Norton Motorcycle Company
The Norton Motorcycle Company is a British motorcycle marque from Birmingham, UK. It was founded in 1898 as a manufacturer of "fittings and parts for the two-wheel trade". By 1902 the company had begun manufacturing motorcycles with bought-in engines. In 1908 a Norton-built engine was added to the range; this began a long series of production of single and twin-cylinder motorcycles, a long history of racing involvement. Production of the military Model 16 H and Big 4 sidevalve motorcycles was Norton's contribution to the WWII war effort 100,000 being manufactured; when major shareholders started to leave Norton in 1953 the company declined and Associated Motor Cycles bought the shares. Although motorcycle sales went through a recession in the 1950s, Norton Motors Ltd was only a small manufacturer, Norton sales flourished. A series of Norton Dominator Twins of 500 cc 600 cc 650 cc and the 750 cc Norton Atlas kept sales buoyant with sales to the United States. In 1968 the new 750 cc Norton Commando Model appeared, with the engine/gearbox/swingarm unit isolastically insulated from the frame with a series of rubber mountings.
This kept the vibrations from the rider. The Commando was a best seller, voted #1 Motorcycle of the Year a number of times in Britain. 850 cc models appeared for 1973. For 1975 an electric start arrived in the 850 Mk3; the largest UK motorcycle manufacturer at the time was BSA-Triumph, comprising Birmingham Small Arms Company in Birmingham, Triumph Motorcycles in Meriden. BSA-Triumph faced difficulties caused by poor management, outdated union practices, old-fashioned motorcycle designs and antiquated factory conditions. A merger with Norton Motorcycles was proposed; the Triumph factory Meriden was the least modern. Poore was CEO of Manganese Bronze Holdings, a company more concerned with asset stripping than with motorcycle production. Subsequent political manoeuvrings led to the downfall of NVT, as taxpayer-assisted wranglings over amalgamations and sell-offs all but killed the once extensive UK motorcycle industry. In late 2008 Stuart Garner, a UK businessman, bought the rights to Norton from some US concerns and relaunched Norton in its Midlands home at Donington Park where it will develop the 961cc Norton Commando, a new range of Norton motorcycles.
The original company was formed by James Lansdowne Norton at 320, Bradford Street, Birmingham, in 1898. In 1902 Norton began building motorcycles with Swiss engines. In 1907 a Norton ridden by Rem Fowler won the twin-cylinder class in the first Isle of Man TT race, beginning a sporting tradition that went on until the 1960s; the first Norton engines were made in 1907, with production models available from 1908. These were the 3.5 hp and the'Big 4', beginning a line of side-valve single-cylinder engines which continued with few changes until the late 1950s. The first Norton logo was a simple, art nouveau design, with the name spelled in capitals. However, a new logo appeared on the front of the catalogue for 1914, a joint effort by James Norton and his daughter Ethel, it became known as the "curly N" logo, with only the initial letter as a capital, was used by the company thereafter, first appearing on actual motorcycles in 1915. Ethel Norton did some testing of her father's motorcycles. In 1913 the business declined, R. T.
Shelley & Co. the main creditors and saved it. Norton Motors Ltd was formed shortly afterwards under joint directorship of James Norton and Bob Shelley. Shelley's brother-in-law was tuner Dan O'Donovan, he managed to set a significant number of records on the Norton by 1914 when the war broke out - and as competition motorcycling was suspended during the hosilities, these records still stood when production restarted after the war. 1914 Dan O'Donovan records set in April 1914: Under 500 cc flying km 81.06 mph, flying mile 78.60 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc flying km and flying mile see above Under 500 cc with sidecar flying km 65.65 mph, flying mile 62.07 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc with sidecar flying km and flying mile see aboveOn 17 July 1914 O'Donovan took the flying 5 mile record at 75.88 mph, the standing start 10 mile record at 73.29 mph, again on the 490 cc Norton. Norton continued production of their 3.5 hp and Big 4 singles well into the war period, though in November 1916 the Ministry of Munitions issued an order that no further work on motor cycles or cars would be allowed from 15 November 1916 without a permit.
