The Broadway League
Founded in 1930 primarily to counter ticket speculation and scalping, the Broadway League has expanded its mission and programs over time. The Broadway League has more than 700 members representing the Broadway theatre industry in New York, the League was founded in 1930 as the League of New York Theatres and Producers. It was founded by Broadway theatre operators to further common interests, with the purpose of fighting ticket speculation. In the following years the League expanded its charter several times, in 1938, the League became the official collective bargaining unit representing the theatre owners and producers on Broadway to negotiate labor agreements with unions such as Actors Equity. With the decline of Broadway in the 1980s the League changed its name to the League of American Theatres and Producers, on December 18,2007 the League changed its name to the current name, The Broadway League. The Broadway League works with the Dramatists Guild of America, a composed of playwrights, composers.
Disney Theatrical Group, which owns the New Amsterdam Theatre, negotiates labor agreements independently, the most recent strike on Broadway occurred in November 2007, when the Broadway League and the stagehands union, Local One of IATSE, failed to come to agreement after months of negotiation. Local One was joined by other Broadway unions such as AEA and SDC and this marked the first strike on Broadway in Local One’s 120-year history, and the strike lasted for 19 days, recording the longest strike on Broadway since 1975. The economic impact of the strike spread beyond the Broadway shows, to restaurants, gift shops. According to the New York City comptroller’s office, the resulted in $2 million in lost revenue per day in addition to the lost ticket sales. The main conflict in the negotiation was the rules regarding load-ins. However, because the workload differs everyday, many stagehands often just stayed in the theatres with nothing to do, the new contract set the daily minimum during the load-in to 17 stagehands, allowing the producers to hire stagehands based on daily workload.
The Local 802 of AFM, the representing the musicians on Broadway, entered into a strike in March 2003 and was joined by other Broadway unions such as AEA. The strike lasted from Friday, March 7,2003, to early Tuesday morning, the focus of the negotiation was the minimum number of musicians required to be employed in Broadway theatres. The labor agreement required 24 to 25 musicians to be employed in largest theatres, under the new agreement, the minimums were reduced to 18 to 19. As a result of lobbying initiatives by the Broadway League, in February 2015, Sen. Charles Schumer and Sen. Under Section 181 of the tax code, U. S. -based film and TV productions are able to immediately expense up to $15 million, the Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American theatre. The Tony Awards are presented by the Tony Award Productions, a joint venture of American Theatre Wing, the awards were founded by the Wing in 1947, and the League started co-presenting them in 1967
Pal Joey (musical)
Pal Joey is a musical with a book by John OHara and music and lyrics by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart. The musical is based on a character and situations OHara created in a series of stories published in The New Yorker. The title character, Joey Evans, is a manipulative small-time nightclub performer whose ambitions lead him into an affair with the wealthy and it includes two songs that have become standards, I Could Write a Book and Bewitched and Bewildered. The original 1940 Broadway production was directed by George Abbott and starred Vivienne Segal, though it received mixed reviews, the show ran for 10 months, the third-longest run of any Rodgers and Hart musical. There have been several revivals since, including a 2008–09 Broadway run, author John OHara offered his stories of Pal Joey to Rodgers and Hart for adaptation as a new musical. Title character Joey Evans, an unsympathetic but charming antihero, was a departure from the usual musical comedy formula. Joey was amoral, but he was not presented as a villain, Richard Rodgers said, Joey was not disreputable because he was mean, but because he had too much imagination to behave himself, and because he was a little weak.
Theres one for play and one for show and they chose Gene Kelly, who was at the time playing a dancing role, Harry the Hoofer, in the play The Time of Your Life. Kelly had made his Broadway debut in 1938 in the chorus of Cole Porters Leave It to Me, Pal Joey would be his first lead role. Segal, who would be 43 when the show opened on Broadway, appreciated the opportunity to play a worldly, mature character, using Segals initials, OHara gave her character the name Vera Simpson. OHara was not present during the tryouts, and director George Abbott took over the rewriting. When the show opened in New York, the critics were divided, Richard Watts called it brilliant, but other critics and members of the theatre-going public disliked the subject matter. Nonetheless, it became the longest running Rodgers-Hart show up to that time, based on original 1940 book Act I In Chicago in the late 1930s, singer/dancer Joey Evans, a charming heel with big plans, schemes to get his own nightclub. He auditions for a job at a second-rate nightclub.
