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Tonsure

Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp as a sign of religious devotion or humility. The term originates from the Latin word tōnsūra and referred to a specific practice in medieval Catholicism, abandoned by papal order in 1972. Tonsure can refer to the secular practice of shaving all or part of the scalp to show support or sympathy, or to designate mourning. Current usage more refers to cutting or shaving for monks, devotees, or mystics of any religion as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. Tonsure is still a traditional practice in Catholicism by specific religious orders, it is commonly used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for newly baptized members and is used for Buddhist novices and monks. It exists as a traditional practice in Islam after completion of the Hajj and is practiced by a number of Hindu religious orders. A pattern in the dermatologic disease trichotillomania has been named after the pattern of this style. Tonsure is the part of three rites of passages in the life of the individual in Hinduism.

The first is called Chudakarana known as choulam, chudakarma, or mundana, marks the child's first haircut the shaving of the head. The mother dresses up, sometimes in her wedding sari, with the father present, the baby's head is shaved and nails trimmed and dressed in new clothes. Sometimes, a tuft of hair is left to cover the soft spot near the top of the baby's head. Both boys and girls go through this ceremony, sometimes near a temple or a river, but it is not mandatory in Hinduism; the significance of Chudakarana rite of passage is the baby's cyclical step to hygiene and cleanliness. The ritual is done about the first birthday, but some texts recommend that it be completed before the third or the seventh year. Sometimes, this ritual is combined with the rite of passage of Upanayana, initiation to formal schooling; the second rite of passage in Hinduism that sometimes involves tonsure is at the Upanayana, the sanskara marking a child's entry into school. Another rite of passage where tonsure is practiced by Hindus is after the death and completing the last rites of an immediate family member, father, brother, spouse or child.

This ritual is regionally found in India among male mourners, who shave their heads as a sign of bereavement. Until a few decades ago, many Hindu communities the upper castes, forced widows to undergo the ritual of tonsure and shun good clothes and ornaments, in order to make them unattractive to men. According to Jamanadas, tonsure was a Buddhist custom and was adopted by Hinduism; however and others trace the practice to Sanskrit texts dated to have been composed before the birth of Buddha, which mention tonsure as a rite of passage. In Buddhism, tonsure is a part of the rite of pabbajja and a part of becoming a monk or nun; this involves shaving the face. This tonsure is renewed as as required to keep the head cleanly shaven; the purification process of the metzora involved the ritual shaving on the metzorah's entire body except for the afflicted locations. And as the term tonsure may be used as a broad description for such hair styling of devotees as a ritual symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem, Orthodox Jewish males do not shave the corners of their beards or scalps with straight blades, as described in Leviticus 19:27.

Some religious groups of Jews do not shave the child's head. After he celebrates his third year, the parents take the baby to Mount Meron to a celebration of cutting the hair except the corners of the scalps; this ceremony is called "Khalake" or "Upshern" in Yiddish. Tonsure was not known in antiquity. Tradition states that it originated with the disciples of Jesus, who observed the Torah command not to shave the hair around the sides of one's head. There were three forms of tonsure known in the 7th and 8th centuries: The Oriental, which claimed the authority of Saint Paul the Apostle and consisted of shaving the whole head; this was observed in the Eastern churches, including the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. Hence Theodore of Tarsus, who had acquired his learning in Byzantine Asia Minor and bore this tonsure, had to allow his hair to grow for four months before he could be tonsured after the Roman fashion, ordained Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Vitalian in 668.

