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Toothpaste

Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene: it is an abrasive that aids in removing dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists in suppressing halitosis, delivers active ingredients to help prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Salt and sodium bicarbonate are among materials. Large amounts of swallowed toothpaste can be toxic. A 2016 systematic review indicates that using toothpaste when brushing the teeth has no impact on the level of plaque removal. In addition to 20%–42% water, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components, the three main ones being abrasives and detergents. Abrasives constitute at least 50% of a typical toothpaste; these insoluble particles are designed to help remove plaque from the teeth. The removal of plaque and calculus prevents the accumulation of tartar and is claimed to help minimize cavities and periodontal disease, although the clinical significance of this benefit is debated.

Representative abrasives include particles of aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, various calcium hydrogen phosphates, various silicas and zeolites, hydroxyapatite. Abrasives, like the dental polishing agents used in dentists' offices cause a small amount of enamel erosion, termed "polishing" action; some brands contain powdered white mica, which acts as a mild abrasive, adds a cosmetically pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste. The polishing of teeth removes stains from tooth surfaces, but has not been shown to improve dental health over and above the effects of the removal of plaque and calculus; the abrasive effect of toothpaste is indicated by its RDA value. Too high RDA values are deleterious; some dentists recommend toothpaste with an RDA value no higher than 50 for daily use. Fluoride in various forms is the most popular active ingredient in toothpaste to prevent cavities. Fluoride is present in small amounts in plants and some natural water sources; the additional fluoride in toothpaste has beneficial effects on the formation of dental enamel and bones.

Sodium fluoride is the most common source of fluoride, but stannous fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate are used. Stannous fluoride has been shown to be more effective than sodium fluoride in reducing the incidence of dental caries and controlling gingivitis, but causes somewhat more surface stains. Much of the toothpaste sold in the United States has 1,000 to 1,100 parts per million fluoride. In European countries, such as the UK or Greece, the fluoride content is higher. All of these concentrations are to prevent tooth decay, according to a 2010 Cochrane review. Concentrations below 1,000 ppm are not to be preventive, the preventive effect increases with concentration. Clinical trials support the use of high fluoride dentifrices, as it was found to reduce the amount of plaque accumulated, decrease the number of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli and promote calcium fluoride deposits to a higher degree than after the use of traditional fluoride containing dentifrices. However, these effects must be balanced with the increased risk of harm at higher concentrations.

Many, although not all, toothpastes contain related surfactants. SLS is found in many other personal care products as well, such as shampoo, is a foaming agent, which enables uniform distribution of toothpaste, improving its cleansing power. Triclosan, an antibacterial agent, is a common toothpaste ingredient in the United Kingdom. Triclosan or zinc chloride prevent gingivitis and, according to the American Dental Association, helps reduce tartar and bad breath. A 2006 review of clinical research concluded there was evidence for the effectiveness of 0.30% triclosan in reducing plaque and gingivitis. Another Cochrane review in 2013 has found that triclosan achieved a 22% reduction in plaque, in gingivitis, a 48% reduction in bleeding gums. However, there was insufficient evidence to show a difference in fighting periodontitis and there was no evidence either of any harmful effects associated with the use of triclosan toothpastes for more than 3 years; the evidence relating to plaque and gingivitis was considered to be of moderate quality while for periodontitis was low quality.

Toothpaste comes in a variety of flavors, intended to encourage use of the product. The three most common flavorants are peppermint and wintergreen. Toothpaste flavored with peppermint-anise oil is popular in the Mediterranean region; these flavors are provided by e.g. peppermint oil. More exotic flavors include Anethole anise, bubblegum, fennel, neem, vanilla, lemon and pine. Alternatively, unflavored toothpastes exist. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a variety of calcium phosphates are included in formulations for remineralization, i.e. the reformation of enamel. Agents are added to suppress the tendency of toothpaste to dry into a powder. Included are various sugar alcohols, such as glycerol, sorbitol, or xylitol, or related derivatives, such as 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethyleneglycol. Strontium chloride or potassium nitrate is included in some toothpastes to reduce sensitivity. Two systemic meta-analysis reviews reported that arginine, calcium sodium phosphosilicate - CSPS containing toothpastes are effective in alleviating dentinal hypersensitivity respectively.

Another randomized clinical trial found superior effects when both

2018 All-Ireland Minor Football Championship

The 2018 All-Ireland Minor Football Championship was the GAA's premier inter-county gaelic football competition for under 17s. Thirty one county teams from Ireland competed. 2018 was the first minor competition for under 17 year-olds – the competition had an under 18 age limit. The under 17 championship with a new format was introduced after a vote at the GAA congress on 26 February 2016. A league format was introduced in Leinster. Munster retained their double elimination format and Ulster changed to a double elimination format. Kerry defeated Galway by 0-21 to 1-14 on 2 September 2018 to win their fifth All-Ireland minor title in a row, the first time this feat was achieved; the winners received the Tom Markham Cup. Thirty one teams from Ireland contested the championship as Kilkenny withdrew after competing in 2016. New York and London did not participate in this competition. Provincial Championships Connacht, Leinster and Ulster each organised provincial championships; each province decided their own rules for determining their champions.

The formats for the 2018 provincial championships are explained in the sections below. All-Ireland The four provincial winners play the four provincial runners-up in the All-Ireland quarter-finals. Two semi-finals and a final follow. All matches; the minor final is played before the All-Ireland senior final. All five Connacht counties compete in a single round robin format; the top 2 teams in the round robin table meet again in the Connacht final. The winners receive the Tom Kilcoyne Cup. Leinster teams competed in one of six teams and one of five teams; each team in a group plays a single match against the other teams. The first two teams in each group progress to the Leinster semi-finals. All six Munster teams competed in the three quarter-finals of the main draw; the three beaten teams entered the play-off section and, after two play-off matches, one team re-entered the main draw at the semi-final stage. From the semi-finals all matches; the three teams who were beaten in the quarter-finals of the main draw competed in a play-off in two matches.

The winning team from the play-offs re-entered the main draw at the semi-final stage. In 2018 the Ulster Championship changed to a double-elimination format, which replaced the straight knockout style of previous years; every team who lost a match before the semi-finals re-entered the competition via the Qualifiers Round 1, Qualifiers Round 2 or Qualifiers Round 3. This ensured; the semi-finals and final were knockout. The winners received the Father Murray Cup. Two of the nine teams were drawn to play in the preliminary round; the seven teams who avoided the preliminary round plus the winners of the preliminary round competed in four matches in round 1. The four winning teams from round 1 met in two matches. Two of the five teams beaten in the preliminary round or round 1 met in a playoff match; the losing team was eliminated from the competition. The four remaining teams who lost only one match in the preliminary round or round 1 met in two matches with the two losing teams being eliminated, The two losing teams from round 2 met the two winning teams from the qualifiers R2.

The two losing teams were eliminated from the competition. The two winning teams from round 2 met the two winning teams from the qualifiers R3; the two losing teams were eliminated from the competition. The four provincial champions played the four beaten finalists from the provincial championships. There was no draw for the semi-finals; this rotation ensures that a provinces's champions play the champions of all the other provinces once every three years in the semi-finals, if they each win their quarter-finals. If a provincial winner loses their quarter final the provincial runner-up who beat them take their place in the semi-final. 1. John Ball 2. Ronan Grimes 3. Owen Fitzgerald 4. Tiarnan Woods 5. Colm Moriarty 6. Tony Gill 7. Mark Lavin 8. Darragh Rahilly 9. Conor Raftery 10. Paul Walsh 11. Matthew Costello 12. Aaron Mulligan 13. Luke Mitchell 14. Eoin Darcy 15. Matthew Cooley 2018 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship 2018 All-Ireland Under-20 Football Championship

Rugby League Players Association

The Rugby League Players Association is a representative organisation in Australia. It represents players contracted to play for a Club in the Australian Rugby League Commission, National Rugby League Competition, National Youth Competition, New South Wales Rugby League State Cup Competition, Queensland Rugby League State Cup Competition and Elite Women's competition.. The Rugby League Professionals Association, the company changed its name in 2009. Former Newcastle Knights captain Tony Butterfield was appointed RLPA CEO in 2000. Former Western Reds and Penrith Panthers player Matthew Rodwell served as CEO for a brief period up until 2009. In 2009, David Garnsey took the reins as Chief Executive Officer through until 2015. In December 2015, former Carlton Football Club player and AFLPA general manager of Player Relations Ian Prendergast was appointed chief executive officer of the RLPA. In 2017, Australian and Melbourne Storm captain Cameron Smith was appointed General President of the RLPA, taking over from Clint Newton who continued with the organisation in the role of general manager of Player Relations.

The current RLPA board of directors consists of 11 individuals. Adam Blair and Eloni Vunakece were the most recent additions, joining the group in August 2017. Deidre Anderson Cameron Smith Ian Prendergast Jeremy Latimore James Maloney Tim Mannah Joel Thompson Nimesh Shah The Rugby League Players' Association's annual awards ceremony, The Players' Champion, recognises the best player in the National Rugby League as voted by their peers. Four-time winner of the award Johnathan Thurston, described the Players' Champion as "the highest accolade a player can get." 2019 James Tedesco 2018 Kalyn Ponga 2017 James Tedesco 2016 Jason Taumalolo 2015 Johnathan Thurston 2014 Johnathan Thurston 2013 Johnathan Thurston 2012 Ben Barba 2011 Akuila Uate 2010 Darius Boyd 2009 Jarryd Hayne 2008 Braith Anasta & Petero Civoniceva 2007 Matt Bowen 2006 Ben Kennedy 2005 Johnathan Thurston 2004 Danny Buderus In November 2017, the RLPA negotiated a new Collective Bargaining Agreement with the National Rugby League that secured the biggest pay increase for players in the game's 109-year history.

The new CBA deal captures a range of employment related clauses for a five-year period, beginning in 2018 through until 2022. In a show of unity and solidarity behind the RLPA in the ongoing negotiations, NRL players wore branded caps throughout State of Origin press conferences and green tape in Round 21 of the 2017 season. RLPA CEO Ian Prendergast stated it "was no secret players had become frustrated" by negotiations. "They want to stand up, use their voice and demonstrate their solidarity across the weekend to get this deal over the line so we can deliver certainty in the industry." Rugby League Players Association