Macedonia naming dispute
The use of the name "Macedonia" was disputed between the Southeast European countries of Greece and North Macedonia. Pertinent to its background is an early 20th-century multifaceted dispute and armed conflict that formed part of the background to the Balkan Wars; the specific naming dispute, although an existing issue in Yugoslav–Greek relations since World War II, was reignited after the breakup of Yugoslavia and the newly gained independence of the former Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1991. Since it was an ongoing issue in bilateral and international relations until it was settled with the Prespa agreement in June 2018, the subsequent ratification by the Macedonian and Greek parliaments in late 2018 and early 2019, the official renaming of Macedonia to North Macedonia in February 2019; the dispute arose from the ambiguity in nomenclature between North Macedonia known as the Republic of Macedonia, the adjacent Greek region of Macedonia and the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. Citing historical and irredentist concerns, Greece opposed the use of the name "Macedonia" without a geographical qualifier such as "Northern Macedonia" for use "by all... and for all purposes".
As millions of ethnic Greeks identify themselves as Macedonians, unrelated to Slavs, Greece further objected to the use of the term "Macedonian" for the neighboring country's largest ethnic group and language. North Macedonia was accused by Greece of appropriating symbols and figures that are considered part of Greek culture such as the Vergina Sun and Alexander the Great, of promoting the irredentist concept of a United Macedonia, which involves territorial claims on Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia; the dispute escalated to the highest level of international mediation, involving numerous attempts to achieve a resolution. In 1995, the two countries formalised bilateral relations and committed to start negotiations on the naming issue, under the auspices of the United Nations; until a solution was found, the provisional reference "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" was used by multiple international organisations and states. UN members, the UN as a whole, agreed to accept any name resulting from successful negotiations between the two countries.
The parties were represented by Ambassadors Vasko Naumovski and Adamantios Vassilakis with the mediation of Matthew Nimetz, who had worked on the issue since 1994. On 12 June 2018, an agreement was reached between Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras and his Macedonian counterpart Zoran Zaev, whereby the name "Republic of North Macedonia" would be adopted. A referendum was held in Macedonia on 30 September 2018, with voters overwhelmingly affirming support for EU and NATO membership by accepting the agreement, albeit with 37% voter turnout. After the agreement was ratified by both sides, it entered into force from 12 February 2019. In antiquity, the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia equated to the kingdom of Paeonia, which lay north of ancient Macedonia. After the Romans conquered Greece in 168 BC they established a large administrative district in northern Greece which added Paeonia to other territories outside the original ancient Macedonia, used the name'Macedonia' to describe the whole of this new province.
This province was divided in the 4th century CE into Macedonia Prima in the south, encompassing most of the ancient Macedonia, coinciding with most of the modern Greek region of Macedonia, Macedonia Salutaris in the north, encompassing Dardania and the whole of Paeonia. Thus Macedonia Salutaris encompassed most of the present-day Republic of Macedonia; this situation lasted, with some modifications, until the Ottoman Empire absorbed the remnants of the eastern Roman Empire in the 15th century. Ottoman Macedonia became part of Rumelia, controlled by the Ottoman Empire up to 1913. In 1893 a revolutionary movement against Ottoman rule began, resulting in the Ilinden Uprising on 2 August 1903; the failure of the Ilinden Uprising caused a change in the strategy of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization from revolutionary to institutional. It split into two wings: one led by Yane Sandanski and fighting for autonomous Macedonia inside the Ottoman Empire or inside a Balkan Federation, a second Supremist wing supporting the inclusion of Macedonia in Bulgaria.
After the Ilinden Uprising, the revolutionary movement ceased and opened a space for the Macedonian Struggle: frequent insurgencies of Bulgarian and Serbian squads into Ottoman Europe, including the ill-defined territory of the wider Macedonian region. In 1912 rivalries resulted in the First Balkan War of 1912–1913, the Ottomans lost most of their European lands. In 1913, the Second Balkan War began in the aftermath of the division of the Balkans among five entities to have secured control over these territories: Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro. Albania, in conflict with Serbia and Greece, declared its independence in 1912, striving for recognition; the Treaty of London assigned the region of the future Republic of Macedonia to Serbia. The outbreak of the First World War allowed Bulgaria to occupy eastern Macedonia and Vardar Macedonia, helping Austria-Hungary defeat the Serbs by the end of 1915, leading to the opening of the Macedonian front against the Greek part of Macedonia. Bulgaria would maintain control over the area until their capitulation in September 1918, at which point the borders reverted (with small ad
Geographic information system
A geographic information system is a system designed to capture, manipulate, analyze and present spatial or geographic data. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, present the results of all these operations. GIS sometimes refers to geographic information science, the science underlying geographic concepts and systems. GIS can refer to a number of different technologies, processes and methods, it is attached to many operations and has many applications related to engineering, management, transport/logistics, telecommunications, business. For that reason, GIS and location intelligence applications can be the foundation for many location-enabled services that rely on analysis and visualization. GIS can relate unrelated information by using location as the key index variable. Locations or extents in the Earth space–time may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence, x, y, z coordinates representing, longitude and elevation, respectively.
