Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
The white-tailed deer known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Mexico, Central America, South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has been introduced to New Zealand, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, the Lesser Antilles, some countries in Europe, such as Finland, the Czech Republic and Serbia. In the Americas, it is the most distributed wild ungulate. In North America, the species is distributed east of the Rocky Mountains as well as in most of Mexico, aside from Lower California, in southwestern Arizona. IIt is replaced by the black-tailed or mule deer from that point west. However, it is found in mixed deciduous riparian corridors, river valley bottomlands, lower foothills of the northern Rocky Mountain region from South Dakota west to eastern Washington and eastern Oregon and north to northeastern British Columbia and southern Yukon, including in the Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands; the conversion of land adjacent to the Canadian Rockies into agriculture use and partial clear-cutting of coniferous trees has been favorable to the white-tailed deer and has pushed its distribution to as far north as Yukon.
Populations of deer around the Great Lakes have expanded their range northwards, due to conversion of land to agricultural uses favoring more deciduous vegetation, local caribou and moose populations. The westernmost population of the species, known as the Columbian white-tailed deer, once was widespread in the mixed forests along the Willamette and Cowlitz River valleys of western Oregon and southwestern Washington, but today its numbers have been reduced, it is classified as near-threatened; this population is separated from other white-tailed deer populations. Some taxonomists have attempted to separate white-tailed deer into a host of subspecies, based on morphological differences. Genetic studies, suggest fewer subspecies within the animal's range, as compared to the 30 to 40 subspecies that some scientists described in the last century; the Florida Key deer, O. v. clavium, the Columbian white-tailed deer, O. v. leucurus, are both listed as endangered under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
In the United States, the Virginia white-tail, O. v. virginianus, is among the most widespread subspecies. The white-tailed deer species has tremendous genetic variation and is adaptable to several environments. Several local deer populations in the southern states, are descended from white-tailed deer transplanted from various localities east of the Continental Divide; some of these deer populations may have been from as far north as the Great Lakes region to as far west as Texas, yet are quite at home in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions of the south. These deer, over time, have intermixed with the local indigenous deer populations. Central and South America have a complex number of white-tailed deer subspecies that range from Guatemala to as far south as Peru; this list of subspecies of deer is more exhaustive than the list of North American subspecies, the number of subspecies is questionable. However, the white-tailed deer populations in these areas are difficult to study, due to overhunting in many parts and a lack of protection.
Some areas no longer carry deer, so assessing the genetic difference of these animals is difficult. Some subspecies names, ordered alphabetically: O. v. acapulcensis – Acapulco white-tailed deer O. v. borealis – northern white-tailed deer O. v. carminis – Carmen Mountains white-tailed deer O. v. clavium – Key deer or Florida Keys white-tailed deer O. v. chiriquensis – Chiriqui white-tailed deer O. v. couesi – Coues' white-tailed deer, Arizona white-tailed deer, or fantail deer O. v. dakotensis – Dakota white-tailed deer or northern plains white-tailed deer O. v. hiltonensis – Hilton Head Island white-tailed deer O. v. idahoensis – white-tailed deer O. v. leucurus – Columbian white-tailed deer O. v. macrourus – Kansas white-tailed deer O. v. mcilhennyi – Avery Island white-tailed deer O. v. mexicanus – Mexican white-tailed deer O. v. miquihuanensis – Miquihuan white-tailed deer O. v. nelsoni – Chiapas white-tailed deer O. v. nigribarbis – Blackbeard Island white-tailed deer O. v. oaxacensis – Oaxaca white-tailed deer O. v. ochrourus – northwestern white-tailed deer or northern Rocky Mountains white-tailed deer O. v. osceola – Florida coastal white-tailed deer O. v. rothschildi – Coiba Island white-tailed deer O. v. seminolus – Florida white-tailed deer O. v. sinaloae – Sinaloa white-tailed deer O. v. taurinsulae – Bulls Island white-tailed deer O. v. texanus – Texas white-tailed deer O. v. thomasi – Mexican lowland white-tailed deer O. v. toltecus – rain forest white-tailed deer O. v. truei – Central American white-tailed deer O. v. venatorius – Hunting Island white-tailed deer O. v. veraecrucis – northern Veracruz white-tailed deer O. v. virginianus – Virginia white-tailed deer or southern white-tailed deer O. v. yucatanensis – Yucatán white-tailed deer O. v. cariacou – O. v. curassavicus