By this time most motor cycle companies were either producing munitions, or devoted to the export trade. Norton were involved in exporting and earlier that year had announced a new'Colonial Model' of their 633cc Big 4; this featured an increase in ground clearance from 4.25" to 6.5", by altering the frame, larger tank, greater clearance on mudguards, a sturdy rear carrier. The engine was unaltered, transmission was via a Sturmey-Archer 3-speed gearbox. In February 1918 Motor Cycle reported on a visit to Norton Motors. Mr Norton had stated that he expected three post-war models, the 3.5 hp 490 cc TT with belt drive, two utility mounts, one with detuned TT engine, the other being the Big Four for heavy solo or sidecar work, both of these with three-speed Sturmey-Archer countershaft gearbox and all chain drive. It was stated that he had been experimenting with aluminium pistons, a
Thomas Raymond Mays, CBE was an auto racing driver and entrepreneur from Bourne, England. He attended Oundle School, where he met Amherst Villiers, leaving at the end of 1917. After army service in the Grenadier Guards in France, he attended Cambridge. Mays enjoyed the London theatre and watching Jean Borotra play tennis. Mays was one of the principal people behind the development of the motor racing stables of English Racing Automobiles and British Racing Motors; the workshops of each firm were established, in turn, in The Maltings adjacent to the Spalding road, behind "Eastgate House", the family home on Eastgate road in Bourne. His lifelong ambition was to see his country succeed at the top level of international motor sport; this ambition was not always matched by his technical or financial resources and a low point was reached with the failure of the BRM V16 project, before BRM won the Constructors' World Championship in 1962. Mays raced for some thirty years, competing in various cars: a Speed-model 1½-litre Hillman, two 1½-litre Bugattis, an unsuccessful supercharged AC, the Vauxhall-Villiers, Invictas, Rileys and ERAs.
Mays was renowned for competing at Shelsley Walsh, racing there in the early 1920s with a pair of Brescia Bugattis, known as'Cordon Bleu' and'Cordon Rouge'. A famous picture was taken of'Cordon Bleu' at the Caerphilly mountain hill-climb in 1924 showing a rear wheel escaping from the car with the driver looking at it over his shoulder, he developed his cars with superchargers through Amherst Villiers and this association continued from AC to the Vauxhall-Villiers and the famous'White Riley', that became the starting point for ERA. In 1929, Raymond Mays entered the Vauxhall-Villiers at Shelsley Walsh fitted with twin rear wheels, he broke the hill record and this innovation was copied in the years to come. Mays made his mark on the track in such events as the 1935 German Grand Prix, sharing his ERA with Ernst von Delius; the ribbon which came with the wreath, part of the prize for this event is to be seen at the Raymond Mays room in Bourne Heritage Centre. Mays was one of ERA's most notable drivers, winning the British Hill Climb Championship in its first two years, 1947 and 1948 and the Brighton Speed Trials in 1946, 1947, 1948 and 1950 in his black ERA R4D.
He stopped driving racing cars at the end of the 1950 season. In the 1950s and 1960s Mays produced and marketed tuning equipment for British Ford four- and six-cylinder engines, including an alloy cylinder head designed by Mays's ERA and BRM associate Peter Berthon; these parts were fitted to Ford, A. C. and Reliant cars. Mays described these events and others to Roy Plomley in Desert Island Discs on 25 October 1969. Mays wrote Split Seconds, BRM and At Speed. Split Seconds: My Racing Years by Raymond Mays "ghosted" by Dennis May, G. T. Foulis & Co. Ltd. 1951. 306 pages. B. R. M. by Raymond Mays and Peter Roberts. 1962. 240 pages. Kenny, Paul; the Man Who Supercharged Bond: The Extraordinary Story of Charles Amherst Villiers. Sparkford: Haynes Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84425-468-2. ERA R4D - The Autobiography of R4D by Mac Hulbert The Bourne web site Raymond Mays history site The Raymond Mays Room Photograph from 1956 on flickr: T W Mays & Son Limited, Bourne
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, reduces friction between moving parts. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis. Most bearings facilitate the desired motion by minimizing friction. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads applied to the parts. Rotary bearings hold rotating components such as shafts or axles within mechanical systems, transfer axial and radial loads from the source of the load to the structure supporting it; the simplest form of bearing, the plain bearing, consists of a shaft rotating in a hole. Lubrication is used to reduce friction. In the ball bearing and roller bearing, to prevent sliding friction, rolling elements such as rollers or balls with a circular cross-section are located between the races or journals of the bearing assembly. A wide variety of bearing designs exists to allow the demands of the application to be met for maximum efficiency, reliability and performance.
