A hand plane is a tool for shaping wood using muscle power to force the cutting blade over the wood surface. Some rotary power planers are motorized power tools used for the same types of larger tasks, but are unsuitable for fine scale planing where a miniature hand plane is used; when powered by electricity to the breadth of a board or panel, the tool may be called a thickness planer or planer which are designed to shape and finish larger boards or surfaces. All planes are used to flatten, reduce the thickness of, impart a smooth surface to a rough piece of lumber or timber. Planing is used to produce horizontal, vertical, or inclined flat surfaces on workpieces too large for shaping, where the integrity of the whole requires the same smooth surface. Special types of planes are designed to cut decorative mouldings. Hand planes are the combination of a cutting edge, such as a sharpened metal plate, attached to a firm body, that when moved over a wood surface, take up uniform shavings, by nature of the body riding on the'high spots' in the wood, by providing a constant angle to the cutting edge, render the planed surface smooth.
A cutter which extends below the bottom surface, or sole, of the plane slices off shavings of wood. A large, flat sole on a plane guides the cutter to remove only the highest parts of an imperfect surface, after several passes, the surface is flat and smooth; when used for flattening, bench planes with longer soles are preferred for boards with longer longitudinal dimensions. A longer sole registers against a greater portion of the board's face or edge surface which leads to a more flat surface or straighter edge. Conversely, using a smaller plane allows for more localized low or high spots to remain. Though most planes are pushed across a piece of wood, holding it with one or both hands, Japanese planes are pulled toward the body, not pushed away. Woodworking machinery that perform a similar function as hand planes include the jointer and the thickness planer called a thicknesser; when rough lumber is reduced to dimensional lumber, a large electric motor or internal combustion engine will drive a thickness planer that removes a certain percentage of excess wood to create a uniform, smooth surface on all four sides of the board and in specialty woods, may plane the cut edges.
Hand planes are originating thousands of years ago. Early planes were made from wood with a rectangular slot or mortise cut across the center of the body; the cutting blade or iron was held in place with a wooden wedge. The wedge was tapped into the mortise and adjusted with a small mallet, a piece of scrap wood or with the heel of the user's hand. Planes of this type have been found in excavations of old sites as well as drawings of woodworking from medieval Europe and Asia; the earliest known examples of the woodworking plane have been found in Pompeii although other Roman examples have been unearthed in Britain and Germany. The Roman planes resemble modern planes in essential function, most having iron wrapping a wooden core top, bottom and rear and an iron blade secured with a wedge. One example found in Cologne has a body made of bronze without a wooden core. A Roman plane iron used for cutting moldings was found in England. Histories prior to these examples are not clear although furniture pieces and other woodwork found in Egyptian tombs show surfaces smoothed with some manner of cutting edge or scraping tool.
There are suggestions that the earliest planes were wooden blocks fastened to the soles of adzes to effect greater control of the cutting action. In the mid-1860s, Leonard Bailey began producing a line of cast iron-bodied hand planes, the patents for which were purchased by Stanley Rule & Level, now Stanley Works; the original Bailey designs were further evolved and added to by Justus Traut and others at Stanley Rule & Level. The Bailey and Bedrock designs became the basis for most modern metal hand plane designs manufactured today; the Bailey design is still manufactured by Stanley Works. In 1918 an air-powered handheld planing tool was developed to reduce shipbuilding labor during World War I; the air-driven cutter spun at 8000 to 15000 rpm and allowed one man to do the planing work of up to fifteen men who used manual tools. Modern hand planes are made from wood, ductile iron or bronze which produces a tool, heavier and will not rust; the standard components of a hand plane include: A: The mouth is an opening in the sole of the plane through which the blade extends, through which wood shavings rise.