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
A peccary is a medium-sized pig-like hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae. They are found in the southwestern area of North America. Peccaries measure between 90 and 130 cm in length, a full-grown adult weighs about 20 to 40 kg. Peccaries, native to the Americas, are confused with the pig family that originated in Afro-Eurasia, since some domestic pigs brought by European settlers have escaped over the years and their descendants are now feral "razorback" hogs in many parts of the US. Herds of peccary were maintained by the ancient Maya to be used ritually and for food. In many countries in the developing world, they are kept as pets, in addition to being raised on farms as a source of food; the word peccary is derived from paquira. In Portuguese, a peccary is called porco-do-mato, queixada, or tajaçu, among other names. A peccary is a medium-sized animal, with a strong resemblance to a pig. Like a pig, it has a snout ending in a cartilaginous disc, eyes that are small relative to its head. Like a pig, it uses only the middle two digits for walking, unlike pigs, the other toes may be altogether absent.
Its stomach is not ruminating, although it has three chambers, is more complex than those of pigs. Peccaries are omnivores, will eat insects and small animals, although their preferred foods consist of roots, seeds and cacti—particularly prickly pear. Pigs and peccaries can tusk. In European pigs, the tusk is long and curves around on itself, whereas in peccaries, the tusk is short and straight; the jaws and tusks of peccaries are adapted for crushing hard seeds and slicing into plant roots, they use their tusks for defending against predators. The dental formula for peccaries is: 188.8.131.52.1.3.3 By rubbing the tusks together, they can make a chattering noise that warns potential predators to stay away. In recent years in northwestern Bolivia near Madidi National Park, large groups of peccaries have been reported to have injured or killed people. Peccaries are social animals, form herds. Over 100 individuals have been recorded for a single herd of white-lipped peccaries, but collared and Chacoan peccaries form smaller groups.
Such social behavior seems to have been the situation in extinct peccaries, as well. The discovered giant peccary of Brazil appears to be less social living in pairs. Peccaries rely on their social structure to defend territory, protect against predators, regulate temperature, interact socially. Peccaries have scent glands below each eye and another on their backs, though these are believed to be rudimentary in P. maximus. They use the scent to mark herd territories, they mark other herd members with these scent glands by rubbing one against another. The pungent odor allows peccaries to recognize other members of their herd, despite their myopic vision; the odor is strong enough to be detected by humans, which earns the peccary the nickname of "skunk pig". Three living species of peccaries are found from the Southwestern United States through Central America and into South America and Trinidad; the collared peccary or "musk hog", referring to the animal's scent glands, occurs from the Southwestern United States into South America and the island of Trinidad.
The coat consists of wiry peppered black and brown hair with a lighter colored "collar" circling the shoulders. They bear young year-round, but most between November and March, with the average litter size consisting of two to three piglets, they are found from arid scrublands to humid tropical rain forests. The collared peccary is well-adapted to habitat disturbed by humans requiring sufficient cover, they can be found in agricultural land throughout their range. Notable populations exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, where they feed on ornamental plants and other cultivated vegetation. There are urban populations as far north as Prescott, where they have been known to fill a niche similar to raccoons and other urban scavengers. In Arizona they are called "javelinas". Collared peccaries are found in bands of 8 to 15 animals of various ages, they defend themselves if they otherwise tend to ignore humans. A second species, the white-lipped peccary, is found in rainforests of Central and South America, but known from a wide range of other habitats such as dry forests, mangrove and dry xerophytic areas.
