The Dhauliganga is one of the six source streams of the Ganges river. It meets the Alaknanda River at Vishnuprayag at the base of Joshimath mountain in Uttarakhand; the 82 km -long Dhauliganga rises at an altitude of 5,070 m in the Niti Pass in Chamoli District of Uttarakhand. At Raini, 25 km from Joshimath, it is joined by the Rishi Ganga river; the Dhauliganga ends at Vishnuprayag. Tapovan, known for its hot sulfur springs, is situated on the banks of the river
Gaula River (India)
The Gaula River, or Gola River, is a river in India originating in the Lesser Himalayas. It is 500 km long; the river is known by the name, Kichha, in its lower course. It originates in the Sattal lakes of Uttarakhand state, flows south past Kathgodam, Haldwani and Shahi joining the Ramganga River about 15 km northwest of Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh, Ramganga in turn is a tributary of the river Ganges, it is a spring fed river. A beautiful dam exists over this river in Kathgodam; this is controversial due to illegal mining. The government plans to install remote sensor anti-theft devices. Over the years, due erosion and deforestation the Gaula catchment has become prone to landslides and the springs in it and overall rainfall have declined leading to reduction in its flow; the Gaula riverbed after it hits the plain near Haldwani has been facing erosion to excessive quarrying. When despite Supreme Court's directive which banned quarrying while only allowing silt deposit removal, has led to public protests in the regions and a bandh in Haldwani in December 2009 by activists, alleging nexus between stone crushing and mining industry and the administration.
The steady erosion of the Gola river forest corridor threatens the survival of tigers and elephants in the Terai region. A barrage on this river, known as the Gaula Barrage, is located at Kathgodam; the barrage is a landmark for the local residents. It provides irrigation water for the bhabar fields. Development of bridge over this river in Haldwani-Kathgodam area has been controversial for long. Gaula River at wikimapia
Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Letitia Elizabeth Landon was an English poet and novelist, better known by her initials L. E. L. Letitia Elizabeth Landon was born on 14 August 1802 in Chelsea, London to John Landon and Catherine Jane, née Bishop. A precocious child, Landon learned to read as a toddler. Rowden was an engaging teacher, with a particular enthusiasm for the theatre. Rowden was not only a poet, according to Mary Russell Mitford, "she had a knack of making poetesses of her pupils" This links Landon to other of Rowden's pupils such as Caroline Ponsonby Lady Caroline Lamb; the Landons moved to the country in 1809, so that John Landon could carry out a model farm project, Landon was educated at home by her cousin Elizabeth from that point on. Elizabeth, though older, soon found her knowledge and abilities outstripped by those of her pupil: "When I asked Letitia any question relating either to history, grammar – Plutarch's Lives, or to any book we had been reading, I was pretty certain her answers would be correct. I never knew her to be wrong."When young, Letitia was close to her younger brother, Whittington Henry, born 1804.
Paying for Whittington through university was one of the needs that drove Letitia to publish. She supported his preferment and dedicated her poem "Captain Cook" to their childhood days together. Whittington went on to become a minister and published a book of sermons in 1835. Sadly, he did not show any appreciation for all his sister's financial assistance but spread false rumours about her marriage and death. Letitia had a younger sister, Elizabeth Jane, a frail child and died in 1819, aged just 13. Little is known of Elizabeth but her death may well have left a profound impression on Letitia and it could be Elizabeth, referred to in the poem "The Forgotten One". An agricultural depression soon followed, the family moved back to London in 1815, where John Landon made the acquaintance of William Jerdan, editor of the Literary Gazette. According to 19th-century commentator Mrs A. T. Thomson, Jerdan took notice of the young Landon when he saw her coming down the street, "trundling a hoop with one hand, holding in the other a book of poems, of which she was catching a glimpse between the agitating course of her evolutions".