B: The iron is a steel blade which cuts the wood. C: The lever cap secures the cap iron and iron to the frog. D: The depth adjustment knob controls the cutting depth of the iron. E: The knob allows a second hand to guide the plane. F: The cap iron or chipbreaker reinforces the iron and curls and breaks apart wood shavings as they pass through the mouth. G: The lateral adjustment lever skews the iron so that the depth of cut is uniform across the mouth. H: The tote is the principal handle for gripping the plane. I: Is cam lever which pivots a sliding section of the forward end of the sole to adjust the gap in the plane's mouth, it is secured by tightening the knob. J: The frog is an adjustable iron wedge that holds the plane iron at the proper angle and allows it to be varied in depth relative to the sole; the frog is screwed down to the inside of the sole through two parallel slots and on many planes is only adjustable with a screwdriver when the plane iron is removed. Some planes, such as the Stanley Bedrock lin
An auger is a drilling device, or drill bit, that includes a rotating helical screw blade called a "flighting" to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material. The rotation of the blade causes the material to move out of the hole being drilled. An auger used for digging post holes is called an earth auger, handheld power earth drill, soil auger, or mechanized post hole digger; this kind of auger can be a manually turned, handheld device, or powered by an electric motor or internal-combustion engine attached to a tractor. Handheld augers can be used for making holes for garden planting. Wood augers have a screw to pull them into the wood, as a gimlet has, a cutting lip that slices out the bottom of the hole; the auger bit, meant to be used in a brace has cutting spurs to cut a clean circle deeper than where the lips scrape out the wood. In construction, augers are used for special drilling rigs to dig holes, or augerating for deep foundation piles. Another use is for piles forming a piling retaining wall, which can be constructed in the same way as foundation piles.
Augers – either gas- or hand-powered – are used by ice fishermen to drill holes to fish through. Drilling into maple trees to extract maple syrup is carried out with the use of augers. Augerino Brief history of the auger at Wonkeedonkeetools
In cutlery or kitchenware, a fork is a utensil, now made of metal, whose long handle terminates in a head that branches into several narrow and slightly curved tines with which one can spear foods either to hold them to cut with a knife or to lift them to the mouth. Bone forks have been found in archaeological sites of the Bronze Age Qijia culture, the Shang dynasty, as well as Chinese dynasties. A stone carving from an Eastern Han tomb depicts three hanging two-pronged forks in a dining scene. Similar forks have been depicted on top of a stove in a scene at another Eastern Han tomb. In Ancient Egypt, large forks were used as cooking utensils. In the Roman Empire and silver forks were used, many surviving examples of which are displayed in museums around Europe. Use varied according to local customs, social class, the type of food, but in earlier periods forks were used as cooking and serving utensils. Although its origin may go back to Ancient Greece, the personal table fork was most invented in the Eastern Roman Empire, where they were in common use by the 4th century.
Records show that by the 9th century in some elite circles of Persia a similar utensil known as a barjyn was in limited use. By the 10th century, the table fork was in common use throughout the Middle East; the introduction of the fork to Western Europe, according to theologian and cardinal Peter Damian, was by Theophano Sklereina, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, who at an Imperial banquet in 972 nonchalantly produced one, astonishing her Western guests. By the 11th century, the table fork had become prevalent in the Italian peninsula before other European regions because of historical ties with Byzantium and, as pasta became a greater part of the Italian diet, continued to gain popularity, displacing the long wooden spike used since the forks three spikes proved better suited to gathering the noodles. By the 14th century the table fork had become commonplace in Italy, by 1600 was universal among the merchant and upper classes, it was proper for a guest to arrive with his own spoon enclosed in a box called a cadena.
Although in Portugal forks were first used around 1450 by Infanta Beatrice, Duchess of Viseu, King Manuel I of Portugal's mother, only by the 16th century, when they had become part of Italian etiquette, did forks enter into common use in Southern Europe, gaining some currency in Spain, spreading to France. The rest of Europe did not adopt the fork until the 18th century; the fork's adoption in northern Europe was slower. Its use was first described in English by Thomas Coryat in a volume of writings on his Italian travels, but for many years it was viewed as an unmanly Italian affectation; some writers of the Roman Catholic Church expressly disapproved of its use, St. Peter Damian seeing it as "excessive delicacy": It was not until the 18th century that the fork became used in Great Britain, although some sources say that forks were common in France and Sweden by the early 17th century; the fork did not become popular in North America until near the time of the American Revolution. The standard four-tine design became current in the early 19th century.
