first performed at the Kärntnertortheater on 23 May 1814, again under the title Fidelio. The 17-year-old Franz Schubert was in the audience; the deaf Beethoven led the performance, "assisted" by Michael Umlauf, who performed the same task for Beethoven at the premiere of the Ninth Symphony. The role of Pizarro was taken by Johann Michael Vogl, who became known for his collaborations with Schubert.
This version of the opera was a great success, Fidelio has been part of the operatic repertory since. Although critics have noted the similarity in plot with Gluck's opera Orfeo ed Euridice—the underground rescue mission in which the protagonist must control, or conceal, his emotions in order to retrieve his or her spouse, we do not know whether or not Beethoven or any of the librettists had this in mind while constructing the opera. Beethoven can not be said to have enjoyed the difficulties posed by producing an opera. In a letter to Treitschke he said, "I assure you, dear Treitschke, that this opera will win me a martyr's crown. You have by your co-operation saved. For all this I shall be eternally grateful to you."The full score was not published until 1826, all three versions are known as Beethoven's Opus 72. The first performance outside Vienna took place in Prague on 21 November 1814, with a revival in
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, activist for the unification of Italy, spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century, he helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state. Mazzini's thoughts had a considerable influence on the Italian and European republican movements, in the Constitution of Italy, about Europeanism, more nuanced, on many politicians of a period: among them, men like U. S. President Woodrow Wilson and British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, but post-colonial leaders such as Gandhi, Golda Meir, David Ben-Gurion, Kwame Nkrumah, Jawaharlal Nehru and Sun Yat-sen. Mazzini was born in Genoa part of the Ligurian Republic, under the rule of the French Empire, his father, Giacomo Mazzini from Chiavari, was a university professor who had adhered to Jacobin ideology.
From a early age, Mazzini showed good learning qualities. He was admitted to university at 14, graduating in law in 1826, practiced as a "poor man's lawyer". Mazzini hoped to become a historical novelist or a dramatist, in the same year wrote his first essay, Dell'amor patrio di Dante, published in 1837. In 1828–29 he collaborated with a Genoese newspaper, L'Indicatore Genovese, however soon closed by the Piedmontese authorities, he became one of the leading authors of L'Indicatore Livornese, published at Livorno by F. D. Guerrazzi, until this paper was closed down by the authorities, too. In 1827 Mazzini travelled to Tuscany, where he became a member of the Carbonari, a secret association with political purposes. On 31 October of that year he was interned at Savona. In early 1831, he was confined to a small hamlet, he chose exile instead. In 1831 Mazzini went to Marseille, he was a frequent visitor to the apartment of Giuditta Bellerio Sidoli, a beautiful Modenese widow who became his lover. In August 1832 Giuditta Sidoli gave birth to a boy certainly Mazzini's son, whom she named Joseph Démosthène Adolpe Aristide after members of the family of Démosthène Ollivier, with whom Mazzini was staying.
The Olliviers took care of the child in June 1833 when Mazzini left for Switzerland. The child died in February 1835. Mazzini organized. Young Italy was a secret society formed to promote Italian unification: "One, independent, republican nation." Mazzini believed that a popular uprising would create a unified Italy, would touch off a European-wide revolutionary movement. The group's motto was God and the People, its basic principle was the unification of the several states and kingdoms of the peninsula into a single republic as the only true foundation of Italian liberty; the new nation had to be: "One, Free Republic". Mazzini's political activism met some success in Tuscany, Sicily and his native Liguria among several military officers. Young Italy counted about 60,000 adherents with branches in Genoa and other cities. In that year Mazzini first attempted insurrection, which would spread from Chambéry, Alessandria and Genoa. However, the Savoy government discovered the plot before it could begin and many revolutionaries were arrested.
The repression was ruthless: 12 participants were executed, while Mazzini's best friend and director of the Genoese section of the Giovine Italia, Jacopo Ruffini, killed himself. Mazzini was sentenced to death. Despite this setback, he organized another uprising for the following year. A group of Italian exiles were to enter Piedmont from Switzerland and spread the revolution there, while Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had joined Young Italy, was to do the same from Genoa. However, the Piedmontese troops crushed the new attempt. In the spring of 1834, while at Bern, Mazzini and a dozen refugees from Italy and Germany founded a new association with the grandiose name of Young Europe, its basic, grandiose idea, was that, as the French Revolution of 1789 had enlarged the concept of individual liberty, another revolution would now be needed for national liberty. His intention was nothing less than to overturn the European settlement agreed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, which had reestablished an oppressive hegemony of a few great powers and blocked the emergence of smaller nations.
Mazzini hoped, but without much confidence, that his vision of a league or society of independent nations would be realized in his own lifetime. In practice Young Europe lacked the money and popular support for more than a short-term existence, he always remained faithful to the ideal of a united continent for which the creation of individual nations would be an indispensable preliminary. On 28 May 1834 Mazzini was arrested at Solothurn, exiled from Switzerland, he moved to Paris, where he was again imprisoned on 5 Ju
Don't Waste Your Time, Johnny!