The Celtic, the exact shape of, unclear from the sources, but in some way involved shaving the head from ear to ear. The shape may have been semicircular, arcing forward from a line between the ears, but another popular suggestion, less borne out in the sources, proposes that the entire forehead was shaved back to the ears. More a triangular shape, with one point at the front of the head going back to a line between the ears, has been suggested; the Celtic tonsure was worn in Ireland and Great Britain and was connected to the distinct set of practices known as Celtic Christianity. It was opposed by the Roman tradition, but many adherents to the Celtic tradition continued to maintain the old way well into the 8th and 9th centuries; some sources have suggested links between this tonsure and that worn by druids in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Roman: this consisted of shaving only the top of the head, so as to allow the hair to grow in the form of a crown; this is claimed to have originated with Saint Peter

Oliver Schreiner

Oliver Deneys Schreiner, MC, was a judge of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa. One of the most renowned South African judges, he was passed over twice for the position of Chief Justice of South Africa for political reasons, he was described as "the greatest Chief Justice South Africa never had". Schreiner was born in Cape Town in 1890, the son of William Philip Schreiner, the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony during the Boer War, his wife, Frances, a sister of President F. W. Reitz; the author Olive Schreiner was his aunt. Schreiner attended the Rondebosch Boys' High School, the South African College School, before going to the South African College, where he was the admired president of the Debating Union. An excellent student, he "could have had the Rhodes Scholarship for the asking", but understood, in the light of Rhodes's involvement in the Jameson Raid and subsequent fallout with William Schreiner, that "no Schreiner took such a gift from such a man". Instead, Schreiner went up to Cambridge to read Law.

Like his father, who had studied at Cambridge, Schreiner had a brilliant academic career, topping the list for Part I of the Law Tripos in 1912, winning the George Long Prize in Roman Law, receiving a Trinity Senior Scholarship. In 1915 he was granted his BA in absentia and in 1916 he was elected to a fellowship of Trinity, his studies were interrupted by the First World War: he was commissioned into the British Army, served with the Northamptonshire Regiment and the South Wales Borderers. He was wounded in the right arm at Trônes Wood during the Battle of the Somme, received the Military Cross. After recovering from his injuries, he was sent to Mesopotamia, he was demobilized with the rank of captain. After the war Schreiner completed his legal studies and was called to the English bar at the Inner Temple, completing his pupillage under Wilfred Greene and Geoffrey Lawrence, he was called to the Transvaal bar in 1920 and set up a practice in Johannesburg, dealing in Commercial Arbitration, White Collar Crime and being recognised as a specialist in Procedure.

He lectured on the Law of Torts and Crime at the Faculty of Law of University College, Johannesburg in its early days: the Law School is today named in his honour. He had a roaring civil practice, took silk in 1935. In the 1920s, he declined to do so. On 15 February, he was appointed an acting judge of the Transvaal Provincial Division, was appointed to a permanent position on the court on 1 August 1937; as a trial judge, Schreiner was said to be quiet and polite, but a sharp questioner, looked after Chamber work. During the Second World War, he presided over a special court in charge of trying cases of sabotage and hampering the war effort, he presided over the special court which tried Robey Leibbrandt and others for high treason. On 1 January 1945 he was promoted to the Appellate Division, where he served until his retirement in 1960, he heard Civil Appeals from trial courts as well as Tax Appeals, but on heard Second Appeals as well as Petitions against the ExecutiveDuring the Coloured Vote Crisis Schreiner steadfastly refused to endorse the attempts of the Nationalist government to remove Coloured voters from the Cape Province's roll.

After the Appellate Division had been packed with pliant judges, it approved the government's reconstitution of the Senate. Schreiner was the lone dissentient. Schreiner was twice passed over for appointment as Chief Justice, despite being the most senior appellate judge. On the first occasion he was superseded by Henry Allan Fagan, who accepted the appointment with reluctance; the judges of the Court had, at the suggestion of outgoing Chief Justice Albert van der Sandt Centlivres, tried to reach an agreement that they would all refuse appointment, so that the government would be forced to appoint Schreiner. But this plan failed when notorious National Party favourite L. C. Steyn failed to agree. Fagan therefore accepted the Chief Justiceship with misgivings, after consulting with Schreiner, so that Steyn would not be appointed; when Fagan retired two years Schreiner was again passed over, this time losing out to Steyn. Schreiner was described by Ellison Kahn as "the greatest Chief Justice South Africa never had".