Asparagus fork Barbecue fork Beef fork: A fork used for picking up meat. This fork is shaped like a regular fork, but it is bigger and the tines are curved outward; the curves are used for piercing the thin sliced beef. Berry fork Carving fork: A two-pronged fork used to hold meat steady while it is being carved, they are sold with carving knives or slicers as part of a carving set. Cheese fork Chip fork: A two-pronged disposable fork made out of sterile wood designed for the eating of french fries and other takeaway foods. From 7.5 to 9 cm long. In Germany they are known as Pommesgabel and "currywurst fork". Cocktail fork: A small fork resembling a trident, used for spearing cocktail garnishes such as olives. Cold meat fork Crab fork: A short and narrow three-pronged or two-pronged fork designed to extract meat when consuming cooked crab. Dessert fork: Any of several different special types of forks designed to eat desserts, such as a pastry fork, they have only three tines and are smaller than standard dinner forks.
The leftmost tine may be widened so as to provide an edge with. Dinner fork Extension fork: A long-tined fork with a telescopic handle, allowing for its extension or contraction. Fish fork Fondue fork: A narrow fork having two tines, long shaft and an insulating handle of wood, for dipping bread into a pot containing sauce Fruit salad fork: A fork used, used to pick up pieces of fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other varies types of fruit. Granny fork Ice cream fork: A spoon with flat tines used for some desserts. See spork. Knork Meat fork Olive fork Oyster fork Pastry fork Pickle fork: A long handled fork used for extracting pickles from a jar, or an alternative name for a ball joint separator tool used to unseat a ball joint. Pie fork Relish fork Salad fork: Similar to a regular fork, but may be shorter, or have one of the outer tines shaped differently. A "salad fork" in the silverware service of some restaurants may be a second fork. Sardine fork Spaghetti fork: A novelty fork with a met
A sickle, bagging hook or reaping-hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay. Falx was a synonym but was used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade, sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. Since the beginning of the Iron Age hundreds of region-specific variants of the sickle have evolved of iron and steel; this great diversity of sickle types across many cultures can be divided into smooth or serrated blades, both of which can be used for cutting either green grass or mature cereals using different techniques. The serrated blade that originated in prehistoric sickles still dominates in the reaping of grain and is found in modern grain-harvesting machines and in some kitchen knives; the development of the sickle in Mesopotamia can be traced back to times that pre-date the Neolithic Era. Large quantities of sickle blades have been excavated in sites surrounding Israel that have been dated to the Epipaleolithic era.
Formal digs in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan have unearthed various forms of early sickle blades. The artifacts possessed a jagged edge; this intricate ‘tooth-like’ design showed a greater degree of design and manufacturing credence than most of the other artifacts that were discovered. Sickle blades found during this time were made of flint and used in more of a sawing motion than with the more modern curved design. Flints from these sickles have been discovered near Mt. Carmel, which suggest the harvesting of grains from the area about 10,000 years ago; the sickle had a profound impact on the Agricultural Revolution by assisting in the transition to farming and crop based lifestyle. It is now accepted that the use of sickles led directly to the domestication of Near Eastern Wild grasses. Research on domestication rates of wild cereals under primitive cultivation found that the use of the sickle in harvesting was critical to the people of early Mesopotamia; the narrow growing season in the area and the critical role of grain in the late Neolithic Era promoted a larger investment in the design and manufacture of sickle over other tools.
Standardization to an extent was done on the measurements of the sickle so that replacement or repair could be more immediate. It was important that the grain be harvested at the appropriate time at one elevation so that the next elevation could be reaped at the proper time; the sickle provided a more efficient option in collecting the grain and sped up the developments of early agriculture. The sickle remained common both in the Ancient Near East and in Europe. Numerous sickles have been found deposited in hoards in the context of the European Urnfield culture, suggesting a symbolic or religious significance attached to the artifact. In archaeological terminology, Bronze Age sickles are classified by the method of attaching the handle. E.g. the knob-sickle is so called because of a protruding knob at the base of the blade which served to stabilize the attachment of the blade to the handle. The sickle played a prominent role in the Druids' Ritual of oak and mistletoe as described from a single passage in Pliny the Elder's Natural History: Due to this passage, despite the fact that Pliny does not indicate the source on which he based this account, some branches of modern Druidry have adopted the sickle as a ritual tool.
The sickle has been discovered in southwest North America with a unique structure. These sickles are said to have originated from the Far East. There is evidence that Kodiak islanders had for cutting grass “sickles made of a sharpened animal shoulder blade”; the artifacts found in present-day Arizona and New Mexico resemble curved tools that were made from the horns of mountain sheep. A similar site discovered sickles made from other material such as the Caddo Sickle, made from a deer mandible. Scripture from early natives document the use of these sickles in the cutting of grass; the instruments ranged from 13 to 16 inches tip to tip. Several other digs in eastern Arizona uncovered wooden sickles that were shaped in a similar fashion; the handles of the tools help describe how the tool was held in such a way so that the inner portion that contained the cutting surface could serve as a gathering surface for the grain. Sickles were sharpened by scraping a shape beveled edge with a coarse tool; this action has left marks on artifacts.
