St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital
St. Vincent Hospital is a hospital in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, it is the flagship installation of St. Vincent Health which operates 22 facilities over 46 Indiana counties and is one of the largest ministries in the Catholic health care organization Ascension Health. Driven by the faith of four Daughters of Charity who arrived in Indianapolis in 1881 with $34.77 in their pockets, St. Vincent has grown to include six "Centers of Excellence": Women's, Children's, Cardiovascular and Cancer Care. Peyton Manning Children’s Hospital at St. Vincent has more than 300 pediatric specialists, 46 private inpatient rooms, 15 private rooms in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and 17 private rooms in the Hilbert Pediatric Emergency Department – the first pediatric ER in Indiana; the pediatric specialists and clinical staff at the children’s hospital provide care in emergency medicine and blood diseases, general surgery, orthopedics, otolaryngology and endocrinology. Since 1998, former Indianapolis Colts quarterback Peyton Manning has had a public and private relationship with St. Vincent.
On Sept. 5, 2007, the former Indianapolis Colts Quarterback reinforced his commitment to the children of Indiana by partnering with St. Vincent to announce the renaming of St. Vincent Children's Hospital to Peyton Manning Children’s Hospital at St. Vincent. Www.stvincent.org
Anton Hulman "Tony" George is the chairman and former President and CEO of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Hulman & Company, serving from 1989 to 2009. He was formerly on the Board of Directors of both entities, he founded the Indy Racing League and co-owned Vision Racing. Tony George's grandfather, Tony Hulman purchased the Indianapolis Motor Speedway at the end of World War II. George is a former driver, having competed in the 1989 Indy Lights championship, finishing 12th in points and capturing 5 top-tens, his mother, Mari Hulman George served as the speedway's Chairman and delivers its famed "ladies and gentlemen, start your engines" public address before every Indianapolis 500 from 1997-2015 and the Brickyard 400 from 1997, 1999-2015. He delivered the command for the 2017 Indy 500 start your engines" command. Tony George became president and CEO of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation after the death of Joe Cloutier in 1989. During his first few years as Speedway head, he oversaw new projects such as an infield road-circuit, Tower Terrace Suites, pit lane reconstruction, a control tower.
Before George's arrival, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway traditionally had only one race: the Indianapolis 500. He changed that with the announcement; the Brickyard 400 made its debut with Jeff Gordon taking the checkered flag. Many Indianapolis purists despise stock car racing at the most famous circuit in North American open-wheel lore; some fans believe the configuration of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, as well as the diamond cutting of the track surface makes it a poor facility for stock car racing, traditionally exhibited on high banked ovals. In 1998, the IROC series came to the track, to little fanfare, less success. George helped bring Formula One back to the U. S. with the United States Grand Prix held at the Speedway in 2000. This project involved building a road course inside the oval; the inaugural event in 2000 set an F1 attendance record. Controversy surrounded the 2005 United States Grand Prix, where only 6 of the 20 cars took the green due to problems with Michelin tires, which damaged the reputation of the event and the F1 in general in the USA market.
Michael Schumacher became the first driver to win 5 races at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway by winning the 2006 race on July 2. The UK's Lewis Hamilton won the 2007 event. George and Formula 1 boss Bernie Ecclestone could not reach an agreement to continue the US Grand Prix at the Brickyard for 2008 and beyond; the Speedway hosted its first MotoGP event in 2008. The motorcycles could not safely race through the banked turns at high speed, so a portion of the infield was plowed and paved to provide a bypass to Turn 13 of the original road course. George resigned on June 30, 2009 as President and CEO of IMS and Hulman & Company claiming it to be so he could focus more time on the Indy Racing League, it has been reported that while George's mother Mari Hulman George supported him, his sisters wanted him forced out. The board rejected George's request to continue funding Vision Racing. George had spent hundreds of millions of dollars on IRL teams, entry fees, marketing plans, airplanes and his own team.
However the IRL has been said to be continually losing money, after the estimated $60 million overhaul of the Speedway to accommodate Formula One in 2000, George’s sisters, Nancy George, Josie George and Kathi Conforti-George, voiced their concern to their mother over the spending habits of their brother convincing Mari Hulman George to take unchecked power away from George in June 2009. In January 2010, George resigned from the board of directors. In February 2011, however George again became a director of Hulman & Company when the board was expanded. At a July 2016 NASCAR event at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Tony George was described as Chairman of the Board of Hulman & Company, which owns IMS and the IndyCar Series. Shortly after being removed from the CART Board of Directors, George announced the creation of the Indy Racing League, which began racing in 1996, he claimed to create the IRL to challenge the established CART series, to encourage a more playing field in open wheel racing.