The third species, the Chacoan peccary, is the closest living relative to the extinct Platygonus pearcei. It is found in the dry shrub habitat or Chaco of Paraguay and Argentina; the Chacoan peccary has the distinction of having been first described based on fossils and was thought to be an extinct species. In 1975, the animal was discovered in the Chaco region of Paraguay; the species was well known to the native people. A fourth as yet unconfirmed species, the giant peccary, was described from the Brazilian Amazon and north Bolivia by Dutch biologist Marc van Roosmalen. Though recently discovered, it has been known to the local Tupi people as caitetu munde, which means "great peccary which lives in pairs". Thought to be the largest extant peccary, it can grow to 1.2 m in length. Its pelage is compl
Yavapai County, Arizona
Yavapai County is near the center of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 211,073; the county seat is Prescott. Yavapai County comprises AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area. Yavapai County was one of the four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being east of longitude 113° 20' and north of the Gila River. Soon thereafter, the counties of Apache, Coconino and Navajo were carved from the original Yavapai County. Yavapai County's present boundaries were established in 1891; the county is named after the Yavapai people, who were the principal inhabitants at the time the United States annexed the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 8,128 square miles, of which 8,123 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. It has about 93% of the area of the U. S. state of New Jersey. It is larger than three U. S. states and the District of Columbia combined. The county's topography makes a dramatic transition from the lower Sonoran Desert to the south to the heights of the Coconino Plateau to the north, the Mogollon Rim to the east.
The highest point above sea level in Yavapai County is Mount Union at an elevation of 7,979 ft and the lowest is Agua Fria River drainage, now under Lake Pleasant. Mohave County—west La Paz County—southwest Maricopa County—south Gila County—east Coconino County—north/northeast Agua Fria National Monument Coconino National Forest Kaibab National Forest Montezuma Castle National Monument Prescott National Forest Tonto National Forest Tuzigoot National MonumentThere are nineteen official wilderness areas in Yavapai County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Fourteen of these are integral parts of National Forests listed above, whereas five are managed by the Bureau of Land Management; some of these extend into neighboring counties: Apache Creek Wilderness Arrastra Mountain Wilderness in Mohave County. Public land: about 75% of the county's area is publicly owned, includingFederal ownership: about 50% of the county's area is owned by the federal government of the United States, includingNational Forest lands, managed by the US Forest Service: 38% of the county's area Federal lands managed by the U.
S. Bureau of Land Management: 11.6% of the county's area Small areas of federal land are managed by the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the National Park Service: less than 0.5% of the county's area. Yavapai-Prescott Tribe 1,413 acres Yavapai-Apache Nation 685 acres About 25% of Yavapai County is owned by the State of Arizona as state trust lands, managed by the Arizona State Land Department. There are numerous fauna species within Yavapai County. For example, a number of plants within the genus Ephedra and Coreopsis are found in the county. Yavapai County is the location of several groves of the near-threatened California Fan Palm, Washingtonia filifera. Yavapai County is home to Arcosanti, a prototype arcology, developed by Paolo Soleri, under construction since 1970. Arcosanti is just north of Arizona. Out of Africa Wildlife Park is a private zoo; the park moved to the Camp Verde area from the East Valley in 2005. 10 miles northwest of the town of Bagdad lies the Upper Burro Creek Wilderness Area, a 27,440-acre protected area home to at least 150 species of birds and featuring one of the Arizona desert's few undammed perennial streams.