Joey gets the job and begins rehearsals with the chorus girls, Joey meets young and naïve Linda English outside a pet shop, and he impresses her with grandiose lies about his career. Linda innocently falls for Joeys line, as the chorus girls are doing a song-and-dance number at the club that night, Linda arrives with a date. Wealthy married socialite Vera Simpson arrives at the club and shows a definite interest in Joey, Joey plays hard-to-get and insults Vera, who walks out. Mike, the owner, fires Joey, but Joey, believing Vera will be back, strikes a deal, if Vera doesnt come back within the next few days
Edie Adams was an American businesswoman, Broadway and film actress, and comedian. Adams was an Emmy and Tony Award winner and she was well known for her impersonations of sexy stars on stage and television, especially Marilyn Monroe. She was the wife and frequent television partner of Ernie Kovacs until his death in a 1962 car accident, Adams was born as Edith Elizabeth Enke in Kingston, the only daughter of Sheldon Alonzo Enke and his wife, Ada Dorothy. She had a brother, Sheldon Adams Enke. The family moved to areas such as Shavertown, Grove City and Trucksville and spent a year in New York City before settling in Tenafly, New Jersey. Ada Enke taught her singing and piano and daughter were members of the Grove City Presbyterian church choir. Adams grandmother, a seamstress, taught her how to sew and she made her own clothing beginning in the sixth grade and Adams would have her own designer line of clothing, called Bonham, Inc. She earned a degree from Juilliard, graduated from Columbia School of Drama.
She studied at the Actors Studio in New York and at the Traphagen School of Fashion Design, Adams could not decide whether to pursue a career in fashion design or music, so she tossed a coin, and music won. In 1949-50, she appeared in the live television show Bonnie Maids Versatile Varieties as one of the original Bonnie Maids doing live commercials for the sponsor. In 1950, she won the Miss U. S, Television beauty contest, which led to an appearance with Milton Berle on his television show. Her earliest television work billed her as Edith Adams, one of her early appearances was on Arthur Godfreys Talent Scouts. She was seen by the producer of the Ernie Kovacs show Three To Get Ready, who was well-trained in classical music, had very little experience with popular music and could perform only three songs. She stated, I sang them all during the audition and she became part of the show in July 1951. Adams had never seen the program she was hired for, when he saw his daughter on the show, Adams father was upset to find her role involved trying to avoid pies in the face.
In one of his last interviews, Ernie Kovacs looked back on the days, saying, I wish I could say I was the big shot that hired her. Later on I did have something to say and I said it, Adams began working regularly on television with comedian Ernie Kovacs and talk show pioneer Jack Paar. After a courtship that included mariachi bands and a diamond engagement ring and Ernie Kovacs eloped, they were married on September 12,1954
Pat Carroll (actress)
Carroll is an Emmy, Drama Desk and Grammy Award winner and a Tony Award nominee. Carroll was born Patricia Ann Carroll in Shreveport, Louisiana, on May 5,1927, to Maurice Clifton Carroll and she graduated from Immaculate Heart High School and attended Catholic University of America after enlisting in the United States Army as a civilian actress technician. In 1956, Carroll won an Emmy Award for her work on Caesars Hour and was a regular on the sitcom Make Room for Daddy from 1961 to 1964 and she guest starred in the drama anthology series, The DuPont Show with June Allyson. Carroll appeared on variety shows of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, such as The Red Buttons Show, The Danny Kaye Show, The Red Skelton Show. In 1965, she co-starred as Prunella, one of the stepsisters in the 1965 production of Rodgers. In early 1976, Carroll was cast as Lily, the mother of Shirley Feeney in the episode, Mother Knows Worst on the hit ABC situation comedy and she portrayed Pearl Markowitz, the mother of Adam Arkins character Lenny Markowitz, in the 1977 CBS situation comedy Busting Loose.
Since the late 1980s, Carroll has had a deal of voice-over work on animated programs such as A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, Galaxy High, Foofur. On TVs Pound Puppies, she voiced Katrina Stoneheart, on two Garfield television specials, she voiced Jons feisty Grandma. She voiced the character of Granny in the 2005 re-release of Hayao Miyazakis My Neighbor Totoro, in 1989, Carroll portrayed the sea witch Ursula in Disneys The Little Mermaid and sang the song Poor Unfortunate Souls. In interviews, Carroll has referred to the role as one of the favorites of her career. She has since reprised the role in other forms of media, including the Kingdom Hearts series of games, the spinoff television series. She voiced Ursulas sister Morgana in The Little Mermaid II, Return to the Sea, Carroll appeared on a variety of game shows including Celebrity Sweepstakes, You Dont Say, To Tell the Truth and Ive Got a Secret. A member of the Actors Studio, she has had a career in the theater, appearing in numerous plays including productions of Our Town.