He claimed he wanted a series to run on oval tracks, making it distinct from CART, which raced on road and street courses in addition to short ovals and superspeedways. George angered many CART participants by requiring 25 of the 33 spots in the Indianapolis 500 to be occupied by drivers in the IRL circuit; this meant that CART could not hold the Indianapolis 500 as a points scoring event on their calendar as not enough teams would be allowed to compete and earn points. CART decided to stage their own race on the same day, the U. S. 500 at Michigan International Speedway. Due to the lack of participation from the established CART teams, most of the biggest names did not enter the Indianapolis 500 for several years. Tony George became a figure of derision among some racing fans, he is blamed for open wheel racing losing fans and drivers to NASCAR. George was successful in increasing the visibility of Indianapolis Motor Speedway; the Indy 500 remains one of the highlights of the IRL race season and maintained a strong attendance.
George attracted NASCAR and Formula One to Indianapolis. In 2008, the MotoGP series added the oval circuit to its schedule; however the IndyCar series had trouble drawing fans, plus it lost IndyCar drivers to NASCAR suc
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the state's western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,785 and its metropolitan area had a population of 170,943. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the "capital" of the Wabash Valley; the city is home to several higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana. Terre Haute is located alongside the eastern bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana; the city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the physical geography of the city. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the historic flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the southern sections of the city, respectively.
In the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city. Pioneer Oil of Lawrenceville, IL, began drilling for oil at 10th and Chestnut streets on the Indiana State University campus in late December 2013, the first oil well drilled in downtown Terre Haute since 1903; that well produced oil into the 1920s. Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways: U. S. 40 from California to Maryland and US 41 from Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati. Climate is characterized by high summer temperatures, mean winter temperatures near freezing, evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfa". Terre Haute's name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning "Highland." It was named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River.
At the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the known beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village existed near the fort, the orchards and meadows they kept a few miles south of the fort became the site of the present-day city; the village of Terre Haute a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816. Terre Haute became the county seat of newly formed Vigo County in 1818, leading to increased population growth; the village's 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, followed by elevation to city status in 1853. Early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing; however the business and industrial expansion of the city prior to 1860 developed thanks to transportation. The Wabash River, the building of the National Road and the Wabash and Erie Canal linked Terre Haute to the world and broadened the city's range of influence.
The economy was based on iron and steel mills, hominy plants and, late in the 19th century, distilleries and bottle makers. Coal mines and coal operating companies developed to support the railroads, yet agriculture remained predominant due to the role of corn in making alcoholic beverages and food items. With steady growth and development in the part of the 19th Century, the vibrant neighborhoods of the city benefited from improved fire protection, the founding of two hospitals, dozens of churches and a number of outlets for amusement. Terre Haute's position as an educational hub was fostered as several institutions of higher education were established; the city developed a reputation for entertainment offerings. Grand opera houses were built that hosted hundreds of theatrical performances, it became a stop on the popular vaudeville circuit. The development of the streetcar system and the electric-powered trolleys in the 1890s made it possible for residents to travel with ease to enjoy baseball games, river excursions, amusement parks and racing.
The famous "Four-Cornered" Racetrack, now the site of Memorial Stadium, was laid out in 1886 and drew the best of the country's trotters and drivers. On the evening of Easter Sunday, March 23, 1913, a major tornado struck Terre Haute at 9:45 p.m. It demolished more than 300 homes, killed twenty-one people and injured 250. Damage to local businesses and industries was estimated at $1 million to $2 million. Up to that time it was the deadliest tornado. Heavy rains followed the tornado. By midday on Tuesday, March 25, West Terre Haute was three-quarters submerged. On Saturday June 16, 1923, through to the following dawn, the largest Ku Klux Klan rally held in Indiana took place in Forest Park, five miles north of Terre Haute. A special train of eight coaches brought Klan members from Indianapolis, another came from Evansville and Vincennes, another brought 1,000 Klansmen from Muncie, it was reported tha
Sheffield Scientific School
Sheffield Scientific School was founded in 1847 as a school of Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut for instruction in science and engineering. Named the Yale Scientific School, it was renamed in 1861 in honor of Joseph E. Sheffield, a railroad executive; the school was incorporated in 1871. The Sheffield Scientific School helped establish the model for the transition of U. S. higher education from a classical model to one which incorporated both the sciences and the liberal arts. Following World War I, its curriculum became integrated with Yale College. "The Sheff" ceased to function as a separate entity in 1956. After technological developments in the early nineteenth century such as the electric telegraph, an interest was fostered in teaching applied science at universities. Harvard established the Lawrence Scientific School in 1846 and Dartmouth began the Chandler Scientific School in 1852; the stage was set at Yale for the transition in education beginning in 1846, when professorships of agricultural chemistry and practical chemistry were established.
