A soft drink is a drink that contains carbonated water, a sweetener, a natural or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute, or some combination of these. Soft drinks may contain caffeine, preservatives, and/or other ingredients. Soft drinks are called "soft" in contrast with "hard" alcoholic drinks. Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume of the drink in many countries and localities if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic. Fruit punch and other such non-alcoholic drinks are technically soft drinks by this definition, but are not referred to as such. Soft drinks may be served chilled, over ice cubes, or at room temperature soda, they are available in many container formats, including cans, glass bottles, plastic bottles. Containers come in a variety of sizes. Soft drinks are available at fast food restaurants, movie theaters, convenience stores, casual-dining restaurants, dedicated soda stores, bars from soda fountain machines.
Soft drinks are served in paper or plastic disposable cups in the first three venues. In casual dining restaurants and bars, soft drinks are served in glasses made from glass or plastic. Soft drinks sipped directly from the cups. Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts. In Western countries, in bars and other places where alcohol is served, many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor and serving the drink over ice. One well-known example is the rum and coke, which may contain lime juice; some homemade fruit punch recipes, which may or may not contain alcohol, contain a mixture of various fruit juices and a soft drink. At ice cream parlours and 1950s-themed diners, ice cream floats, root beer floats, are sold. Examples of brands include Coca-Cola, Sprite, Sierra Mist, Sunkist, Mountain Dew, Dr. Pepper, 7 UP. While the term "soft drink" is used in product labeling and on restaurant menus, in many countries these drinks are more referred to by regional names, including carbonated drink, cool drink, cold drink, fizzy drink, fizzy juice, lolly water, seltzer, coke, soda pop and mineral.
Due to the high sugar content in typical soft drinks, they may be called sugary drinks. In the United States, the 2003 Harvard Dialect Survey tracked the usage of the nine most common names. Over half of the survey respondents preferred the term "soda", dominant in the Northeastern United States and the areas surrounding Milwaukee and St. Louis; the term "pop", preferred by 25% of the respondents, was most popular in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest, while the genericized trademark "coke", used by 12% of the respondents, was most popular in the Southern United States. The term "tonic" is hyperlocal to eastern Massachusetts. In the English-speaking parts of Canada, the term "pop" is prevalent, but "soft drink" is the most common English term used in Montreal. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the terms "fizzy drink" and the genericized trademark "coke" are common. "Pop" and "fizzy pop" are used in Northern England and the Midlands, while "mineral" or "lemonade" are used in Ireland. In Scotland, "fizzy juice" or simply "juice" is colloquially encountered.
In Australia and New Zealand, "fizzy drink" or "soft drink" is used. In South African English, "cool drink" and "cold drink" are used, but in South African Indian English, "cool drink" is most prevalent. Older people use the term "mineral"; the origins of soft drinks lie in the development of fruit-flavored drinks. In the medieval Middle East, a variety of fruit-flavoured soft drinks were drunk, such as sharbat, were sweetened with ingredients such as sugar and honey. Other common ingredients included lemon, pomegranate, jujube, musk and ice. Middle-Eastern drinks became popular in medieval Europe, where the word "syrup" was derived from Arabic. In Tudor England,'water imperial' was drunk. Another early type of soft drink was lemonade, made of water and lemon juice sweetened with honey, but without carbonated water; the Compagnie des Limonadiers of Paris was granted a monopoly for the sale of lemonade soft drinks in 1676. Vendors dispensed cups of the soft drink to Parisians. In the late 18th century, scientists made important progress in replicating carbonated mineral waters.
In 1767, Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England. His invention of carbonated water is the defining component of most soft drinks. Priestley found that water treated in this manner had a pleasant taste, he offered it to his friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, encouraging the
Gin is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries. Gin is one of the broadest categories of spirits, all of various origins and flavour profiles, that revolve around juniper as a common ingredient. From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, the drink has evolved from a herbal medicine to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin was developed based on the older Dutch liquor and became popular in Great Britain when William of Orange became King William III of England. Gin today is produced in subtly different ways, from a wide range of herbal ingredients, giving rise to a number of distinct styles and brands. After juniper, gin tends to be flavoured with botanical/herbal, floral or fruit-flavours or a combination, it is most consumed mixed with tonic water. Gin is often used as a base spirit to produce flavoured gin-based liqueurs such as, for example, Sloe gin, traditionally by the addition of fruit and sugar; the earliest known written reference to genever appears in the 13th-century encyclopaedic work Der Naturen Bloeme, with the earliest printed recipe for genever dating from 16th-century work Een Constelijck Distileerboec.