In 1990, she starred in The Merry Wives of Windsor at the Shakespeare Theatre at the Folger in the role of Sir John Falstaff, a balding knight with whiskers. Ms. Carroll and Mr. Kahn help revivify the argument that the right actresses can perform some of the great classic roles traditionally denied to women and its not a new argument, to be sure, female Hamlets stretch back into history. But what separates Ms. Carroll married Lee Karsian in 1955, in 1991 Carroll received an honorary doctorate from Siena College in Albany, New York. Acting Solo, The Art of One-Person Shows, beverly Hills, Past Times Publishing Co. Pat Carroll at the Internet Movie Database Pat Carroll at the Internet Broadway Database Pat Carroll at the TCM Movie Database Pat Carroll at AllMovie
Lotte Lenya was an Austrian singer and actress, long based in the United States. In the German-speaking and classical music world she is best remembered for her performances of the songs of her husband, in English-language cinema, she was nominated for an Academy Award for her role as a jaded aristocrat in The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone. She played the murderous and sadistic Rosa Klebb in the James Bond movie From Russia with Love. In 1922 Lenya was seen by her husband, German composer Kurt Weill, during an audition for his first stage score Zaubernacht but because of his position behind the piano. She was cast but owing to her loyalty to her coach she declined the role. She accepted the part of Jenny in the first performance of The Threepenny Opera in 1928, during the last years of the Weimar Republic, she was busy in film and theatre, and especially in Brecht-Weill plays. She made several recordings of Weills songs, with the rise of National Socialism in Germany, left-leaning artists were not appreciated and although not Jewish, she left the country, having become estranged from Weill.
In March 1933, she moved to Paris where she sang the part in Brecht-Weills sung ballet. Lenya and Weill settled in New York City on 10 September 1935, during this period Lenya had a love affair with playwright Paul Green. During World War II, Lenya did a number of performances and radio performances. After a badly received part in her husbands musical The Firebrand of Florence in 1945 in New York, after Weills death in 1950, she was coaxed back to the stage. She appeared on Broadway in Barefoot in Athens and married editor George Davis, in 1956 she won a Tony Award for her role as Jenny in Marc Blitzsteins English version of The Threepenny Opera, the only time an Off-Broadway performance has been so honored. Lenya went on to record a number of songs from her time in Berlin and her voice had deepened with age. When she was to sing the part in Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny and The Seven Deadly Sins. Sprechstimme was used in some songs in the Brecht-Weill plays. Lenya was aware of this as a problem, in other contexts and she founded the Kurt Weill Foundation for Music, to administer incomes and issues regarding rights, and to spread knowledge about Weills work.
She was present in the studio when Louis Armstrong recorded Brecht-Weills Mack the Knife, Armstrong improvised the line Look out for Miss Lotte Lenya. and added her name to the list of Macks female conquests in the song. In 1963, she was cast as the SPECTRE agent Rosa Klebb in the James Bond movie From Russia with Love starring Sean Connery, in 1966, Lenya originated the role of Fräulein Schneider in the original Broadway cast of the musical Cabaret
Li'l Abner (musical)
Lil Abner is a musical with a book by Norman Panama and Melvin Frank, music by Gene De Paul, and lyrics by Johnny Mercer. The Broadway production opened on November 15,1956 and ran for a moderately successful 693 performances, the score and Michael Kidds choreography received critical praise, but some critics felt that the books adaptation lost the spirit of the comic strip. Kidd and Edie Adams, as Daisy Mae, won Tony Awards, while newcomer Peter Palmer, in the title role, Paramount released a film version with the same title in 1959, with most of the Broadway cast reprising their roles. A musical version of the comic strip Lil Abner was first planned in 1946, with the book to be written by the comic strips author. Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II were named as potential producers, this version never materialized, and over the next several years, various authors and composers sought to musicalize Lil Abner, including writers Arnold Horwitt and Josh Logan. The familiar comic characters were to be retained but Lil Abner.