In 1847, the School of Applied Chemistry became part of a newly created Department of Philosophy and the Arts. Classes and labs were hosted in the Second President's House on Yale's Old Campus until funding and a suitable facility could be found. Norton was replaced by John Addison Porter. Applied chemistry was followed in 1852 by a professorship of civil engineering establishing a school of engineering; these programs made up the Yale Scientific School. In 1853 and 1854, science and engineering courses were listed in the Yale College course catalog as offered by the Yale Scientific School. Porter elicited help from his father-in-law, Joseph Earl Sheffield, in 1858, Sheffield donated over US$100,000 to purchase the old Medical Department building for the scientific school; this gift included two newly-renovated wings within the building. The old Yale Medical School building on the northeast corner of Grove and Prospect Streets was renovated and renamed Sheffield Hall. Sheffield's building reinforced the division of Hillhouse Avenue into an upper, residential section, a lower section devoted to education.
In 1861, the school became the Sheffield Scientific School in recognition of his generosity devoted to "the promotion of the study of the natural and mathematical sciences." Sheffield was one of Yale's greatest benefactors and continued to support the school throughout his life, giving a total of about US$500,000. Yale received US$591,000 from his will as well as his house, the Sheffield mansion and owned by Ithiel Town; the school benefited from the Morrill Act starting in 1863 and an agricultural course was begun. Land grant status, was transferred to the Storrs Agricultural School in 1893 after arguments by the state grange that the school was not a proper "farm school". A series of lectures known as the Sheffield Lectures was instituted by the school in 1866. Professor Othniel Charles Marsh of the school led four Yale scientific expeditions in search of fossils in 1870-3; the Sheffield School innovated with an undergraduate course offering science and mathematics as well as economics, geography, modern languages and political science.
Sheffield pioneered graduate education in the United States, granting the first Ph. D. in America in 1861 as well as the first engineering Ph. D in America to Josiah Willard Gibbs in 1863, the first geology Ph. D. to William North Rice in 1867. Unlike Yale College students at the time, Sheffield students had "no dorms, no required chapel, no disciplinary marks and no proctors"; the Academical Department of Yale and Sheffield became rivals. Loomis Havemeyer and registrar at Sheffield, stated: "During the second half of the nineteenth century Yale College and Sheffield Scientific School, separated by only a few streets, were two separate countries on the same planet." The Ac students would look down on the practical Sheff students. Sheffield had its own student secret societies including the Colony Club, 1848, the Cloister, 1863, St. Anthony Hall, 1867, St. Elmo, 1889, as well as Franklin Hall, 1865, York Hall, 1877, Sachem Hall, 1893, Vernon Hall, 1908; the Yale Scientific Magazine was founded at Sheffield in 1894, the first student magazine devoted to the sciences.
In 1872–73, Sheffield Scientific School's first new building, North Sheffield Hall was built, designed by Josiah Cleaveland Cady, on what had been the gardens of the Town-Sheffield mansion. This was followed by Sheffield Chemical. Of these, only the latter, Sheffield Chemical, is still standing and renamed Arthur K. Watson Hall. Becton Laboratory now stands on the site of Winchester Halls. Further expansion brought Kirtland Hall, Hammond Laboratory, Leet Oliver Hall, Mason Laboratory and Dunham Laboratory, all still standing except Hammond, razed in 2009 to make way for two new residential colleges; the Vanderbilt-Sheffield Dormitories and To
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Rose Polytechnic Institute, is a small private college specializing in teaching engineering and science in Terre Haute, Indiana. Founder Chauncey Rose, along with nine friends, created the Terre Haute School of Industrial Science in 1874 to provide technical training after encountering difficulties in local engineer availability during construction of his railroads. Mr. Rose donated the land on 13th and Locust St. and the majority of the funds needed to start the new school. A year the cornerstone of the new institution was laid and the name was changed to Rose Polytechnic Institute despite the objections of the president of the board of managers and chief benefactor, Mr. Rose; the original campus was a single building, with recreational facilities. The first class of 48 students entered in 1883, chosen from 58 applicants. Of the 48 students, all were male, 37 came from Indiana. All but four students chose to major in Mechanical Engineering with Civil Engineering and Chemistry the only other majors.