The term "bearing" is derived from the verb "to bear". The simplest bearings are bearing surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of control over the form, size and location of the surface. Other bearings are separate devices installed into a machine part; the most sophisticated bearings for the most demanding applications are precise devices. The invention of the rolling bearing, in the form of wooden rollers supporting, or bearing, an object being moved is of great antiquity, may predate the invention of the wheel. Though it is claimed that the Egyptians used roller bearings in the form of tree trunks under sleds, this is modern speculation, they are depicted in their own drawings in the tomb of Djehutihotep as moving massive stone blocks on sledges with liquid-lubricated runners which would constitute a plain bearing. There are Egyptian drawings of bearings used with hand drills; the earliest recovered example of a rolling element bearing is a wooden ball bearing supporting a rotating table from the remains of the Roman Nemi ships in Lake Nemi, Italy.
The wrecks were dated to 40 BC. Leonardo da Vinci incorporated drawings of ball bearings in his design for a helicopter around the year 1500; this is the first recorded use of bearings in an aerospace design. However, Agostino Ramelli is the first to have published sketches of thrust bearings. An issue with ball and roller bearings is that the balls or rollers rub against each other causing additional friction which can be reduced by enclosing the balls or rollers within a cage; the captured, or caged, ball bearing was described by Galileo in the 17th century. The first practical caged-roller bearing was invented in the mid-1740s by horologist John Harrison for his H3 marine timekeeper; this uses the bearing for a limited oscillating motion but Harrison used a similar bearing in a rotary application in a contemporaneous regulator clock. The first modern recorded patent on ball bearings was awarded to Philip Vaughan, a British inventor and ironmaster who created the first design for a ball bearing in Carmarthen in 1794.
His was the first modern ball-bearing design, with the ball running along a groove in the axle assembly. Bearings have played a pivotal role in the nascent Industrial Revolution, allowing the new industrial machinery to operate efficiently. For example, they saw use for holding wheel and axle to reduce friction over that of dragging an object by making the friction act over a shorter distance as the wheel turned; the first plain and rolling-element bearings were wood followed by bronze. Over their history bearings have been made of many materials including ceramic, glass, bronze, other metals and plastic which are all used today. Watch makers produce "jeweled" watches using sapphire plain bearings to reduce friction thus allowing more precise time keeping. Basic materials can have good durability; as examples, wooden bearings can still be seen today in old clocks or in water mills where the water provides cooling and lubrication. The first patent for a radial style ball bearing was awarded to Jules Suriray, a Parisian bicycle mechanic, on 3 August 1869.
The bearings were fitted to the winning bicycle ridden by James Moore in the world's first bicycle road race, Paris-Rouen, in November 1869. In 1883, Friedrich Fischer, founder of FAG, developed an approach for milling and grinding balls of equal size and exact roundness by means of a suitable production machine and formed the foundation for creation of an independent bearing industry; the modern, self-aligning design of ball bearing is attributed to Sven Wingquist of the SKF ball-bearing manufacturer in 1907, when he was awarded Swedish patent No. 25406 on its design. Henry Timken, a 19th-century visionary and innovator in carriage manufacturing, patented the tapered roller bearing in 1898; the following year he formed a company to produce his innovation. Over a century the company grew to make bearings of all types, including specialty steel and an array of related products and services. Erich Franke invented and patented the wire race bearing in 1934, his focus was on a bearing design with a cross section as small as possible and which could be integrated into the enclosing design.
After World War II he founded together with Gerh
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A business magnate or industrialist is an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepreneur or investor who controls, through personal business ownership or dominant shareholding position, a firm or industry whose goods or services are consumed; such individuals may be called czars, proprietors, taipans, barons, or oligarchs. The word magnate derives from the Latin magnates, meaning "a great man" or "great nobleman"; the word tycoon derives from the Japanese word taikun, which means "great lord", used as a title for the shōgun. The word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay and John Hay; the term spread to the business community, where it has been used since. The word mogul is an English corruption of mughal, Persian or Arabic for "Mongol".
It alludes to emperors of the Mughal Empire in the Medieval India, who possessed great power and storied riches capable of producing wonders of opulence such as the Taj Mahal. Modern business magnates are entrepreneurs that amass on their own or wield substantial family fortunes in the process of building or running their own businesses; some are known in connection with these entrepreneurial activities, others through highly-visible secondary pursuits such as philanthropy, political fundraising and campaign financing, sports team ownership or sponsorship. The terms mogul and baron were applied to late 19th and early 20th century North American business magnates in extractive industries such as mining and petroleum, transportation fields such as shipping and railroads, manufacturing such as automaking and steelmaking, in banking, as well as newspaper publishing, their dominance was known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, or the Robber Baron Era. Examples of well-known business magnates in the western world include historical figures such as oilman John D. Rockefeller, automobile pioneer Henry Ford and railroad veterans Aristotle Onassis, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jay Gould, James J. Hill, steel innovator Andrew Carnegie, newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst, retail merchant Sam Walton, banker J. P. Morgan.