The Schwartz–Lerner version fell through, but by the next year Lerner and composer Burton Lane planned to write the musical, herman Levin would serve as producer, and rehearsals were scheduled to begin in November 1954. However, that year, Levin announced a version of George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion, by Lerner. In 1955, Norman Panama and Melvin Frank announced a Lil Abner musical to open on Broadway in 1956, the music was to be written by Gene de Paul with lyrics by Johnny Mercer. De Paul and Mercer had previously written the score for the movie musical. Michael Kidd, who had choreographed Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, was to direct, Al Capp approved the production and was to receive a share of any profits. Paramount Pictures was the backer of the musical and paid $300,000 for its film rights, with Panama and Frank slated to adapt, direct. The producers conducted a search for the actor to play the title role, over 400 actors auditioned for the part. Palmer was a singer with a music degree from the University of Illinois.
The leading female role, Daisy Mae, was easier to cast. The producers knew that they wanted soprano Edie Adams, who had given a performance as Eileen in the 1953 musical Wonderful Town. Adams, had offered the lead role in the original production of Candide. Adams asked director George Abbott, who had directed her in Wonderful Town, which show she should choose, and he advised her to take Daisy Mae, coincidentally, Al Capp had been one of the three judges for the Miss U. S
The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League at a ceremony in New York City. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, and an award is given for regional theatre, several discretionary non-competitive awards are given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award. The awards are named after Antoinette Tony Perry, co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, the rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wings Tony Awards, which applies for that season only. It forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is someone who has won all four awards, the Tony Awards are considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Award in the United Kingdom and the Molière Award of France. From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, in 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre.
From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, and 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall, the 70th Tony Awards were held on June 12,2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards will be held on June 11,2017, as of 2014, there are 24 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years, some examples, the category Best Book of a Musical was originally called Best Author. The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards, for two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer and Best Costume Designer. It went to a category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a category was for directors of plays. A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the ceremony in 2009. The award is for an individual who has made a contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian.
The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season, the categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014-2015 season. Performance categories Show and technical categories Special awards Retired awards The award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946. As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, At Jacob Wilks suggestion, proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting, at the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a Tony
Gypsy Rose Lee
Gypsy Rose Lee was an American burlesque entertainer and vedette famous for her striptease act. She was an actress and playwright whose 1957 memoir was made into the stage musical, Gypsy Rose Lee was born in Seattle, Washington on January 8,1911, she always gave January 9 as her date of birth. She was known as Louise to her family and her sister, actress June Havoc, was born in 1912. The girls were unsure until in life what their years of birth were and their mother had married Norwegian-American John Olaf Hovick, a newspaper advertising salesman and a reporter at The Seattle Times. They married on May 28,1910 in Seattle and they divorced on August 20,1915. Rose Thompson married her husband, Judson Brennerman, a traveling salesman, on May 26,1916 at a Unitarian church in Seattle. After the divorce of Hovick and Thompson, June supported the family by appearing in vaudeville and June went to Hollywood for two years where June appeared in short films directed by Hal Roach. Louise was left behind while June and her mother were on the road and she had an elementary education, unlike June who was taught to read by stage-hands.
Louises singing and dancing talents were insufficient to sustain the act without June, eventually, it became apparent that Louise could make money in burlesque, which earned her legendary status as an elegant and witty striptease artist. Her innovations were an almost casual stripping style compared to the styles of most burlesque strippers. She was frequently arrested in raids on the Minsky brothers shows, during the Great Depression, Lee spoke at various union meetings in support of New York laborers. According to activist Harry Fisher, her talks were among those that attracted the largest audiences, in 1937 and 1938, billed as Louise Hovick, she made five films in Hollywood. But her acting was panned, so she returned to New York City where she had an affair with film producer Michael Todd and co-produced and appeared in his 1942 musical revue, Star. Lee viewed herself as a stripper, and she approved of H. L. Menckens term ecdysiast. Her style of intellectual recitation while stripping was spoofed in the number Zip.
in Rodgers and Harts Pal Joey, Lee performed an abbreviated version of her act in the 1943 film Stage Door Canteen. Her routine starts at about 1 hour 29 minutes into the film, in 1941, Lee authored a mystery thriller called The G-String Murders, which was made into the sanitized 1943 film, Lady of Burlesque starring Barbara Stanwyck. Lees second murder mystery, Mother Finds a Body, was published in 1942, in Hollywood, she married Arnold Bob Mizzy on August 25,1937, at the insistence of the film studio. In 1942, she married William Alexander Kirkland, they divorced in 1944, while married to Kirkland, she gave birth on December 11,1944, to a son fathered by Otto Preminger
Josephine Mary Premice was an Haitian-American actress and singer known for her work on the Broadway stage. Josephine Mary Premice was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Thelomaine and he and a fellow prisoner to whom he was chained escaped and fled through the woods to friends that awaited them on the coast. On the third day of their journey, the man died. He was brought to France, where he learned to cut fur for the couturiers and he eventually immigrated to New York in the early 1920s. Premice made her Broadway debut in a 1945 revue show called Blue Holiday, the show was choreographed by Katherine Dunham, with whom Josephine had studied dance and her co-star was Ethel Waters. She was in the pre-Broadway cast of the musical House of Flowers with Diahann Carroll, Josephine was nominated for a Tony Award for her work in the 1957 musical Jamaica as Ginger alongside leading lady Lena Horne. Her final Broadway appearance came in 1976 with the musical Bubbling Brown Sugar, reviewing the production in the New York Times, Clive Barnes wrote that Ms.
Premice can almost make a feather boa come alive. Premice played a role in the 1974 television movie The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman as Ms. Gautier. She guest starred on The Cosby Show, and The Jeffersons and she guest starred in several episodes of A Different World. An alum of Columbia University with a degree in anthropology and she was known for her calypso recordings and fashion sense. Premice died in her Manhattan residence on April 13,2001 at the age of 74 from complications of emphysema. She was survived by her husband, Timothy Fales, and her two children, Enrico Fales and Susan Fales-Hill, a television producer, her son-in-law, Aaron. In 2003, her daughter published a biography of her mother titled Always Wear Joy, My Mother, Josephine Premice at the Internet Broadway Database Josephine Premice at the Internet Movie Database Josephine Premice at Find a Grave
She continued performing mostly in theatre until the mid-1970s, when she began a second career that continues to this day as a cabaret and concert singer. She has made numerous recordings, during her years as Broadway’s leading ingénue Cook was lauded for her excellent lyric soprano voice. She was particularly admired for her vocal agility, wide range, warm sound, as she has aged her voice has taken on a darker quality, even in her head voice, that was less prominent in her youth. Today Cook is widely recognized as one of the interpreters of musical theatre songs and standards. Her subtle and sensitive interpretations of American popular song continue to high praise even into her eighties. She was named an honoree at the 2011 Kennedy Center Honors, Cook was born in Atlanta, the daughter of Nell and Charles Bunyan. Her father was a traveling hat salesman and her mother was an operator for Southern Bell and her parents divorced when she was a child and, after her only sister died of whooping cough, Barbara lived alone with her mother.
She described their relationship as so close, too close, I slept with my mother until I came to New York. Slept in the bed with her. But to me, it was the norm. As far as she was concerned, though Barbara began singing at an early age, at the Elks Club and to her father over the phone, she spent three years after graduating from high school working as a typist. While visiting Manhattan in 1948 with her mother, Cook decided to stay and she began to sing at clubs and resorts, eventually procuring an engagement at the Blue Angel club in 1950. She made her Broadway debut a year later, as Sandy in the short-lived 1951 musical Flahooley and she landed another role quickly, portraying Ado Annie in the 1951 City Center revival of Rodgers and Hammersteins Oklahoma. And stayed with the production when it went on its tour the following year. Also in 1952, Cook made her first television appearance on the show Armstrong Circle Theatre which presented her in a play entitled Mr. Bemiss Takes a Trip. In 1954, Cook was cast in the short lived soap opera Golden Windows which ran for only a handful of episodes before being canceled, in 1955, she began to attract major critical praise when she played the supporting role of Hilda Miller in Plain and Fancy.
Cooks good reviews and clear soprano voice enabled her to win the role of Cunegonde in Leonard Bernsteins new operetta Candide in 1956 and she became famous for the show stopping song, Glitter and Be Gay. Also in May 1956 she appeared on television in a Producers Showcase production of Bloomer Girl as Evelina Applegate, although Candide was not a success, Cooks portrayal of Cunegonde established her as one of Broadways leading ingenues. The song Vanilla Ice Cream from the latter one of Cooks signature songs
The Threepenny Opera
The work offers a Socialist critique of the capitalist world. It opened on 31 August 1928 at Berlins Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, songs from The Threepenny Opera have been widely covered and become standards, most notably Die Moritat von Mackie Messer and Seeräuberjenny. Brecht was first motivated to prepare a version of The Beggars Opera by the revival of the original by Nigel Playfair in London in 1920. He offered the idea to the impresario Ernst Josef Aufricht who was seeking a production to launch his new company at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in Berlin. The score by Weill uses only one of the melodies which Johann Pepusch wrote for the original Beggars Opera. Weill claimed at the time that music cannot further the action of the play or create its background, Weills score shows influence of jazz and German dance-music of the time. The orchestration involves a small ensemble with a deal of doubling-up on instruments. The Threepenny Opera was first performed at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in 1928 on a set designed by Caspar Neher, despite an initially poor reception, it became a great success, playing 400 times in the next two years.
The performance was a springboard for one of the best known interpreters of Brecht and Weills work, Lotte Lenya, who was married to Weill. By 1933, when Weill and Brecht were forced to leave Germany by the Nazi seizure of power, in between, on 8 February 1935 Edward Clark conducted the first British broadcast of the work. It received scathing reviews from Ernest Newman and other critics, but the most savage criticism came from Weill himself, who described it privately as. The worst performance imaginable … the whole thing was completely misunderstood, but his criticisms seem to have been for the concept of the piece as a Germanised version of The Beggars Opera, rather than for Clarks conducting of it, of which Weill made no mention. America was introduced to the work by the version of G. W. Pabst. The first American production, adapted into English by Gifford Cochran and Jerrold Krimsky and staged by Francesco Von Mendelssohn and it opened on Broadway at the Empire Theatre, on April 13,1933, and closed after 12 performances.
Mixed reviews praised the music but slammed the production, with the critic Gilbert Gabriel calling it a dreary enigma, a French version produced by Gaston Baty and written by Ninon Steinhof and André Mauprey was presented in October 1930 at the Théâtre Montparnasse in Paris. It was rendered as LOpéra de quatsous, in 1930 the work was premiered in Moscow at the Kamerny Theatre, directed by Alexander Tairov. It was the one of Brechts works to be performed in Russia during his lifetime. Izvestia disapproved, It is high time that our theatres ceased playing homage to petit-bourgeois bad taste, the first Italian production, titled LOpera da tre soldi and directed by Giorgio Strehler, premiered at the Piccolo Teatro in Milan on 27 February 1956 in the presence of Bertolt Brecht
Candide is an operetta with music composed by Leonard Bernstein, based on the novella of the same name by Voltaire. The operetta was first performed in 1956 with a libretto by Lillian Hellman, the primary lyricist was the poet Richard Wilbur. Other contributors to the text were John Latouche, Dorothy Parker, Lillian Hellman, Stephen Sondheim, John Mauceri, John Wells, maurice Peress and Hershy Kay contributed orchestrations. Although unsuccessful at its premiere, Candide has now overcome the reaction of early audiences and critics. It is very popular among major music schools as a student show because of the quality of its music, Candide was originally conceived by Lillian Hellman as a play with incidental music in the style of her previous work, The Lark. Bernstein, was so excited about this idea that he convinced Hellman to do it as a comic operetta, many lyricists worked on the show, first James Agee, Dorothy Parker, John Latouche and Richard Wilbur. In addition, the lyrics to I Am Easily Assimilated were done by Leonard and Felicia Bernstein, Hershy Kay orchestrated all but the overture, which Bernstein did himself.
Candide first opened on Broadway as a musical on December 1,1956, the premiere production was directed by Tyrone Guthrie and conducted by Samuel Krachmalnick. The sets and costumes were designed by Oliver Smith and Irene Sharaff and it was choreographed by Anna Sokolow. It featured Robert Rounseville as Candide, Barbara Cook as Cunégonde, Max Adrian as Dr. Pangloss and this production was a box office disaster, running only two months for a total of 73 performances. Hellmans libretto was criticized in a The New York Times review as being too serious and this production used Lillian Hellmans book with an additional credit assisted by Michael Stewart, and it was directed by Robert Lewis with choreography by Jack Cole. The cast included Denis Quilley as Candide, Mary Costa as Cunegonde, Laurence Naismith as Dr. Pangloss, the Musical Director was Alexander Faris. Without Bernsteins involvement, the show underwent a series of Broadway revivals under the direction of Harold Prince. Lillian Hellman, the author of the book, refused to let any of her work be used in the revival, so Prince commissioned a new.
The sole element of Hellmans book that remained was her name for Cunegondes brother. The lyrics were worked on by the team of artists listed above, the 1974 Broadway revival starred Mark Baker, Maureen Brennan, Sam Freed, Lewis J. Stadlen, and June Gable as the Old Lady. The Chelsea version was marked by a production style. Actors performed on platforms in front and sometimes between audience members, some sat on bleachers, others on stools on the stage floor