The sharpening process was necessary to keep the cutting edge from being dulled after extended use. The edge is seen to be quite polished, which in part proves that the instrument was used to cut grass. After collection, the grass was used as material to create bedding; the sickle in general provided the convenience of cutting the grass as well as gathering in one step. In South America, the sickle is used as a tool to harvest rice. Rice clusters are left to dry in the sun; the genealogy of sickles with serrated edge reaches back to the Stone Age, when individual pieces of flint were first attached to a “blade body” of wood or bone. Teeth have been cut with hand-held chisels into iron, steel-bladed sickles for a long time. In many countries on the African continent and South America as well as the Near and Far East this is still the case in the regions within these large geographies where the traditional village blacksmith remains alive and well. En
Drill bits are cutting tools used to remove material to create holes always of circular cross-section. Drill bits come in many sizes and shapes and can create different kinds of holes in many different materials. In order to create holes drill bits are attached to a drill, which powers them to cut through the workpiece by rotation; the drill will grasp the upper end of a bit called the shank in the chuck. Drill bits come in standard sizes, described in the drill bit sizes article. A comprehensive drill bit and tap size chart lists metric and imperial sized drill bits alongside the required screw tap sizes. There are certain specialized drill bits that can create holes with a non-circular cross-section. While the term drill may refer to either a drilling machine or a drill bit while in use in a drilling machine, in this article, for clarity, drill bit or bit is used throughout to refer to a bit for use in a drilling machine, drill refers always to a drilling machine. Drill bit geometry has several characteristics: The spiral in the drill bit controls the rate of chip removal.
A fast spiral drill bit is used in high feed rate applications under low spindle speeds, where removal of a large volume of chips is required. Low spiral drill bits are used in cutting applications where high cutting speeds are traditionally used, where the material has a tendency to gall on the bit or otherwise clog the hole, such as aluminum or copper; the point angle, or the angle formed at the tip of the bit, is determined by the material the bit will be operating in. Harder materials require a larger point angle, softer materials require a sharper angle; the correct point angle for the hardness of the material influences wandering, hole shape, wear rate. The lip angle determines the amount of support provided to the cutting edge. A greater lip angle will cause the bit to cut more aggressively under the same amount of point pressure as a bit with a smaller lip angle. Both conditions can cause binding and eventual catastrophic failure of the tool; the proper amount of lip clearance is determined by the point angle.
A acute point angle has more web surface area presented to the work at any one time, requiring an aggressive lip angle, where a flat bit is sensitive to small changes in lip angle due to the small surface area supporting the cutting edges. The length of a bit determines how deep a hole can be drilled, determines the stiffness of the bit and accuracy of the resultant hole. While longer bits can drill deeper holes, they are more flexible meaning that the holes they drill may have an inaccurate location or wander from the intended axis. Twist drill bits are available in standard lengths, referred to as Stub-length or Screw-Machine-length, the common Jobber-length, Taper-length or Long-Series. Most drill bits for consumer use have straight shanks. For heavy duty drilling in industry, bits with tapered shanks are sometimes used. Other types of shank used include hex-shaped, various proprietary quick release systems; the diameter-to-length ratio of the drill bit is between 1:1 and 1:10. Much higher ratios are possible, but the higher the ratio, the greater the technical challenge of producing good work.
The best geometry to use depends upon the properties of the material being drilled. The following table lists geometries recommended for some drilled materials. Many different materials are used depending on the required application. Many hard materials, such as carbides, are much more brittle than steel, are far more subject to breaking if the drill is not held at a constant angle to the workpiece. Soft low-carbon steel bits are inexpensive, but do not hold an edge well and require frequent sharpening, they are used only for drilling wood. Bits made from high-carbon steel are more durable than low-carbon steel bits due to the properties conferred by hardening and tempering the material. If they are overheated they lose their temper; these bits can be used on metal. High-speed steel is a form of tool steel, they can be used to drill metal and most other materials at greater cutting speeds than carbon-steel bits, have replaced carbon steels. Cobalt steel alloys are variations on high-speed steel, they hold their hardness at much higher temperatures and are used to drill stainless steel and other hard materials.