Contemporary industrial tycoons include e-commerce entrepreneur Jeff Bezos, investor Warren Buffett, computer programmer Bill Gates, technology innovator Steve Jobs, steel investor Lakshmi Mittal, telecommunications investor Carlos Slim, airline owner Sir Richard Branson, technology entrepreneur Elon Musk, Formula 1 manager Bernie Ecclestone, media entrepreneur Rupert Murdoch, poultry technologist Frank Perdue. Bourgeoisie Oligarchy Business oligarch Businessperson Captain of industry Entrepreneur Financier Investor Magnate Media proprietor Plutocracy Real estate entrepreneur Robber baron ListsThe World's Billionaires Sunday Times Rich List Media related to Business magnate at Wikimedia Commons Lewis, Mark. "The Famous 15: America's Most Fascinating Tycoons". Forbes. "25 Tycoons Who Run the World". Business Pundit. October 6, 2010
Volvo Aero was a Swedish aircraft, guided missiles and rocket engine manufacturer. In 2012, the company was acquired by GKN. Nohab Flygmotorfabriker AB was founded in Trollhättan, Sweden, in 1930 to produce aircraft engines for the Swedish Board of Aviation; as the name of the company indicates it was a subsidiary to NOHAB. In 1937 it became a part of the newly founded SAAB but in 1941 Volvo acquired a majority of the stock and the name was changed to Svenska Flygmotor AB, on Volvo Flygmotor. Since the 1950s the company has been the major engine supplier to the Swedish Air Force; the Volvo Aero Group has 3,600 employees and in 2003 had total sales of 0.9 billion euros. Today Volvo Aero is a partner in more than ten commercial engine programmes. Components from Volvo Aero are installed in more than 90% of all large commercial aircraft engines sold. On 6 July 2012 Volvo Aero was acquired by the British aerospace manufacturer GKN in a SEK 6.9 billion deal. In the 1950s, the Swedish Air Board constructed an unusual test facility at Flygmotor.
This was an engine test facility, a form of wind tunnel, which could operate at high inlet pressures, thus high Reynolds numbers. This tunnel was unique in being water-powered. A sealed underground chamber was blasted out of the granite beneath the Göta Canal; when the canal was allowed to flood the chamber, air was driven from it at high pressure and through the test chamber. A supersonic test of an engine could be carried out for around 10 minutes, after which it took 24 hours to pump the chamber dry again. Use of this test facility was shared with Rolls-Royce, who used it in 1953 to develop the afterburners of the Avon RA7 engine for the Supermarine Swift F3 and Saab 32 Lansen; the Avon RA14 afterburner would be tested here, produced as the Flygmotor RM6B for the Saab 35 Draken. Volvo Aero is a supplier of single-engine systems for military aircraft; these have been in partnership with other engine manufacturers, such as the RM1 for the Saab 21R, RM2 for the Saab J29, RM5 and RM6 for the Saab 32 Lansen, the RM6B for the Saab 35 Draken, the RM8 for the Saab 37 Viggen.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen's RM12 engine is a derivative of the General Electric F404. Svenska Flygmotor designed the B42, horizontally-opposed four-cylinder engine, intended for the SAAB Safir. However, SAAB decided to use engines from de Lycoming instead. In the end the B42 came to power the Infanterikanonvagn 103 assault gun. A follow-up called B44 powered the Pansarbandvagn 301 armoured personnel carrier. Volvo Aero delivers engine components complex engine structures like turbine exhaust casings, turbine mid frames, LPT cases, compressor housings, LPT shafts and large rotating parts. Volvo Aero has a facility in Trollhättan where they did maintenance on aircraft engines and stationary gas turbines; the aircraft engines are TFE-731 engines. The Stationary gas turbines is General Electric LM1600 engine, the DR990, which Volvo bought the OEM responsibility from Dresser Rand. Formed in 1979, US aftermarket aircraft parts seller AGES Group was sold to Volvo Aero in 1999 to form Volvo Aero Services.