Don't Waste Your Time, Johnny! is a 2007 Italian biographical comedy-drama film written and directed by Fabrizio Bentivoglio. It is loosely based on real life events of musician Fausto Mesolella, a member of Piccola Orchestra Avion Travel, it was nominated including Best New Director. Antimo Merolillo as Fausto "Johnny" Ciaramella Fabrizio Bentivoglio as Augusto Riverberi Ernesto Mahieux as Raffaele Niro Valeria Golino as Annamaria Lina Sastri as Vincenza, Johnny's mother Peppe Servillo as Gerry Como Roberto De Francesco as Autore Toni Servillo as Maestro Falasco Daria D'Antonio as Franca Marocco Ugo Fangareggi as Pietro Tagnin Luigi Montini as Discografico List of Italian films of 2007 Don't Waste Your Time, Johnny! on IMDb
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Rehearsals for War
Rehearsals for War is a 1998 Italian drama film directed by Mario Martone. It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival. Andrea Renzi - Leo Iaia Forte - Luisella Cielo Maurizio Bizzi - Maurizio Salvatore Cantalupo - Rosario Antonello Cossia - Antonello Francesca Cutolo - Francesca Giovanna Giuliani - Giovanna Vincenzo Saggese - Vincenzo Lucia Vitrone - Lucia Roberto De Francesco - Diego Marco Baliani - Vittorio Nina Di Majo - Giornalista Beniamino Femiano - Varriale Tatà Donnabella - Capo redattore Toni Servillo - Franco Turco Anna Bonaiuto - Sara Cataldi Rehearsals for War on IMDb
Death of a Neapolitan Mathematician
Death of a Neapolitan Mathematician is a 1992 Italian drama film and directed by Mario Martone. The film earned nine awards and was nominated for two, with director and writer Mario Martone winning seven awards. Carlo Cecchi as Renato Caccioppoli Anna Bonaiuto as Anna Renato Carpentieri as Luigi Caccioppoli Toni Servillo as Pietro Licia Maglietta as Emilia Antonio Neiwiller as Don Simplicio 49th Venice International Film Festival 1992: Grand Special Jury Prize - Mario Martone Kodak Cinecritica Award - Mario Martone Pasinetti Award - Best Actor: Carlo Cecchi Angers European First Film Festival 1993: C. I. C. A. E. Award - Mario Martone European Jury Award - Feature Film: Mario Martone SACD Grand Prize - Mario Martone David di Donatello Awards 1993: David Award - Best New Director: Mario Martone Special David Award - Carlo Cecchi Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists 1993: Silver Ribbon Award - Best New Director: Mario Martone European Film Awards 1993: European Film Award - Best Actor: Carlo Cecchi Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists 1993: Silver Ribbon - Best Actor: Carlo Cecchi Death of a Neapolitan Mathematician on IMDb
The Palme d'Or is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. From 1939 to 1954, the highest prize at the festival was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film. In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975; the Palme d'Or is considered to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry. In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist; the festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes. The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien. In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for Marty. From 1964 to 1974, the Festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix.
In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the winning film, presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede. As of 2018, Jane Campion is the only female director to have won the Palme d'Or, for her work on The Piano. However, in 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's director Abdellatif Kechiche, as well as the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux; this marks the first time. The jury decided to award the actresses alongside the director due to a Cannes policy that forbids the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, thereby preventing the jury from rewarding both the film and the film's actresses separately. Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said that "had the casting been 3% wrong, it wouldn't have worked like it did for us". Kechiche auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, expressed mixed feelings about the festival having given out multiple trophies in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter.
Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, a new design, created by Caroline Scheufele from Chopard, was created; the winner of the 2014 Palme d'Or, Winter Sleep—a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan—occurred during the same year as the 100th anniversary of Turkish cinema. Upon receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated the prize to both the "young people" involved in the ongoing political unrest in Turkey and the workers who were killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day prior to the commencement of the awards event. In 2017, the award was re-designed to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary; the diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council. * Director's nationality given at time of film's release.
§ Denotes unanimous win ‡ The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II; the organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Goodbye Mr. Chips, La Piste du Nord, Lenin in 1918, The Four Feathers, The Wizard of Oz, Union Pacific, Boefje. Eight directors or co-directors have won the award twice: 1946 & 1951 Alf Sjöberg 1974 & 1979 Francis Ford Coppola 1988 & 1992 Bille August 1985 & 1995 Emir Kusturica 1983 & 1997 Shohei Imamura 1999 & 2005 Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne 2009 & 2012 Michael Haneke 2006 & 2016 Ken Loach In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or. In 2011 the festival announced that the award would be given out annually, however plans for this fell through and it was not awarded again until four years in 2015.
American director Woody Allen was the inaugural recipient while pioneering French filmmaker Agnès Varda was the first woman to receive the award in 2015. In 2016, Jean-Pierre Léaud became the first person to be awarded for acting. In 2018, the Cannes jury awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time. Golden Bear, the highest prize awarded at the Berlin Film Festival Golden Lion, the highest prize awarded at the Venice Film Festival Palme d'Or Winners, 1976 to present, by gross box-office Festival-cannes.com Cannes Film Festival IMDB