Politically, Ellison Kahn classifies Schreiner as a traditional Cape liberal: he opposed racism, in old age refused to sit on whites-only bus seats. In 1970 he refused to be renominated as President of the Cripple Care Association of the Transvaal because its constitution had been amended to restrict membership to whites only. After his retirement he served on the Wits Council and as president of the South African Institute of Race Relations. A long-serving member of the Council of the University of the Witwatersrand, he was elected unopposed as Chancellor of the university, serving from 1962 to 1974, he sat on the appellate courts of various African territories. He was awarded three honorary doctorates: from the University of Cape Town and Rhodes. In 1967 he delivered the Hamlyn Lectures at Cambridge

Clements Ribeiro

Clements Ribeiro is a London-based fashion house established in the early 1990s by husband and wife partnership Suzanne Clements and Inacio Ribeiro. It is known for bold prints and luxurious knitwear. Named as one of fashion's'Magnificent Seven' by Vogue in 1997, the label became popular among the Britpop scene. High-profile wearers of the brand have included Nicole Kidman, Kate Moss and Jarvis Cocker. Brazilian-born Inacio Ribeiro and British-born Suzanne Clements met on their first day at Central Saint Martins, London where they had enrolled on the MA in fashion led by Wendy Dagworthy. Graduating in 1991 with Firsts and marrying a year they established their eponymous brand in 1993. In a joint interview with The Independent in 2010, Ribeiro said: "The creation of Clements Ribeiro was a real accident; when we graduated, it was impossible to get a job in London. We went to Milan and hated it, so doing our own thing made sense". In 1994, they were part of a trip to Japan sponsored by the UK's Department of Industry.

The label became a stalwart of London Fashion Week and won a New Generation Designers of the Year award in 1996. In the same year, the label was nominated for the British Designer of the Year award at the British Fashion Awards, losing out to Alexander McQueen. In 2000, the label was beaten to the title by Hussein Chalayan, who expressed surprise that Clements Ribeiro hadn't won. In 2000, Clements and Ribeiro became joint creative directors for French fashion house Cacharel; the seven-year association received critical acclaim and saw Cacharel expand its distribution and collaborate with names such as Celia Birtwell, Peter Saville and Julie Verhoeven. They focused on relaunching Clements Ribeiro. Clements Ribeiro is known for eclectic combinations, including bold multicoloured prints, historical references and lavish materials. In particular, the'Punk Trousseau' collection of 1998 – an edgy reworking of traditional materials such as embroidery and handmade lace at the height of the Cool Britannia era in UK culture and fashion – garnered international attention and remains influential.

The label is credited with making cashmere popular with a younger audience and with creating one of the most imitated designs of the 1990s – the striped twinset. Clements has characterised their style as "clumsy couture". Since 2008, Clements Ribeiro has undertaken a series of projects focused around upcycling alongside its main collection. Projects have included dresses and shirts made of vintage scarves. Maintaining its specialism in knitwear, Clements Ribeiro reintroduced a capsule collection of men's sweaters handmade in Scotland in 2013. Clements and Ribeiro have been described as "masters of designer collaborations". In addition to working with Cacharel, shoe designers Manolo Blahnik, Jimmy Choo and Christian Louboutin, the duo created designs for Nokia in 2001; the label has collaborated with a number of other brands, including high-street chains Dorothy Perkins and John Lewis. Notably for a couture house, Clements Ribeiro began collaborating with plus-size high-street clothing retailer Evans in 2012, producing the Swan range.

Fans of its diffusion range for Evans included Adele, who wore one of the designs for a concert in Canada. Home page AW 2013-14 designs from London Fashion Week 27 years of London Fashion Week gallery from The Independent, including Clements Ribeiro Clements Ribeiro timeline at Vogue