In 2011, VAS Aero Services was sold to HIG Capital and returned to being held in 2017. It employs over 200 worldwide. Volvo Aero manufactures combustion chambers and turbines for commercial launch vehicles; the company have produced the F-series hydraulic motors under the Volvo Flygmotor, "Volvo Hydraulics" and VOAC brands. The main feature of these products are the spherical pistons each with a laminated segment; this technology permits a large angle between the cylinder barrel. Volvo Aero subsidiaries are located in the United States and Norway, in addition to Volvo's home country, Sweden; the Norwegian plant, in Kongsberg, is the former Norsk Jetmotor, itself a part of Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk
English trust law
English trust law concerns the creation and protection of asset funds, which are held by one party for another's benefit. Trusts were a creation of the English law of property and obligations, but share a history with countries across the Commonwealth and the United States. Trusts developed when claimants in property disputes were dissatisfied with the common law courts and petitioned the King for a just and equitable result. On the King's behalf, the Lord Chancellor developed a parallel justice system in the Court of Chancery referred as equity. Trusts were used where people left money in a will, created family settlements, created charities, or some types of business venture. After the Judicature Act 1873, England's courts of equity and common law were merged, equitable principles took precedence. Today, trusts play an important role in financial investments in unit trusts and pension trusts, where trustees and fund managers invest assets for people who wish to save for retirement. Although people are free to write trusts in any way they like, an increasing number of statutes are designed to protect beneficiaries, or regulate the trust relationship, including the Trustee Act 1925, Trustee Investments Act 1961, Recognition of Trusts Act 1987, Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, Trustee Act 2000, Pensions Act 1995, Pensions Act 2004 and the Charities Act 2011.
Trusts are created by a settlor, who gives assets to one or more trustees who undertake to use the assets for the benefit of beneficiaries. Like in contract law no formality is required to make a trust, except. To protect the settlor, English law demands a reasonable degree of certainty that a trust was intended. To be able to enforce the trust's terms, the courts require reasonable certainty about which assets were entrusted, which people were meant to be the trust's beneficiaries. Unlike some offshore tax havens and the United States, English law requires that a trust has at least one beneficiary if it is not charitable; the Charity Commission monitors how charity trustees perform their duties, ensures charities serve the public interest. Pensions and investment trusts are regulated to protect people's savings and ensure that trustees or fund managers are accountable. Beyond these expressly created trusts, English law recognises "resulting" and "constructive" trusts that arise by automatic operation of law to prevent unjust enrichment, to correct wrongdoing or to create property rights where intentions are unclear.
Although the word "trust" is used and constructive trusts are different because they create property-based remedies to protect people's rights, do not flow from the consent of the parties. Speaking, trustees owe a range of duties to their beneficiaries. If a trust document is silent, trustees must avoid any possibility of a conflict of interest, manage the trust's affairs with reasonable care and skill, only act for purposes consistent with the trust's terms; some of these duties can be excluded, except where the statute makes duties compulsory, but all trustees must act in good faith in the best interests of the beneficiaries. If trustees breach their duties, the beneficiaries may make a claim for all property wrongfully paid away to be restored, may trace and follow what was trust property and claim restitution from any third party who ought to have known of the breach of trust. Statements of equitable principle stretch back to the Ancient Greeks in the work of Aristotle, while examples of rules analogous to trusts were found in the Roman law testamentary institution of the fideicommissum, the Islamic proprietary institution of the Waqf.
However, English trusts law is a indigenous development that began in the Middle Ages, from the time of the 11th and 12th century crusades. After William the Conqueror became King in 1066, one "common law" of England was created. Common law courts regarded property as an indivisible entity, as it had been under Roman law and continental versions of civil law. During the crusades, landowners who went to fight would transfer title to their land to a person they trusted so that feudal services could be performed and received, but many who returned found that the people they entrusted refused to transfer their title deed back. Sometimes, common law courts would not acknowledge that anybody had rights in the property except the holder of the legal title deeds. So claimants petitioned the King to sidestep the common law courts; the King delegated hearing of petitions to his Lord Chancellor, who established the Court of Chancery as more cases were heard. Where it appeared "inequitable" to let someone with legal title hold onto land, the Lord Chancellor could declare that the real owner "in equity" was another person, if this is what good conscience dictated.
The Court of Chancery determined that the true "use" or "benefit" of property did not belong to the person on the title. The cestui que use, the owner in equity, could be a different person. So English law recognised a split between legal and equitable owner, between someone who controlled title and another for whose benefit the land would be used, it was the beginning of trust law. The same logic was useful for Franciscan friars, who would transfer title of land to others as they were precluded from holding property by their vows of poverty; when the courts said that one person's legal title to property was subject to an obligation to use that property for another person, there was a trust. During the 15th century and 16th century, "uses" or "trusts" were employed to avoid the pa