The physician Franciscus Sylvius has been falsely credited with the invention of gin in the mid-17th century, although the existence of genever is confirmed in Philip Massinger's play The Duke of Milan, when Sylvius would have been about nine years old. It is further claimed that English soldiers who provided support in Antwerp against the Spanish in 1585, during the Eighty Years' War, were drinking genever for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch courage is believed to have originated. According to some unconfirmed accounts Gin originated in Italy. By the mid-17th century, numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or malt wine with juniper, caraway, etc. which were sold in pharmacies and used to treat such medical problems as kidney ailments, stomach ailments and gout. Gin emerged in England in varying forms by the early 17th century, at the time of the Restoration, enjoyed a brief resurgence. Gin became vastly more popular as an alternative to brandy, when William III, II & I and Mary II became co-sovereigns of England and Ireland after leading the Glorious Revolution.
In crude, inferior forms, where it was more to be flavoured with turpentine. Gin drinking in England rose after the government allowed unlicensed gin production, at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits such as French brandy; this created a larger market for poor-quality barley, unfit for brewing beer, in 1695–1735 thousands of gin-shops sprang up throughout England, a period known as the Gin Craze.. Because of the low price of gin, when compared with other drinks available at the same time, in the same geographic location, gin began to be consumed by the poor. Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, not including coffee shops and drinking chocolate shops, over half were gin shops. Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water. Gin, was blamed for various social problems, it may have been a factor in the higher death rates which stabilized London's growing population; the reputation of the two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane, described by the BBC as "arguably the most potent anti-drug poster conceived."
The negative reputation of gin survives today in the English language, in terms like gin mills or the American phrase gin joints to describe disreputable bars, or gin-soaked to refer to drunks. The epithet mother's ruin is a common British name for gin, the origin of, the subject of ongoing debate; the Gin Act 1736 led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was reduced and abolished in 1742; the Gin Act 1751 was more successful, however. Gin in the 18th century was produced in pot stills, was somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today. In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled in residential houses and was flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper; as late as 1913, Webster's Dictionary states without further comment, "'common gin' is flavoured with turpentine". Another common variation was to distill in the presence of sulphuric acid. Although the acid itself does not distil, it imparts the additional aroma of diethyl ether to the resulting gin.
Sulphuric acid subtracts one water molecule from two ethanol molecules to create diethyl ether, which forms an azeotrope with ethanol, therefore distils with it. The result is a sweeter spirit, one that may have possessed additional analgesic or intoxicating effects – see Paracelsus. Dutch or Belgian gin known as jenever or genever, evolved from malt wine spirits, is a distinctly different drink from styles of gin. Schiedam, a city in the province of South Holland, is famous for its jenever-producing history; the same for Hasselt in the Belgian province of Limburg. The oude style of jenever remained popular throughout the 19th century, where it was referred to as Holland or Geneva gin in popular, pre-Prohibition bartender guides; the 18th century gave rise to a style of gin referred to as Old Tom gin, which
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
Carbonated water or soda water is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, either artificially injected under pressure or occurring due to natural geological processes. Carbonation causes small bubbles to form. Common forms include sparkling natural mineral water, club soda, commercially produced sparkling water. Club soda, sparkling mineral water and many other sparkling waters contain added or dissolved minerals such as potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, or potassium sulfate; these occur in some mineral waters but are commonly added artificially to man-made waters to mimic a natural flavor profile. Various carbonated waters are sold in bottles and cans, with some produced on demand by commercial carbonation systems in bars and restaurants, or made at home using a carbon dioxide cartridge, it is thought the first person to aerate water with carbon dioxide was William Brownrigg in 1740, although he never published a paper. Carbonated water was independently accidentally invented by Joseph Priestley in 1767 when he discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide after suspending a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery in Leeds, England.