All Earth-based spatial–temporal location and extent references should be relatable to one another and to a "real" physical location or extent. This key characteristic of GIS has begun to open new avenues of scientific inquiry; the first known use of the term "geographic information system" was by Roger Tomlinson in the year 1968 in his paper "A Geographic Information System for Regional Planning". Tomlinson is acknowledged as the "father of GIS". One of the first applications of spatial analysis in epidemiology is the 1832 "Rapport sur la marche et les effets du choléra dans Paris et le département de la Seine"; the French geographer Charles Picquet represented the 48 districts of the city of Paris by halftone color gradient according to the number of deaths by cholera per 1,000 inhabitants. In 1854 John Snow determined the source of a cholera outbreak in London by marking points on a map depicting where the cholera victims lived, connecting the cluster that he found with a nearby water source.
This was one of the earliest successful uses of a geographic methodology in epidemiology. While the basic elements of topography and theme existed in cartography, the John Snow map was unique, using cartographic methods not only to depict but to analyze clusters of geographically dependent phenomena; the early 20th century saw the development of photozincography, which allowed maps to be split into layers, for example one layer for vegetation and another for water. This was used for printing contours – drawing these was a labour-intensive task but having them on a separate layer meant they could be worked on without the other layers to confuse the draughtsman; this work was drawn on glass plates but plastic film was introduced, with the advantages of being lighter, using less storage space and being less brittle, among others. When all the layers were finished, they were combined into one image using a large process camera. Once color printing came in, the layers idea was used for creating separate printing plates for each color.
While the use of layers much became one of the main typical features of a contemporary GIS, the photographic process just described is not considered to be a GIS in itself – as the maps were just images with no database to link them to. Two additional developments are notable in the early days of GIS: Ian McHarg's publication "Design with Nature" and its map overlay method and the introduction of a street network into the U. S. Census Bureau's DIME system. Computer hardware development spurred by nuclear weapon research led to general-purpose computer "mapping" applications by the early 1960s; the year 1960 saw the development of the world's first true operational GIS in Ottawa, Canada, by the federal Department of Forestry and Rural Development. Developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, it was called the Canada Geographic Information System and was used to store and manipulate data collected for the Canada Land Inventory – an effort to determine the land capability for rural Canada by mapping information about soils, recreation, waterfowl and land use at a scale of 1:50,000.
A rating classification factor was added to permit analysis. CGIS was an improvement over "computer mapping" applications as it provided capabilities for overlay and digitizing/scanning, it supported a national coordinate system that spanned the continent, coded lines as arcs having a true embedded topology and it stored the attribute and locational information in separate files. As a result of this, Tomlinson has become known as the "father of GIS" for his use of overlays in promoting the spatial analysis of convergent geographic data. CGIS built a large digital land resource database in Canada, it was developed as a mainframe-based system in support of federal and provincial resource planning and management. Its strength was continent-wide analysis of complex datasets; the CGIS was never available commercially. In 1964 Howard T. Fisher formed the Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where a number of important theoretical concepts in spatial data handling were developed, which by the 1970s had distributed seminal software code and systems, such as SYMAP, GRID, ODYSSEY – that served as sources for subsequent commercial development—to universities, research centers and corporations worldwide.
By the late 1970s two public domain GIS systems were in development, by the early 1980s, M&S Computing (late
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonized people and their lands. The name postcolonialism is modeled on postmodernism, with which it shares certain concepts and methods, may be thought of as a reaction to or departure from colonialism in the same way postmodernism is a reaction to modernism; the ambiguous term colonialism may refer either to a system of government or to an ideology or world view underlying that system—in general postcolonialism represents an ideological response to colonialist thought, rather than describing a system that comes after colonialism. The term postcolonial studies may be preferred for this reason. Postcolonialism encompasses a wide variety of approaches, theoreticians may not always agree on a common set of definitions. On a simple level, it may seek through anthropological study to build a better understanding of colonial life from the point of view of the colonized people, based on the assumption that the colonial rulers are unreliable narrators.