As of the 2000 census, there were 167,517 people, 70,171 households, 46,733 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 81,730 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.89% White, 0.39% Black or African American, 1.60% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.58% from other races, 1.95% from two or more races. 9.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 70,171 households out of which 23.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.79. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 22.40% from 25 to 44, 27.40% from 45 to 64, 22.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age
The prairie falcon is a medium-large sized falcon of western North America. It is about the size of a peregrine falcon or a crow, with an average length of 40 cm, wingspan of 1 meter, average weight of 720 g; as in all falcons, females are noticeably bigger than males. Though a separate species from the peregrine, the prairie falcon is an arid environment adaptation of the early peregrine falcon lineage, able to subsist on less food than the peregrine, lighter in weight than a peregrine of similar wing span. Having evolved in a harsh desert environment with low prey density, the prairie falcon has developed into an aggressive and opportunistic hunter of a wide range of both mammal and bird prey, it will take prey from the size of sparrows to its own weight, much larger. It is the only larger falcon native only to North America, it is resident from southern Canada, through western United States, into northern Mexico. The prairie falcon is popular as a falconry bird, where with proper training it is regarded as being as effective as the more well known peregrine falcon.
Male prairie falcons are 37 to 38 cm in length and weigh 500 to 635g. Females weigh 762 to 970g. A large female can be nearly twice the size of a small male, with wingspan reaching to 1.1 meters, tends to hunt larger prey. Plumage is warm gray-brown pale with more or less dark mottling below; the darkest part of the upper side is the primary wing feathers. The head has a "moustache" mark like a peregrine falcon's but narrower, a white line over the eye. A conspicuous character is that the axillars and underwing coverts are black, except along the leading edge of the wing; this creates an effect of "struts" from the body along each wing. Juveniles resemble adults except that they have dark streaks on the breast and belly and darker, less grayish upperparts. Calls, heard near the nest, are described as repetitive kree kree kree…, kik kik kik…, the like, similar to the peregrine's but higher-pitched. Experts can separate a distant prairie falcon from a peregrine by its flight style; the prairie falcon has a longer tail in proportion to its size.
Its wingbeats are described as strong and shallow like the peregrine's and having the same quick cadence, but stiffer and more mechanical. The prairie falcon outwardly resembles the peregrine as well as the Old World "hierofalcons" the saker falcon, it was often considered the only New World member of the hierofalcon subgenus, but in recent decades this assumption has been disproven by genetic analysis. DNA studies beginning in the 1980s have shown the prairie falcon to be closer to the peregrine than to the hierofalcons, it now is considered an early aridland offshoot of the peregrine falcon lineage, much as the hierofalcons represent a separate divergence that adapted to arid habitat. Thus, the similarities between the prairie falcon and the hierofalcons are a good example of convergent evolution, with the prairie falcon and similar looking and behaving Old World forms such as the saker and lanner falcons not being the closest of related species, but instead ecological equivalents. However, "closely related" is a relative term here, since most or all the members of the genus falco are enough related that they can produce hybrid offspring via artificial insemination.
But, only the most related of these species will produce fertile or fertile offspring. The karyological data of Schmutz and Oliphant provided early scientific evidence of the unexpectedly close relationship between the peregrine and prairie falcons. Wink and Sauer-Gürth estimated using molecular systematics that the prairie falcon diverged about 3 to 5 million years ago from an archaic peregrine ancestor, assuming a molecular clock calibration of 2% sequence divergence per 1 million years; the prairie falcon evolved from its peregrine stock forebears in a process of parapatric speciation based on separated environments where different selective pressures lead to separate genetic drift and to separate species. This process has led to the prairie falcon having enhanced survivability in the sparse arid environment that dominates the interior of the American west; this enhanced competitiveness in this environment is based on superior energy efficiency, versatility in the utilization of a wider range of prey.
Moderately lower weight than the muscular peregrine for similar wingspan not only allows lower food and energy requirements by the simple expedient of less muscle to support, but allows a lighter wing loading that allows more distance to be covered per calorie consumed when hunting over prey sparse terrain. The lighter wing loading allows greater maneuverability, valuable in the pursuit of agile wing loaded prey and dodging ground prey; when the prairie falcon locates needed prey, it is relentless in its pursuit. Quoting from the book The Prairie Falcon, "Because they evolved in the harsh western environment, prairie falcons have the stamina to out-fly the strongest quarry, they have the spirit to crash through dense cover when attacking prey, something peregrines attempt." In the longer distance lower prey density American