Nearly half of the original students would quit their studies before graduation for a number of reasons, including poor grades or conduct. The first president was Charles O. Thompson, who modeled the education of Rose Poly after eastern institutions. Rose Poly was thus founded as the first private engineering college west of the Alleghenies. During the beginning years of the school, money was a major concern. Many faculty and staff accepted pay cuts. In 1889 the school awarded what it considers to be the first Chemical Engineering degree in the country. In 1917, the school, having grown to more than 300 students, moved from 13th and Locust St. to a new site consisting of 123 acres of farm land on U. S. 40 donated by the Hulman family of Terre Haute. The cornerstone of the new campus was laid in 1922; the new campus consisted of an academic building and the institute's first dorm, Deming Hall, still used by freshman today. Early life at Rose consisted of social fraternities and the occasional "high jinks."
A popular "high jinks" involved the sophomore class inviting the freshmen class to a baseball game but were told to "leave their pipes with the nurse." The freshmen would produce the pipes at a specific time and a brawl would ensue. During World War I Rose Poly trained students in technical subjects like vehicle maintenance, created a ROTC Engineer unit which became the Wabash Battalion Army ROTC program. During World War II the ROTC unit was replaced with an Army Specialized Training Unit and students could enter and graduate after every quarter in order to support the war effort; this enrollment schedule continued through the post-war years until 1951. A tank was located behind the north sides of Moench Hall and Myers Hall as a reminder of Rose Poly's war contributions, but has been moved from the campus for reasons unknown. In recognition of the Hulman family's significant contributions and continued financial support, Rose Polytechnic was renamed Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in 1971.
During the 1960s and 70s, growth accelerated under president John A. Logan. Five new residence halls, a new student union, a student recreation center were all constructed between 1963 and 1976. Permission was sought and received to increase the student population to 1000; the quarterly cryptology journal Cryptologia was founded and published at RHIT from 1977 to 1995, at which time it was moved to the United States Military Academy. For most of its history, Rose-Hulman was a men's-only institution, it voted to become coeducational in 1991, with the first full-time women students starting in 1995. In 1995, the college required all incoming freshmen to purchase laptop computers, becoming one of the first schools to do so. In the decade following 1995, Rose-Hulman's growth was aided by a major fundraising campaign called "Vision to be the Best." A $100 million campaign over ten years, it met its goal in half the time. The goal was extended to $200 million, by the end of the campaign in June 2004, over $250 million had been raised.
In 2002, Hatfield Hall, a state-of-the-art theater and alumni center was opened. Five years earlier Shook Field House was replaced with the $20 million Sports and Recreation Center, a major reason that the National Football League's Indianapolis Colts used the campus for their summer training camp from 1999–2010. After the 2004 retirement of institute president Samuel Hulbert, who had led the school since 1976, the college faced a leadership crisis. Soon after John J. Midgley arrived as the new president, rumors of conflict between Midgley and the administration started to circulate. Students, some wearing T-shirts proclaiming "Hit the Road Jack," held a rally calling for Midgley's resignation. Midgley resigned as president of the institute on June 11, 2005, less than a year into his presidency, after the faculty and Student Government Association approved votes of no confidence. During the succeeding academic year, Robert Bright, the Chairman of the Board of Trustees, served as interim chief executive officer.
At a press conference on March 17, 2006, Bright named Gerald Jakubowski, Vice President and Professor of Engineering at Arizona State University, as the thirteenth president of the Institute. Jakubowski took over effective July 1, 2006. On February 23, 2009, Jakubowski announced that he would be resigning from the position of president, effective June 30. On June 11, 2009, the college announced that the Board of Trustees had elected Matt Branam to serve as interim president. On December 4, 2009, the Board elected Branam as permanent president. In April 2012, Branam suffered a he
International Motorsports Hall of Fame
The International Motorsports Hall of Fame is a Hall of Fame dedicated to enshrining those who have contributed the most to the sports of auto racing and motorized boat racing either as a driver, developer or engineer. Although people of many nationalities have been inducted the majority of inductees chosen are American drivers who competed in domestic series. Only three non-Americans have been inducted since 2003, it was founded in 1990 by Bill France, Jr. the son of the founder of NASCAR, is located in Lincoln, adjacent to Talladega Superspeedway. To be nominated, the person must be retired from their specialty in motorsports for at least five years unless approved on special means, they are voted on by a 150-member panel from the American auto racing media. Due to the opening of the NASCAR Hall of Fame, there was no class of 2010. Motorsports Hall of Fame of America Long Beach Motorsports Walk of Fame NASCAR Hall of Fame Official website