Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but natural and artificial features, local history and culture; this meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, the identification of specific landforms; this is known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form, it is considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, relief shading. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place.

The word comes from the Greek τόπος and -γραφία. In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now called'local history'. In Britain and in Europe in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense. Detailed military surveys in Britain were called Ordnance Surveys, this term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic surveys and maps; the earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin; the earliest detailed surveys in the United States were made by the “Topographical Bureau of the Army,” formed during the War of 1812, which became the Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838. After the work of national mapping was assumed by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1878, the term topographical remained as a general term for detailed surveys and mapping programs, has been adopted by most other nations as standard.

In the 20th century, the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used in medical fields such as neurology. An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude and altitude. Identifying features, recognizing typical landform patterns are part of the field. A topographic study may be made for a variety of reasons: military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects. There are a variety of approaches to studying topography. Which method to use depends on the scale and size of the area under study, its accessibility, the quality of existing surveys. Surveying helps determine the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them using leveling instruments such as theodolites, dumpy levels and clinometers.

Work on one of the first topographic maps was begun in France by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the great Italian astronomer. Though remote sensing has sped up the process of gathering information, has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based. In areas where there has been an extensive direct survey and mapping program, the compiled data forms the basis of basic digital elevation datasets such as USGS DEM data; this data must be "cleaned" to eliminate discrepancies between surveys, but it still forms a valuable set of information for large-scale analysis. The original American topographic surveys involved not only recording of relief, but identification of landmark features and vegetative land cover. Remote sensing is a general term for geodata collection at a distance from the subject area. Besides their role in photogrammetry and satellite imagery can be used to identify and delineate terrain features and more general land-cover features.

They have become more and more a part of geovisualization, whether maps or GIS systems. False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can help determine the lie of the land by delineating vegetation and other land-use information more clearly. Images can be in other spectrum. Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are determined by the measurements made in two photographic images taken starting from different positions from different passes of an aerial photography flight. In this technique, the common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be built from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of its rays which determines the relative three-dimensional position of the point. Known control points can be used to give these relative positions absolute values. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information on the scene known a priori. Satellite RADAR mapping is one of the major techniques of generating Digital

Julien Quesne

Julien Quesne is a French professional golfer who plays on the European Tour. Quesne was born in Le Mans, he joined the Alps Tour. He gained a place on the second tier Challenge Tour for 2005 by reaching the final stage of the European Tour Qualifying School at the end of 2004, he has played on the tour since except for 2007 when he returned to the Alps Tour for a season. That season, he won three tournaments and topped the Alps Tour Order of Merit to graduate back to the Challenge Tour for the 2008 season. Quesne picked up his first victory on the Challenge Tour at the 2009 Trophée du Golf de Genève in Switzerland on his 29th birthday, he began the final round one stroke behind Edoardo Molinari but his final round of 66 saw him finish one stroke clear of the Italian. Quesne won his first European Tour event at the Open de Andalucía Costa del Sol in 2012. Prior to his win, Quesne was ranked 322nd in the world and never finished higher than 16th on the European Tour. In September 2013, Quesne claimed his second European Tour victory at the Italian Open.

He finished one shot in front of Steve Webster. 2004 Trophée Maroc Telecom 2007 Open International de Normandie, AGF-Allianz Open de Bussy – Trophée Prevens, Open International Stade Français Paris 2009 Challenge Tour graduates 2011 Challenge Tour graduates Official website Julien Quesne at the European Tour official site Julien Quesne at the Official World Golf Ranking official site

Granby, Connecticut

Granby is a town in far northern Hartford County, United States. The population was 11,282 at the 2010 census; the town center is defined as a census-designated place known as Salmon Brook. Other areas in town include West Granby. Granby is a rural town, located in the foothills of the Litchfield Hills of the Berkshires, besides the suburban natured center, the outskirts of town are filled with dense woods and rolling hills and mountains. From the 1890s to the 1920s many immigrants from Sweden came to reside in the town. Granby was founded by people who lived in Simsbury and settled as early as 1723. Granby was part of Simsbury until 1786; the name is from Granby, Massachusetts in return, where it was named in honor of John Manners, Marquess of Granby. Part of Southwick, known as "the Notch" seceded from Massachusetts in 1774, just before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War; this territory became part of Granby when it seceded from Simsbury, but was returned to Southwick as part of an 1803-4 border dispute compromise.

In 1707, Daniel Hayes aged twenty-two, was captured by the indigenous people and carried off to Canada. The capture was witnessed, a rescue party raised, but the group did not catch up with the captors, he was tied up each night, bound to saplings. It took thirty days to reach Canada. Near the end of the gauntlet, he hid in a wigwam to avoid an attempted blow by a club; the woman in the wigwam declared that the house was sacred, having lost a husband and son to a war, adopted Hayes as her son. He remained for several years, he was sold to a Frenchman, who learned that Hayes had skill as a weaver, so put him to work in that business. Hayes managed to earn enough to buy his freedom after two years, he returned to Simsbury, settled down on a farm and married. He became prominent, both in civil affairs as well as the church at Salmon Brook; the first unauthorized coins minted in the American colonies, the first in Connecticut, were struck by Dr. Samuel Higley in 1737 from copper mined from his own mine.

The coins, including the Trader's Currency Token of the Colony of Connecticut were minted in North Simsbury, now called Granby. These coins were made of pure copper, soft. There are few in existence today; the first coins were inscribed with a value of three pence. Versions carried the phrase "Value me as you please."In 1858, the eastern part of the town broke off and formed to become East Granby, the town is one of the newly established town in the state. In 2009 Connecticut Magazine ranked Granby the #3 overall Connecticut small town to live in, #1 small town in Hartford County; the town seal depicts the Dewey-Granby Oak, a large white oak estimated to be 450–500 years old, thought to be one of the oldest trees in New England. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40.8 square miles, of which 40.7 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 0.33%, is water. The town center has a total area of all land. According to Google Earth, the highest point in Granby is 1,153 feet in West Granby at 41°55'57.81" N 72°53'17.18" W.

The town is covered in dense woodlands containing animals such as the black bear, eastern moose, white-tailed deer. Granby is warm and humid in summer, with occasional thunderstorms, while winter can have heavy snow and cold temperatures. Snow and cold temperatures are not uncommon in early spring and late fall due to the town located in the Berkshires As of the census of 2000, there were 10,347 people, 3,781 households, 2,994 families residing in the town; the population density was 254.3 people per square mile. There were 3,887 housing units at an average density of 95.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.54% White, 0.61% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.30% of the population. There were 3,781 households out of which 39.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.1% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.8% were non-families.

16.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 3.7% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $81,151, the median income for a family was $90,057. Males had a median income of $63,093 versus $42,203 for females; the per capita income for the town was $33,863. About 1.5% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. Granby has a substantial Horse population due to it being a Horse town. Granby's public school system consists of one primary school, one intermediate school, one middle school, one high school.

Kelly Lane Primary School Wells Road Intermediate School Granby Memorial Middle School Granby Memorial High School Allen's Cider Mill Frederick H. Cossitt Library Granby Center Historic District Samuel Hayes