The main disadvantage of cobalt steels is that they are more brittle than standard HSS. Tungsten carbide and other carbides are hard and can drill all materials, while holding an edge longer than other bits; the material is much more brittle than steels. However, it is becoming common in job shops to use solid carbide bits. In small sizes it is difficult to fit carbide tips. Polycrystalline diamond is among the hardest of all tool materials and is therefore resistant to wear, it consists of a layer of diamond particles about 0.5 mm thick, bonded as a sintered mass to a tungsten-
A knife is a tool with a cutting edge or blade attached to a handle. Mankind's first tool, knives were used at least two-and-a-half million years ago, as evidenced by the Oldowan tools. Made of rock, bone and obsidian, over the centuries, in step with improvements in metallurgy or manufacture, knife blades have been made from bronze, iron, steel and titanium. Most modern knives have either folding blades. Knives can serve various purposes. Hunters use a hunting knife, soldiers use the combat knife, scouts and hikers carry a pocket knife. A modern knife consists of: the blade the handle the point – the end of the knife used for piercing the edge – the cutting surface of the knife extending from the point to the heel the grind – the cross section shape of the blade the spine – the thickest section of the blade. Single-edged knives may have a reverse edge or false edge occupying a section of the spine; these edges are serrated and are used to further enhance function. The handle, used to grip and manipulate the blade safely, may include a tang, a portion of the blade that extends into the handle.
Knives are made with full tangs. The handle may include a bolster, a piece of heavy material situated at the front or rear of the handle; the bolster, as its name suggests, is used to mechanically strengthen the knife. Knife blades can be manufactured from a variety of materials, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Carbon steel, an alloy of iron and carbon, can be sharp, it holds its edge well, remains easy to sharpen, but is vulnerable to rust and stains. Stainless steel is an alloy of iron, chromium nickel, molybdenum, with only a small amount of carbon, it is not able to take quite as sharp an edge as carbon steel, but is resistant to corrosion. High carbon stainless steel is stainless steel with a higher amount of carbon, intended to incorporate the better attributes of carbon steel and stainless steel. High carbon stainless steel blades do not discolor or stain, maintain a sharp edge. Laminated blades use combining the attributes of both. For example, a harder, more brittle steel may be sandwiched between an outer layer of softer, stainless steel to reduce vulnerability to corrosion.
In this case, the part most affected by corrosion, the edge, is still vulnerable. Damascus steel is a form of pattern welding with similarities to laminate construction. Layers of different steel types are welded together, but the stock is manipulated to create patterns in the steel. Titanium is a metal that has a better strength-to-weight ratio, is more wear resistant, more flexible than steel. Although less hard and unable to take as sharp an edge, carbides in the titanium alloy allow them to be heat-treated to a sufficient hardness. Ceramic blades are hard and lightweight: they may maintain a sharp edge for years with no maintenance at all, but are as fragile as glass and will break if dropped on a hard surface, they are immune to common corrosion, can only be sharpened on silicon carbide sandpaper and some grinding wheels. Plastic blades are not sharp and serrated, they are disposable. Steel blades are shaped by forging or stock removal. Forged blades are made by heating a single piece of steel shaping the metal while hot using a hammer or press.
Stock removal blades are shaped by removing metal. With both methods, after shaping, the steel must be heat treated; this involves heating the steel above its critical point quenching the blade to harden it. After hardening, the blade is tempered to make the blade tougher. Mass manufactured kitchen cutlery uses both the stock removal processes. Forging tends to be reserved for manufacturers' more expensive product lines, can be distinguished from stock removal product lines by the presence of an integral bolster, though integral bolsters can be crafted through either shaping method. Knives are sharpened in various ways. Flat ground blades have a profile that tapers from the thick spine to the sharp edge in a straight or convex line. Seen in cross section, the blade would form a long, thin triangle, or where the taper does not extend to the back of the blade, a long thin rectangle with one peaked side. Hollow ground blades have beveled edges; the resulting blade has a thinner edge, so it may have better cutting ability for shallow cuts, but it is lighter and less durable than flat ground blades and will tend to bind in deep cuts.