Jerdan, after examining her work, of which he described her ideas as "original and extraordinary", encouraged Landon's poetic endeavours, her first poem was published under the single initial "L" in the Gazette in 1820, when Landon was 18. The following year, with financial support from her grandmother, Landon published a book of poetry, The Fate of Adelaide, under her full name; the book sold well. The same month that The Fate of Adelaide appeared, Landon published two poems under the initials "L. E. L." in the Gazette. As contemporary critic Laman Blanchard put it, the initials L. E. L. "speedily became a signature of magical interest and curiosity". Bulwer Lytton wrote that, as a young college student, he and his classmates would rush every Saturday afternoon for the Literary Gazette, an impatient anxiety to hasten at once to that corner of the sheet which contained the three magical letters L. E. L, and all of us praised the verse, all of us guessed at the author. We soon learned it was a female, our admiration was doubled, our conjectures tripled.
Landon served as the Gazette's chief reviewer. Landon's father died that year, Landon was forced to use her writing to support both herself and her family. Mary Mitford claimed that the novels of Catherine Stepney were polished by Landon. By 1826, Landon's high reputation began to suffer as rumours circulated that she had had affairs or secretly borne children. Landon continued, however, to publish poetry, in 1831 she published her first novel and Reality, she became engaged to John Forster. Forster became aware of the rumours regarding Landon's sexual activity, asked her to refute them. Landon responded. To him, she wrote: The more I think, the more I feel I ought not – I can not – allow you to unite yourself with one accused of – I can not write it; the mere suspicion is dreadful as death. Were it stated as a fact, that might
The Pindar River is a river located in Uttarakhand, India. Pindar river originates from Pindari glacier in the Almora District, meets Alaknanda at Karnprayag
Bandarpunch is a mountain massif of the Garhwal division of the Himalayas, in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Known as Bandarpoonch, which means "Tail of the monkey"; this is a reference to Hanuman, the monkey god and mighty warrior, who went to its summit to extinguish his tail when it caught fire in the battle alongside King Rama to rescue the Princes Sita from the evil forces of the demon Ravana in Lanka. Bandarpoonch massif has 3 peaks. To the west above Yamnotri is White Peak. 5 km east is Bandarpoonch Peak and about 4 km to the north-east of, Kalanag lit. black serpent known as Black Peak. Bandarpunch is strategically located at the western edge of the High Himalayan Range where it turns the corner to the northwest, it lies within the Govind Pashu Vihar National Park and Sanctuary. It is a major watershed for the headwaters of the Yamuna River, whose source lies above Yamnotri, on the west end of the massif below White Peak. Yamnotri is the western most of the four most sacred pilgrimage places and destination for thousands of pilgrims annually.
On the north side of the Bandapoonch massif, the 12 km long glacier from its flanks feeds the Ruinsar Gad which flows into the Yamuna at Seema. On the south side, the glacier at the base of Bandarpoonch peak feeds the Hanuman Ganga River which joins the Yamuna at Hanuman Chatti. Maj Gen Harold Williams led the first successful climbing expedition in 1950; the first team to summit Bandarpoonch Peak comprised legendary Mountaineer Tenzing Norgay, Sergeant Roy Greenwood and Sherpa Kin Chok Tshering. List of Himalayan peaks of Uttarakhand
River Pushpawati flows through the Valley of Flowers in Chamoli district in Garhwal region of the Indian state of Uttarakhand. The Pushpawati rises from the East Kamet Glacier, near Rataban, at the base of the Himalayas near the central part of the Garhwal-Tibet border, it flows in a southerly direction to join the Bhyundar Ganga near Ghagharia. The combined stream is thereafter known as the Lakshman Ganga; the latter merges with the Alaknanda River at Govindghat. The Puspawati drains the Valley of Flowers; the glaciated upper valley of the Pushawati is U-shaped. The river flows past thick glacial deposits. A number of glacier-fed streams join it in its upper reaches, it flows through a gorge in its lower reaches. The upper tracts are under permanent cover of snow. Alpine, sub-alpine and temperate vegetation is there in the middle and lower catchments of the river. Human habitation is sparse. According to legend, the Pandavas, during their years of exile, saw flowers floating down the river, they named it Pushpawati.
Valley of Flowers Gobindghat
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab