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Tony Cragg

Sir Anthony Douglas Cragg is a British sculptor. Tony Cragg was born in Liverpool, he studied art at Gloucestershire College of Arts and Technology, from 1968 to 1970, painting at the Wimbledon School of Art, from 1970 to 1973. The same year he went on to study sculpture at the Royal College of Art, completing an MA in 1977, he made the majority of his sculptures in Greece. The original design was based on Stonehenge. Tony Cragg's early work involved site-specific installations of found objects and discarded materials. From the mid-1970s through to the early 1980s he presented assemblages in primary structures as well as in colourful, representational reliefs on the floors and walls of gallery spaces. Cragg constructed these early works by systematically arranging individual fragments of mixed materials according to their artificial colours and profiles, so as to form larger images. In 1977 Cragg had several solo exhibitions including Lisson Gallery, London, he exhibited in seminal group shows including the Silver Jubilee Sculpture Show, Battersea Park, London.

In 1981 he created "Britain Seen from the North" considered a signature early work, made of multi-coloured scraps of various materials assembled in relief on the wall. The piece depicts the outline of the island of Great Britain, orientated sideways so that Northern Britain is positioned to the left; the island is scrutinized by a figure, representing Cragg himself, who looks at his native country from the position of an outsider. The piece is interpreted as commenting on the social and economic difficulties that Britain was facing under ‘Thatcherism’, which had particular effect in the north; this work was first exhibited in the large upstairs space at the Whitechapel Art gallery in London in 1981 and is now in the Tate collection. In the early 1980s Cragg moved away from installation art and began to examine more the individual objects used as parts of his larger constellations; this was the beginning of his engagement and experimentation with the properties and possibilities of a wide range of more permanent materials in the form of wood, stone, Kevlar, stainless steel, cast iron and bronze.

During this time Cragg exhibited at Bristol. Since Cragg has exhibited extensively at many of world's most important art institutions. In 1988 Cragg received the Turner Prize at the Tate Gallery in London, represented Britain at the 42. Venice was appointed Professor at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. Throughout the 1990s Cragg continued to develop two larger groups of work that have sustained his production up to the present: the "Early Forms" and the "Rational Beings"; the Early Forms series investigate the possibilities of manipulating everyday, familiar containers and the ways in which they can morph into and around one another in space. The sculptures derive their profiles and contours from simple, tick-walled vessels such as chemistry vessels, plastic bottles and mortars; the surface of these initial objects are extended and contorted until new, sculpturally independent forms of movement arise. Through these processes of manipulation the initial objects develop new lines and contours and negatively curving surfaces and volumes and deep recessing folds.

The broad field of containers and vessels used function as metaphors for cell, organism or body. The Early Forms can be characterized as forms transmutating along a bilaterally curved axis with organic figurative, qualities; the Rational Beings are describable as organic looking forms made of carbon fibre on a core of polystyrene. These sculptures derive their forms from the contours of gestural drawings, which Cragg translates into the third dimension using thick, circular or oval discs which are superimposed, glued together and covered with a skin; the underlying structure of these sculptures gives their skin the tension of a membrane, reflecting the basic structures of many organisms, organs and animals. During the 1990s he exhibited at the 45. Venice Biennale. In the early 2000s Cragg was awarded the Piepenbrock Prize for Sculptures, he was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire, Honorary Doctor of the Royal College of Art, Professor at the Universitüt der Künste and began a Professorship at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf.

Among many major solo shows, Cragg exhibited at Tate Gallery Liverpool. In 2011 Cragg exhibited at the Musée du Louvre in Paris, the Scottish National Gallery in Edinburgh and in 2012 at CAFA Museum in Beijing. Amongst new developments in Cragg's work is an increase in sculptures that can be exhibited outdoors.

The Prince's May Day Network

The Prince's Mayday Network is a group of businesses committed to taking action on climate change and was founded by The Prince of Wales in 2007. The Network is convened by Business in the Community and over 3500 businesses have signed up to date. The'May Day' name is derived from the May Day distress signal, was chosen deliberately to communicate the urgency of the climate change message The first Prince's Mayday Summit on climate change took place on 1 May 2007, it was held as a call to action on the urgent issue of climate change. Over 1,000 business leaders made over 5,500 pledges to take action on climate change at the event; the Summit networked one hub event at St. James's Palace and nine regional events across England through video conferencing technology. Companies discussed the science behind climate change and the business imperative of taking action on the issue, with contributions from the Prince of Wales, Jonathon Porritt and Crispin Tickell; this initial event was followed by 2 further Summits in Scotland and Wales in November 2007.

The second Prince's Mayday Summit was held on 1 May 2008. Over 1,600 business leaders attended the Summit at 12 locations across the UK which were linked by satellite to a'hub' event attended by 160 Chief Executives of leading businesses. Attendees were asked to commit to up to 6 pledges on climate change. Nearly 7,000 pledges were made on the day and: 76% of attendees committed to calculate their carbon footprint over the next 12 months 60% of attendees committed to report their carbon footprint over the next 12 months The third Prince's Mayday Summit attracted over 1700 delegates, with another 300 watching it live online and included contributions from Pen Hadow, Ed Miliband, John Ashton and Stuart Rose. Since 2009, the focus of Mayday has moved away from annual events to being what it terms an everyday organisation. A major part of this is the Mayday Journey; the Mayday Journey is an online resource that combines a carbon calculator with guidance designed to help companies develop a carbon strategy.

The Journey is divided into four areas: reducing cost, engaging employees and customers, building resilience through biodiversity and adaptation and developing a vision, termed transform. Businesses in the Prince's May Day Network are encouraged to take action on climate change by sharing best practice through publishing case studies of best practice. Over 150 companies have provided case studies, including BT Group and Unipart; every year, the Prince of Wales requests that every business in the Prince's May Day Network report-back on the progress they have made against their May Day pledges in the May Day report-back. Over 300 businesses reported back in 2011, which formed the basis for an annual report of members activity. May Day Network May Day journey case studies May Day news Prince's'mayday' climate alert BBC.co.uk

Beth din

A beth din is a rabbinical court of Judaism. In ancient times, it was the building block of the legal system in the Biblical Land of Israel. Today, it is invested with legal powers in a number of religious matters both in Israel and in Jewish communities in the Diaspora, where its judgements hold varying degrees of authority in matters related to Jewish religious life. Commentators point out that the first suggestion in the Torah that the ruler divest his legal powers and delegate his power of judgement to lower courts was made by Jethro to Moses; this situation was formalised when God gave the explicit command to "establish judges and officers in your gates". There were three types of courts: The Sanhedrin, the grand central court on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, numbering 71 Smaller courts of 23, called a Sanhedrin Ketana; these courts could pass the death verdict. These existed on two levels, the one higher in standing than the other: The main cities of the tribes, had a court of 23 All towns of a minimum size had to have a court of 23, under the jurisdiction of the tribal court The smallest court of three was found in villages with a population of less than 120 people.

Any smaller court could not pass binding verdicts and only dealt with monetary matters. Participation in these courts required the classical semikhah, the transmission of judicial authority in an unbroken line down from Moses. Since the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, or at the latest the abolition of the position of Nasi in 425 CE, the transmission of semikhah has been suspended. Attempts in the 16th century to reinstate the semicha were unsuccessful; the Mishnah and Talmud distinguish between ritual or criminal matters and monetary matters, impose different regulations for them, with criminal cases having much more stringent limitations. Courts ruled in both kinds of cases. Any question that could not be resolved by a smaller court was passed up to a higher court. If the Sanhedrin was still uncertain, divine opinion was sought through the Urim ve-Tumim. Given the suspension of semikhah, any beth din existing in medieval or modern times is in theory a court of laymen, acting as arbitrators.

In practice, they are given greater powers than this by the local takkanot ha-kahal, are composed of experienced rabbis. Modern training institutes in Israel, confer a qualification of dayan, superior to the normal rabbinical qualification. Though an Orthodox beth din requires a minimum of three Jews knowledgeable and observant of halakha, in new communities and exigencies, providing a thorough search has proved unfruitful, halakha provides that one Orthodox Jew can establish a beth din, since every Orthodox community is required to establish its own beth din. In Orthodox Judaism, the traditions state that a beth din consists of three observant Jewish men, at least one of whom is knowledgeable in halakha, to be capable of instructing the other members in any matters of halakha relevant to the case being heard; the rabbis on the beth din do not have to be expert in all aspects of Jewish law, rather only the area in question. For example, a beth din for conversion need only have expertise in conversion, not in all areas of Jewish law.

There are a number of opinions that permit women to serve on a beth din. One such opinion is Rabbi Ben Zion Uziel. Despite this, there are no Orthodox batei din with a woman as a member. In progressive communities, as well as in other non-Orthodox streams of Judaism, women do serve on the beth din. In practice, a permanent beth din will consist of three rabbis, while a beth din for an occasional matter need not consist of rabbis. A beth din which handles cases involving complex monetary issues or large community organizations requires "judges", who require an additional semikhah which enables them to participate in such a beth din and adjudicate complex cases involving technical points of law. A beth din is only required for conversions and gittin, although lay people are permitted to sit on the beth din for conversions. In addition to this there are batei din around the world who have taken upon themselves to control the following matters: Kosher certification of restaurants and food manufacturers.

Examination of shochetim and the control of the shechita inspectors Supervising the building and maintenance of a mikvah. Determination of "personal status"; the authorization and supervision of mohelim. Questions relating to burial practices and mourning. A beth din is sometimes used within the Orthodox Jewish community to resolve civil disputes, with the Shulkhan Arukh calling for civil cases being resolved by religious, instead of secular, courts. Modern Western societies permit civil disputes to be resolved by private arbitration, enabling religious Jews to enter into agreements providing for arbitration by a particular beth din in the event of a dispute. By this device, the rules and judgement of the beth din are a

Masahiro Hasemi

Masahiro Hasemi is a former racing driver and team owner from Japan. He started racing motocross. In 1964 he signed to drive for Nissan. After establishing himself in saloon car and GT races in Japan, he participated in his only Formula One race at the 1976 Japanese Grand Prix for Kojima on 24 October 1976, he qualified 10th after an error which cost him his chance of a pole position and finished 11th, seven laps behind the winner. Contrary to a propagated but mistaken result, however, he never set a fastest lap in a Formula One championship race.1Hasemi became the Japanese Formula 2 champion in 1980, got two titles in the Fuji Grand Champion Series in 1974 and 1980. After that he reverted to racing Skylines, which he became synonymous with in Group 5, touring cars and JGTC, he won the Japanese Touring Car Championship in 1989, 1991 and 1992. He won the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship in 1990, with the controversial win at the Guia Touring Car race at the Macau Grand Prix in 1990 and Daytona 24 hour in 1992.

Hasemi retired from driving in 2001 and now runs NDDP Racing, a Super GT team that competes in the GT500 class. Hasemi owns Hasemi Sport, a former Super GT racing team that ran under the Hasemi Motorsport banner and Nissan aftermarket parts company. Hasemi is the most recent Japanese driver to win his home Grand Prix, winning it in 1975, when it was a non-championship race. ^ It was announced that Hasemi set the fastest lap at the 1976 Japanese Grand Prix, but it was a measurement mistake, several days the circuit issued a press release to correct the fastest lap holder of the race to Jacques Laffite. This press release was promptly made known in Japan, the Japan Automobile Federation and Japanese media corrected the record, but this correction was not made well known outside Japan, Hasemi is credited with one fastest lap in many record books. Masahiro Hasemi profile at the Japan Automobile Federation Hasemi Sport Deals with Nissan aftermarket parts Kojima F1 Project 1976 Japanese Grand prix page dedicated to Hasemi-san and the car Gzox Hasemi's Super GT sponsor's page Team profile

Jennie Page

Jennifer Anne "Jennie" Page, was Chief Executive of the London Millennium Dome project from 1 March 1995 until she was fired after a flawed opening night and poor early attendance at the start of 2000. Page attended Barr's Hill Grammar School for Girls, she was educated at Royal Holloway, University of London where, as an undergraduate she had been awarded the George Smith Studentship and where she obtained a First-Class Honours BA degree in English in 1966 followed by a Driver postgraduate scholarship. Prior to her appointment to the Dome project, she was Chief Executive of English Heritage from 1989 to 1995, having been recruited by the chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, she worked for chairman Jocelyn Stevens. On her appointment to the Millennium Commission, Stephen Dorrell said: "The work of the Commission will leave a permanent mark of the face of the country and the job of the Chief Executive will be crucial to the Commission's success. Jennie Page is the right person for the job and we are delighted that she is going to join us."

Jocelyn Stevens said:"I have been privileged to work closely with Jennie since I have been Chairman of English Heritage. She has been strong support through a challenging period. I will miss her and her intuitive wisdom much indeed and I wish her the same success in her new job that she has achieved at English Heritage; the Millennium Commission is singularly fortunate in obtaining Jennie's extraordinary combination of knowledge and management skills." Before the appointments at English Heritage and the Dome project she was a civil servant in the Departments of the Environment and Transport, London Docklands Development Corporation, Pallas Group. She was a non-executive director of Railtrack Group plc, a part-time appointment earning her £26,000 per year. Railtrack Group was placed into members' voluntary liquidation as RT Group on 18 October 2002, she was a non-executive director of The Equitable Life Assurance Society which collapsed financially in the millennium year. The Society issued claims for negligence against nine former directors, including Page, but in 2005 conceded total defeat in a four-year £3.2bn legal action to obtain compensation for policyholders.

£10.2m was paid to the former directors to cover much of their legal expenses with Page paid just over £3m. Page was headhunted for the job by the Heritage Secretary, Stephen Dorrell, according to The Observer. Page had worked for the London Docklands Development Corporation and had a reputation for a hardheaded style of management. Cracks developing behind the scenes began to show in January 1998 when Stephen Bayley, creative director of the project, resigned, he described Government Minister Peter Mandelson, whose project it had become, as a dictator reminiscent of: "an East German Stalinist". Page was sacked as Chief Executive on 5 February 2000, she had come under pressure after an opening night fiasco on 31 December 1999, followed by poor attendance in January 2000 and a revolt by sponsors. She was replaced by an unknown 34-year-old Frenchman, Pierre-Yves Gerbeau, known as "P-Y" and nicknamed "the Gerbil" by the popular press, who had worked for the Disneyland Paris theme park, he was not thought senior in the Disney organisation.

During her time at the Dome, with compensation for her early departure, she was rumored to have received a salary of £500,000. In June 2000, Page gave evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee for Culture and Sport, she stated that "he Dome had been seen by ministers and the public as a political project since its inception". Page claimed that she had asked ministers to step back from the project to calm the controversy surrounding it. In what was seen as a reference to the close interest in the Dome from Peter Mandelson, the former so-called "Minister for the Dome", his successor Lord Falconer of Thoroton, Page told the committee: "I made several attempts to persuade ministers that standing back from the Dome would be good for them as well as good for the Dome". Page added to her criticism of ministers by insisting that the unexpected decision by the Prime Minister Tony Blair to invite one million schoolchildren to the Dome for free had had a significant impact on its income, it meant many parents would no longer pay to visit with their families, forced the building of extra facilities for the large school parties.

A decision to ban visitors arriving by car cut the public's level of interest. In 2001 Page married an accountant. In 2006, she was appointed vice-chairman of the Cathedrals Fabric Commission for England a statutory body, chaired by Frank Field MP and a member of the Church of England General Synod; the purpose of the trust is to: "romote the care and conservation of the Cathedral churches of the Church of England"

Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company

Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company abbreviated as D&C, was a shipping company on the Great Lakes. The main route was between Detroit and Cleveland, Ohio. Routes lead to Buffalo, New York with the purchase of the Detroit and Buffalo Steamship Company in 1909. Charters and day-trips were offered. Most scheduled sailings were overnight sailings; each ship was painted with white lettering. By 1949, the ships wore all-white paint with blue lettering; the popular line operated from 1868 to 1951 and is referred to as the owner of many of the Great Lakes' best "floating palaces" and "honeymoon ships". In its heyday, the D&C Line was among the most well-known shipping companies in business on the Great Lakes, with its vessels being among the largest and most palatial seen. Two of them, SS Greater Buffalo and the SS Greater Detroit, were both built in 1923, were known as the largest side-wheeler passenger ships in the world. Naval architect Frank E. Kirby designed many D&C ships; as ferry and cruise ships, all of the ships of D&C were a success, with various civic groups and companies chartering each ship on account of their reputations for excellent services and good cuisine.

Upon reaching Buffalo, happy honeymoon couples would connect to Niagara Falls. In the late 1930s, the increasing use of the automobile caused passenger numbers to fall. During World War II, Greater Buffalo was converted into training aircraft carriers for use on the Great Lakes. In the meantime, Greater Detroit and her fleetmates saw an increase in passenger revenues, with the ships being reasonably full as Americans rationed gasoline for the war effort and therefore chose to travel between cites on the D&C liners, among other lines operating then. By the end of the war, revenues fell again. Greater Detroit and her fleetmates, the City of Cleveland III, City of Detroit III, Western States, the Eastern States, were all that remained. On June 26, 1950, the 390-foot -long City of Cleveland III was struck abaft by the Norwegian freighter Ravenfjell, was damaged. Five passengers were killed with dozens injured; the two ships survived and returned to their ports, but this incident, along with the dramatic resurgence of the automobile and truck traffic trades, finished the company.

The company was formally dissolved in 1951, shortly after their old harbor terminals were condemned by the city of Detroit because of old age, by 1959, most of the line's remaining ships had been scrapped. Greater Detroit and Eastern States in particular had their wooden upper works set afire before their steel hulls were scrapped at the Steel Company of Canada. Western States, after finding herself laid up by 1951, was towed to Tawas City, Michigan on Lake Huron in 1955 to become a floating hotel. Overniter Inc. was her owner and the vessel was unofficially renamed Overniter. When the "flotel" idea proved to be unprofitable, Siegel Iron & Metal Company of Detroit purchased her. After a dockside fire in 1959, she was scrapped by Michigan-based Bay City Scrap Company at the old Davidson Shipyard. Greater Buffalo was declared surplus by the United States Navy and scrapped in 1948. One vessel built in 1883, the 203-foot long, 807 ton City of Mackinac was sold back to D&C in 1909; the City of Mackinac was converted into the floating clubhouse of the Chicago Yacht Club and was the last known vessel of the D&C Line to survive.

When the City of Detroit III was dismantled in 1956, Frank Schmidt bought the wooden fittings from the Gothic Room aboard the steamer and had the material shipped to suburban Cleveland. After his death, the Dossin Great Lakes Museum on Belle Isle in the Detroit River acquired the woodwork and a part of the large and elegant room was preserved there as a reminder of the D&C Line's past glory days, it was not until the arrival of the German HAPAG ship c. Columbus in 1997 that such large and well-accommodated overnight passengers ships had been seen on the Great Lakes. Along with the Hudson River Day Line, the Georgian Bay Lines, Great Lakes Transit Company, Canada Steamship Lines, Fall River Line, Old Bay Line, among other lines, the D&C Line is considered to be among the major passenger shipping companies of America's inland and coastal waterways, it was a people mover and a catalyst for the development of numerous towns and ports at a time when better automobile and trucking routes, along with larger bridges, were yet to be built and established.

City of Detroit III Eastern States Western States City of Cleveland III Greater Detroit Greater Buffalo City of Makinac City of Alpena II City of St. Ignace State of New York http://www.mhsd.org/passenger/ Passenger Ships of Great Lakes Southwestern Ontario Digital Archive: City of Cleveland, Ontario, Canada