On a deeper level, postcolonialism examines the social and political power relationships that sustain colonialism and neocolonialism, including the social and cultural narratives surrounding the colonizer and the colonized. This approach may overlap with contemporary history and critical theory, may draw examples from history, political science, sociology and human geography. Sub-disciplines of postcolonial studies examine the effects of colonial rule on the practice of feminism, anarchism and Christian thought; as an epistemology, as an ethics, as a politics, the field of postcolonialism addresses the politics of knowledge—the matters that constitute the postcolonial identity of a decolonized people, which derives from: the colonizer's generation of cultural knowledge about the colonized people. Postcolonialism is aimed at destabilizing these theories by means of which colonialists "perceive", "understand", "know" the world. Postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their own voices, thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.
Colonialism was presented as "the extension of civilization", which ideologically justified the self-ascribed racial and cultural superiority of the Western world over the non-Western world. This concept was espoused by Joseph-Ernest Renan in La Réforme intellectuelle et morale, whereby imperial stewardship was thought to affect the intellectual and moral reformation of the coloured peoples of the lesser cultures of the world; that such a divinely established, natural harmony among the human races of the world would be possible, because everyone has an assigned cultural identity, a social place, an economic role within an imperial colony. Thus: The regeneration of the inferior or degenerate races, by the superior races is part of the providential order of things for humanity.... Regere imperio populos is our vocation. Pour forth this all-consuming activity onto countries, like China, are crying aloud for foreign conquest. Turn the adventurers who disturb European society into a ver sacrum, a horde like those of the Franks, the Lombards, or the Normans, every man will be in his right role.
Nature has made a race of workers, the Chinese race, who have wonderful manual dexterity, no sense of honour. Let each do what he is made for, all will be well. From the mid- to the late-nineteenth century, such racialist group-identity language was the cultural common-currency justifying geopolitical competition amongst the European and American empires and meant to protect their over-extended economies. In the colonization of the Far East and in the late-nineteenth century Scramble for Africa, the representation of a homogeneous European identity justified colonization. Hence and Britain, France and Germany proffered theories of national superiority that justified colonialism as delivering the light of civilization to unenlightened peoples. Notably, la mission civilisatrice, the self-ascribed'civilizing mission' of the French Empire, proposed that some races and cultures have a higher purpose in life, whereby the more powerful, more developed, more civilized races have the right to colonize other peoples, in service to the noble idea of "civilization" and its economic benefits.
Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity, based on cultural interactions between different identities which are assigned varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyzes the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the colonizer.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1922 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration and the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism. Born to a moderately prosperous middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he devoted the following years to a law degree, he became a senior Marxist activist. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent theorist in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution of 1905, he campaigned for the First World War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the new regime. Lenin's Bolshevik government shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, it withdrew from the First World War by signing a treaty with the Central Powers and promoted world revolution through the Communist International.
Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign administered by the state security services. His administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin encouraged economic growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. Several non-Russian nations secured independence after 1917, but three re-united with Russia through the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922. In poor health, Lenin died at his dacha in Gorki, with Joseph Stalin succeeding him as the pre-eminent figure in the Soviet government. Considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991, he became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement.
A controversial and divisive individual, Lenin is viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class, while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder and leader of an authoritarian regime responsible for political repression and mass killings. Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs. Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility. Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated and from a prosperous background, she was the daughter of a wealthy German–Swedish Lutheran mother, a Russian Jewish father who had converted to Christianity and worked as a physician, it is that Lenin was unaware of his mother's half-Jewish ancestry, only discovered by his sister Anna after his death. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years later.
Five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the government's plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman. Lenin was baptised six days later, he was one of eight children, having two older siblings and Alexander. They were followed by three more children, Olga and Maria. Two siblings died in infancy. Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria—a Lutheran by upbringing—was indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Both parents were monarchists and liberal conservatives, being committed to the emancipation reform of 1861 introduced by the reformist Tsar Alexander II; every summer they holidayed at a rural manor in Kokushkino. Among his siblings, Lenin was closest to his sister Olga, whom he bossed around.
Margaret Joy Gelling, OBE was an English toponymist, known for her extensive studies of English place-names. She served as President of the English Place-Name Society from 1986 to 1998, Vice-President of the International Council of Onomastic Sciences from 1993 to 1999, as well as being a Fellow of St Hilda's College and member of both the Society of Antiquaries of London and the British Academy. Born in Manchester and raised in Kent, she studied at St Hilda's College, becoming involved in socialist activism, she proceeded to work for the English Place-Name Society from 1946 to 1953, focusing her research on the place-names of Oxfordshire and Berkshire. Marrying archaeologist Peter Gelling of the University of Birmingham in 1952, she moved to Harborne in Birmingham while undertaking her PhD research into the place-names of West Berkshire. Lecturing on the subject across the Midlands, she published her research in a series of books, achieving prominence within academia for her 1978 work Signposts to the Past: The Geographical Roots of Britain's Place-names.
In the coming decades she focused on researching the place-names of Shropshire, resulting in a multi-volume publication, earning a number of awards and prominent appointments for her life's work. Gelling's work focused on establishing the Old English origins of English place-names in the Midlands, her approach sought to connect toponyms to geographical features in the landscape. Margaret Joy Midgley was born to a lower-middle-class family in Manchester on 29 November 1924, the daughter of an insurance salesman; as a child, her family moved to Sidcup in Kent, she gained her secondary education from Chislehurst Grammar School. The first member of her family to attend university, she studied English language and literature at St Hilda's College, where she was influenced by Dorothy Whitelock, who inspired her interest in place-names. Graduating in 1945, she related that the experience at Oxford had been a "waste of time", believing English literature to be "dreadfully boring". Politically a socialist, at Oxford she had joined the Communist Party of Great Britain, enjoyed arguing politics with her right-wing family.
Working for a year as a temporary civil servant in London, in 1946 she gained employment as a research assistant with the English Place-Name Society, based in Cambridge. She continued to work here for eight years, focusing her research on expanding and collating the place-names of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, a project, started before her by Frank Merry Stenton and his wife Lady Doris Stenton, she felt. In 1952 she married the Manx archaeologist Peter Gelling, who soon obtained a teaching job at the University of Birmingham. For this reason, the couple moved to Harborne. There, she would spend much time gardening, although had no children of her own, raised her nephew, Adrian Midgley, from the age of six, she would undertake research for a PhD from the University of London by correspondence, supervised by Albert Hugh Smith. Having left the Communist Party, she still considered herself "very left-wing", campaigning on behalf of the local branch of the centre-left Labour Party, she accompanied her husband on his archaeological excavations to various sites, both domestically and abroad.
In the 1960s, she accompanied him to Alto Plano in Peru to study the development of potato cultivation, where she gained experience in cooking at high altitude. In the early 1970s, she travelled with him to Cyprus, where she was sorting through finds in the castle at Kyrenia when the Turkish army invaded in July 1974. For a number of seasons she managed morale and catering at the excavation camp at Deerness, which her husband used as a training dig for his students. During the 1960s, she published a series of innovative books on English place-names lecturing on the subject across the English Midlands under the aegis of the University of Birmingham's Department of Extra-Mural Studies, she lectured at Birmingham University on occasion, as well as running a summer school at Oxford. She went on to publish her three volumes of The Place-Names of Berkshire, which she followed with Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England, a book which "put her in an elevated position among English toponymists" and which saw revised editions in 1987 and 1997.
Peter Gelling died in 1983, while Margaret took on the presidency of the English Place-Name Society from 1986 to 1998, the Vice-Presidency of the International Council for Onomastic Sciences from 1993 to 1999. Becoming a fellow of St Hilda's College in 1993, she was awarded an Order of the British Empire in 1995, in 1998, she was elected a Fellow of the British Academy, a rare feat for an individual who had never held an academic position, she continued lecturing until developing the illness from which she died. Gelling, Margaret. Place-Names of Oxfordshire, Part I. XXIII. Cambridge: English Place-Name Society. Gelling, Margaret. Place-Names of Oxfordshire, Part II. XXIV. Cambridge: English Place-Name Society. Nicolaisen, W. F. H.. The Names of Towns and Cities in Britain. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 9780713401134. Gelling, Margaret. Place-Names of Berkshire, Part I. XLIX. Cambridge: English Place-Name Society. ISBN 0-904889-60-2. Gel
Persian Gulf naming dispute
The Persian Gulf naming dispute is concerned with the name of the body of water known and internationally as the Persian Gulf, after the land of Persia. This name has become contested by some Arab countries since the 1960s in connection with the emergence of pan-Arabism and Arab nationalism, resulting in the invention of the toponym "Arabian Gulf", "the Gulf" and other alternatives such as the "Gulf of Basra", as it was known during the Ottoman rule of the region. On all maps printed before 1960, in most modern international treaties and maps, this body of water is known by the name "Persian Gulf"; this reflects traditional usage since the Greek geographers Strabo and Ptolemy, the geopolitical realities of the time with a powerful Persian Empire comprising the whole northern coastline and a scattering of local emirates on the Arabian coast. It was referred to as the Persian Gulf by the Arabic Christian writer Agapius, writing in the 10th century. According to authors Philip L. Kohl, Mara Kozelsky, Nachman Ben-Yehuda in their work Selective Remembrances, Sir Charles Belgrave was "the first westerner to use and advocate the name'Arabian gulf', first in the journal Soat al-Bahrain in 1955."
Mahan Abedin of The Jamestown Foundation agrees with this, noting that Arab countries used the term "Persian Gulf" until the 1960s. However, with the rise of Arab nationalism during that decade, some Arab countries, including the ones bordering the Gulf, adopted widespread use of the term الخليج العربي to refer to this waterway. Teymoor Nabili said "ironically, among the major drivers of the movement for change were Arab perceptions that Iran, driven by Washington, had supported Israel during the Arab-Israeli war of 1973". This, coupled with the decreasing influence of Iran on the political and economic priorities of the English-speaking Western World, led to increasing acceptance, both in regional politics and the petroleum-related business, of the new alternative naming convention "Arabian Gulf" in Arab countries; the capture of Baghdad by the Ottoman Empire in 1534 gave Turkey access to the Indian Ocean via the port of Basra at the head of the Persian Gulf. This coincided with the early mapmaking efforts of Gerard Mercator, whose 1541 terrestrial globe attempts to give the most up-to-date information, naming the gulf Sinus Persicus, nunc Mare de Balsera.
However, on his world map of 1569, the name is changed to Mare di Mesendin, while his rival Abraham Ortelius, for the world atlas of 1570, opted for Mare El Catif, olim Sinus Persicus, but labelled the entrance to the gulf – the present-day Strait of Hormuz – as Basora Fretum. Among all this confusion, the old name reasserted itself in the 17th century, but Turkey still uses the name "Gulf of Basra" in Turkish today. Following British attempts to control the seaway in the late 1830s, the Times Journal, published in London in 1840, referred to the Persian Gulf as the "Britain Sea", but this name was never used in any other context; the matter remains contentious as the competing naming conventions are supported by certain governments in internal literature, but in dealings with other states and international organizations. Some parties use terms like "The Gulf" or the "Arabo-Persian Gulf". Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 some people in Islamic groups suggested the use of "Islamic Gulf" or "Muslim Gulf".
The originator of the term Islamic Gulf is not known, while some people suggest that prominent figures of the early years of the Islamic republic including Ruhollah Khomeini, Mehdi Bazargan, Sadegh Khalkhali may have supported the idea. Khalkhali in his May 1979 visit to the UAE suggested the term "Muslim Gulf"; the idea was abandoned after Iran was invaded by its predominantly Muslim neighbor, Iraq. In Arab countries the terms "Gulf" and "Arabian Gulf" are preferred: The "Gulf" refers to the body of water known as the Arabian Gulf in GCC countries, or the Persian Gulf as referred to in many other places. Using the term "Persian Gulf" is impolite at least for GCC countries and nationals, whereas and many Iranians find the term "Arabian Gulf" offensive. Most other people or countries don't care that much one way or another. Iran only uses the term "Persian Gulf" and does not recognize the naming when it is referred to as "Arabian Gulf" or just the "Gulf". Iran does not consider the latter an impartial usage, views it as an active contribution to the abandonment of the historical name.
In a 1974 interview by Mike Wallace in 60 Minutes, the last Shah of Iran himself preferred the term "Persian Gulf" while talking to Wallace. In February 2010 Iran threatened to ban from its airspace foreign airlines those from the Gulf region, who did not use the term "Persian Gulf". In 2011 President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad made a speech to the United Nations General Assembly during which he said that the only correct name of the sea between Iran and the Arabian peninsula was the Persian Gulf, he dismissed the use of any other names as illegitimate and void. Iran designates 30 April as National Persian Gulf Day; the date coincides with the anniversary of Abbas I of Persia's successful military campaign when the Portuguese navy was driven out of the Strait of Hormuz in the Capture of Ormuz. The decision was taken by the High Council of Cultural Revolution, presided over by former President Mohammad Khatami, noti
Arab states of the Persian Gulf
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. This excludes the non-Arab state of Iran. All of these nations except Iraq are part of the Gulf Cooperation Council, prefer to use the term "Arabian Gulf" rather than the official and historical name of the Persian Gulf; some states are constitutional monarchies with elected parliaments. Bahrain and Kuwait have legislatures with members elected by the population; the Sultanate of Oman has an advisory council, popularly elected. In the UAE, a federation of seven monarchical emirates, the Federal National Council functions only as an advisory body, but some of its members are now chosen via a limited electoral college nominated by the seven rulers. Saudi Arabia remains a hereditary monarchy with limited political representation. In Qatar, an elected national parliament has been mooted and is written into the new constitution, but elections are yet to be held.
Soap operas are important national pastimes in the Gulf Arab region. They are most popular during the time of Ramadan. Most of these soap operas are based in Kuwait. Kuwaiti soap operas are the most-watched soap operas in the Persian Gulf region. Although performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia. Kuwaiti popular culture, in the form of theatre and television soap opera, flourishes and is exported to neighbouring Arab states of the Persian Gulf. Darb El Zalag, Khalti Gmasha, Ruqayya wa Sabika are among the most important television productions in the Persian Gulf region. Kuwait is considered the cultural capital of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf region dubbed the "Hollywood of the Gulf" due to the popularity of its Arabic television soap operas and theatre; the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia's coast share similar cultures and music styles such as fijiri and liwa. The most noticeable cultural trait of Eastern Arabia's Arabs is their orientation and focus towards the sea.
Maritime-focused life in the small Arab states has resulted in a sea-oriented society where livelihoods have traditionally been earned in marine industries. Before the GCC was formed in 1981, the term "Khaleeji" was used to refer to the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia. "Khaleeji" meant descendants of Ichthyophagi, the coast-dwelling "fish eaters". Geographically, the Arabic-speaking is Eastern Arabia. Press in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf have varying degrees of freedom with Kuwait topping the league with a lively press that enjoys more freedom than its Persian Gulf counterparts according to Freedom House and Reporters Without Borders. Both organizations rank Kuwait's press as the most free of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf and, in fact, rank amongst the top three most free press in the Arab world. Qatar and Oman come in second and third within the regional ranks; the six Arab states of the Persian Gulf lie in a volatile region and their six governments, with varying degrees of success and effort and advance peace in their own countries and other countries.
However, Arab countries in the Persian Gulf region - Saudi Arabia and Qatar - stand accused of funding Islamist militants such as Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood. According to the Institute of Economics and Peace's Global Peace Index of 2016, the six governments had varying degrees of success in maintaining peace amongst their respective borders with Qatar ranked number 1 amongst its regional peers as the most peaceful regional and Middle Eastern nation while Kuwait ranks second in both the regional and the Middle East region followed by the UAE in the third spot. All of these Arab states have significant revenues from petroleum; the United Arab Emirates has been diversifying the economy. 79% of UAE's total GDP comes from non-oil sectors. Oil accounts for only 2% of Dubai's GDP. Bahrain has the Persian Gulf's first "post-oil" economy because the Bahraini economy does not rely on oil. Since the late 20th century, Bahrain has invested in the banking and tourism sectors; the country's capital, Manama is home to many large financial structures.
Bahrain and Kuwait have a high Human Development Index and was recognised by the World Bank as high income economies. In addition, the small coastal states were successful centers of commerce prior to oil. Eastern Arabia had significant pearl banks, but the pearling industry collapsed in the 1930s after the development of cultured pearl methods by Japanese scientists. According to the World Bank, most of these Arab states have been the world's most generous donors of aid as a share of GDP. Persian Gulf naming dispute List of Rulers of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf Iran-Arab relations Madawi Al-Rasheed, ed.. Transnational Connections and the Arab Gulf. Lawrence G. Potter, ed.. The Persian Gulf in History. Lawrence G. Potter, ed.. Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf. "The Persian Gulf's ancient Ethnic Diversity: An Evolutionary History" in Security in the Persian Gulf: Origins and the Search for Consensus, Edited by G. Sick and L. Potter, pp. 284. Gulf2000 Gulf Research Center