He wrote of the "peculiar satisfaction" he found in drinking it, in 1772 he published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air. Priestley’s apparatus, which featured a bladder between the generator and the absorption tank to regulate the flow of carbon dioxide, was soon joined by a wide range of others, but it wasn’t until 1781 that carbonated water began being produced on a large scale with the establishment of companies specialized in producing artificial mineral water; the first factory was built by Thomas Henry of England. Henry replaced the bladder in Priestley’s system with large bellows. While Priestley is regarded as “the father of the soft drink,” he did not benefit financially from his invention, he did however receive scientific recognition when the Council of the Royal Society “were moved to reward its discoverer with the Copley Medal” in 1772. Natural and man-made carbonated waters may contain a small amount of sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium sulfate, or disodium phosphate, depending on the product.
These occur in mineral waters but are added artificially to commercially produced waters to mimic a natural flavor profile. Artesian wells in such places as Mihalkovo in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains, Medžitlija in North Macedonia, most notably in Selters in the German Taunus mountains, produce effervescent mineral waters. By itself, carbonated water appears to have little impact on health. While carbonated water is somewhat acidic, this acidity can be neutralized by saliva. A study found that sparkling mineral water is more erosive to teeth than non-carbonated water but is about 100 times less erosive to teeth than are soft drinks. Carbonated water may increase irritable bowel syndrome symptoms of bloating and gas due to the release of carbon dioxide in the digestive tract, it does not appear to have an effect on gastroesophageal reflux disease. There is tentative evidence that carbonated water may help with constipation among people who have had a stroke. Carbonated water such as club soda or sparkling water is defined in US law as a food of minimal nutritional value if minerals, vitamins, or artificial sweeteners have been added to it.
Carbon dioxide gas dissolved in water at a low concentration creates carbonic acid according to the following reaction: H 2 O + CO 2 ↽ − − ⇀ H 2 CO 3 The acid gives carbonated water a tart flavor. The pH level between 3 and 4 is in between apple juice and orange juice in acidity, but much less acidic than the acid in the stomach. A normal, healthy human body maintains pH equilibrium via acid–base homeostasis and will not be materially adversely affected by consumption of plain carbonated water. Alkaline salts, such as sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, or potassium citrate, will increase pH; the amount of a gas that can be dissolved in water is described by Henry's Law. In the carbonization process water is chilled, optimally to just above freezing, to maximize the amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in it. Higher gas pressure and lower temperature cause more gas to dissolve in the liquid; when the temperature is raised or the pressure is reduced, carbon dioxide effervesces, thereby escaping from the solution.
Many alcoholic drinks, such as beer and champagne, were carbonated through the fermentation process for centuries. In 1662 Christopher Merret was creating'sparkling wine'. William Brownrigg was the first to produce artificial carbonated water, in the early 1740s, by using carbon dioxide taken from mines. In 1750 the Frenchman Gabriel François Venel produced artificial carbonated water, though he misunderstood the nature of the gas that caused the carbonation. In 1764, Irish chemist Dr. Macbride infused water with carbon dioxide as part of a series of experiments on fermentation and putrefaction. In 1766 Henry Cavendish devised an aerating apparatus that would inspire Joseph Priestley to carry out his own experiments with regards to carbonated waters. Ca
Bitter lemon is a carbonated soft drink flavoured with quinine and lemon. The signature bitter taste is produced by a combination of quinine and lemon pith used in manufacturing the drink; the principal difference between tonic water and bitter lemon is the addition of lemon juice and peel. Bitter lemon is drunk both by itself and as a mixer, is sold across the world; the generic bitter lemon drink dates back to 1834. Schweppes introduced its brand of bitter lemon in 1957. In South Africa the beverage is branded as Dry Lemon. StrangeLove Schweppes Fever Tree Krest Gini Royal Club Polar Beverages Fever Tree Teem Limca List of lemon dishes and beverages
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle