An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
Yodeling is a form of singing which involves repeated and rapid changes of pitch between the low-pitch chest register and the high-pitch head register or falsetto. The English word yodel is derived from the German word jodeln, meaning "to utter the syllable jo"; this vocal technique is used in many cultures worldwide. Alpine yodeling was a longtime rural tradition in Europe, became popular in the 1830s as an entertainment in theaters and music halls. Sir Walter Scott wrote in his June 4, 1830, journal entry: "Anne wants me to go hear the Tyrolese Minstrels but... I cannot but think their yodeling...is a variation upon the tones of a jackass." In Europe, yodeling is still a major feature of folk music from Switzerland and southern Germany and can be heard in many contemporary folk songs, which are featured on regular TV broadcasts. In the United States, traveling minstrels were yodeling in the 19th century, in 1920 the Victor recording company listed 17 yodels in their catalogue. In 1928, blending Alpine yodeling with African American work and blues music styles and traditional folk music, Jimmie Rodgers released his recording "Blue Yodel No. 1".
Rodgers' "blue yodel", a term sometimes used to differentiate the earlier Austrian yodeling from the American form of yodeling introduced by Rodgers, created an instant national craze for yodeling in the United States. When sound films first became available in the 1930s the industry began to turn out numerous films to meet the nation's fascination with the American cowboy; the singing cowboy was a subtype of the archetypal cowboy hero of early Western films, popularized by many of the B-movies of the 1930s and 1940s. The transformation of Rodgers' blue yodel to the cowboy yodel involved a change in both rhythm and a move away from Southern blues-type lyrics; some yodels contained more of the Alpine type of yodel as well. Most famous of the singing cowboy film stars were Roy Rogers and Gene Autry, both accomplished yodlers; the popularity of yodeling lasted through the 1940s, but by the 1950s it became rare to hear yodeling in country and western music. Most experts agree that yodeling was used in the Central Alps by herders calling their stock or to communicate between Alpine villages.
The multi-pitched "yelling" became part of the region's traditional lore and musical expression. The earliest record of a yodel is in 1545, where it is described as "the call of a cowherd from Appenzell". Music historian Timothy Wise writes: "From its earliest entry into European music of whatever type, the yodel tended to be associated with nature, wilderness, pre-industrial and pastoral civilization, or similar ideas, it continues to connote those in other contexts. Because of this original folk connection, yodeling remained associated with the outdoors, with rustic rather than sophisticated personae, with particular emotional or psychological states or semantic fields."British stage performances by yodelers were common in the nineteenth century. Sir Walter Scott wrote in his June 4, 1830, journal entry that "Anne wants me to go hear the Tyrolese Minstrels but... I cannot but think their yodeling...is a variation upon the tones of a jackass." In Europe, yodeling is still a major feature of folk music from Switzerland and southern Germany and the Swiss Amish in the United States maintain the practice of yodeling to this day.
In Scandinavian folk music, the oral-song tradition Kulning called huving, is a form of signal song, a shout to make themselves known over a long distance used in the mountains. It is linked to transhumance tradition; the cry could be individually designed so that it was not just a cry for contact, but be able to tell who they were. The cry is just as well without words. Characteristically big melody scope and exchange between breast and falsetto voice. Laling is related to yodeling in Austria; the overture Hjalarljod has a background in the phenomenon of yodeling. Laling is a mix of yelling and singing, is related to lokk. Huving was spent in the woods and mountains to call the animals, get in touch with other people, such as other shepherds or people on the neighboring mountain farm and to give messages over long distances. In Persian classical music, singers use tahrir, a yodeling technique that oscillates on neighbor tones, it is similar to the Swiss yodel, is used as an ornament or trill in phrases which have long syllables, falls at the end of a phrase.
Tahrir is prevalent in Azerbaijani, Macedonian, Armenian and Central Asian musical traditions, to a lesser extent in Pakistani and some Indian music. In Georgian traditional music, yodeling takes the form of krimanchuli technique, is used as a top part in three/four part polyphony. In Central Africa Pygmy singers use yodels within their elaborate polyphonic singing, the Shona people of Zimbabwe sometimes yodel while playing the mbira; the Mbuti of the Congo incorporate distinctive yodels into their songs. Living from hunting and gathering, they sing hunting and harvest songs and use yodelling to call each other. In 1952, ethnomusicologist Hugh Tracey recorded their songs and they have been released on compact discs. In Romanian traditional folk music yodeling takes the form of ”horea cu noduri” used by shepherds to call their sheep or as a way of ex
Leanne Pooley ONZM is a Canadian filmmaker based in Auckland, New Zealand. Pooley was born and raised in Winnipeg, Canada, she immigrated to New Zealand in the mid-1980s and began working in the New Zealand television and film industry before moving to England where she worked for many of the world's top broadcasters, she started the production company Spacific Films. Her career spans more than 25 years and she has won numerous international awards. Leanne Pooley was made a New Zealand Arts Laureate in 2011 and an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the New Year's Honours List 2017, she is a member of The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Pooley's latest film is the Animated WW1 Feature "25 April" which premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2015 and has screened at film festivals around the world. "25 April" was the first New Zealand movie to be in contention for an Academy Award for animation. In 2013 Leanne directed Beyond the Edge, a 3D feature film about the 1953 Ascent of Everest by Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norgay.
The film was a runner-up for the People's Choice Award for Documentary at the Toronto International Film Festival. In 2009 Pooley made the documentary The Topp Twins: Untouchable Girls, a theatrical feature about the lives of lesbian, twin sister comedy duo, the Topp Twins; the film has won 21 International Awards including at the Toronto International Film Festival, the Melbourne International Film Festival, the Gothenburg International Film Festival, the Seattle Film Festival, New Doc New York, The Nashville Film Festival and the Florida Film Festival among others. It won Best Feature at the NZ Film & TV Awards, reached just under $2 million at the New Zealand box office. Previous documentaries include. Haunting Douglas earned Pooley the "Best Director" award at the 2005 New Zealand Screen Awards. Pooley made The Promise about the life of euthanasia advocate, Leslie Martin, winning the "Best Documentary" award at the 2006 New Zealand Screen Awards, her documentary Try Revolution explores how rugby was used to help end apartheid in South Africa and featured among others Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
Pooley's production company is Spacific Films based in New Zealand. Leanne serves as a judge for The International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, she has taught documentary at various universities and filmschools and is an active member of the New Zealand Director’s Guild and The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Leanne lives in Auckland with two children. DIRECTOR 25 April - General Film Corporation - NZFC - 2015 An animated feature documentary about the WW1 Gallipoli campaign. DIRECTOR" "Beyond the Edge" - General Film Corporation - NZFC - 2013 A 3D feature film about the 1953 Ascent of Everest by Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norgay. PRODUCER: "Finding Mercy" - Spacific Films - 2012 TVNZ/The Knowledge Network - 2012 A heart breaking documentary about two little girls and a friendship that came to represent the lost promise of Zimbabwe. DIRECTOR: "Shackleton's Captain" - Gebrueder-Beetz/Making Movies - TVNZ/ZDF/ARTE - 2012 A Dramatised documentary about Frank Worsley, Captain of Ernest Shackleton's ill-fated Endurance expedition.
Starring Craig Parker. DIRECTOR: The Topp Twins: Untouchable Girls - Diva Productions - 2009 A documentary film about New Zealand entertainers the Topp Twins which has won over 20 international awards including the "Cadillac People's Choice Award" at the Toronto International Film Festival, it is the most successful documentary made in New Zealand. DIRECTOR/PRODUCER: "Being Billy Apple" - Spacific Films - 2007 Television New Zealand A profile of the artist known as Billy Apple, at the forefront of both the POP and Conceptual art movements and who alongside the likes of Andy Warhol helped to redefine the meaning of the word artist. DIRECTOR/PRODUCER: TRY REVOLUTION – Spacific Films - 2006 Television New Zealand / M-Net / SBS How rugby helped to bring down Apartheid in South Africa featuring Archbishop Desmond Tutu. DIRECTOR/PRODUCER: THE PROMISE – Spacific Films -2005 Television New Zealand / CBC / LINK / TPS Feature-length documentary following the incredible journey of Leslie Martin, the euthanasia advocate, convicted of attempting to murder her mother.
Winner "Best Documentary" and "Best Camera" 2006 NZ Screen Awards. Winner "Special Mention" Feature Length Documentary DocNZ 2005. Screened "Input 2006" selected "Best Of Input". DIRECTOR/PRODUCER: HAUNTING DOUGLAS – Spacific Films - 2003 Television New Zealand / ABC / YLE Feature-length documentary about the life and work of Douglas Wright, one of the world’s greatest dancer/choreographers. Screened NZ Film Festival, San Francisco Film Festival, Sydney Film Festival, Dance on Camera Festival-New York, Reel Dance Festival-Sydney, Vancouver Film Festival, Commonwealth Film Festival – Manchester, Cinedans- Amsterdam, IMZ – Brighton, Golden Prague, Reel Affirmations - Washington, Festival de Cine de Granada. Winner "Best Director" and "Best Editor" 2005 NZ Screen Awards. Winner "Best Documentary" Reel Dance Awards 2004 Sydney PRODUCER: THE MAN WHO HAS EVERYTHING - NHNZ - 2001 Discovery Health (Interna
Huntly, New Zealand
Huntly is a town in the Waikato district and region of the North Island of New Zealand. It is 32 kilometres north of Hamilton, it straddles the Waikato River. Huntly is within the Waikato District, in the northern part of the Waikato Region local government area. Settled by Māori, European migrants arrived in the area some time in the 1850s; the Huntly name was adopted in the 1870s when the postmaster named it after Huntly, Aberdeenshire in Scotland. He used an old'Huntley Lodge' stamp to stamp mail from the early European settlement; the Lodge was dropped and the spelling changed to drop the additional'e'. The railway from Auckland reached Huntly in 1877. Huntly Power Station is a large gas/coal-fired power station, prominently situated on the western bank of the Waikato River, it is New Zealand's largest thermal power station, situated in the area, New Zealand's largest producer of coal, producing over 10,000 tonnes a day. Huntly is surrounded by farmland and lakes which are used for coarse fishing and waterskiing.
The Waikato coalfield is formed of 30 -35m year old Eocene-Oligocene rocks. The lowest coal measures are the Taupiri Seams, worked at Rotowaro, the upper Kupakupa and Renown Seams having been worked out; the area has a long history of coal mining, with both open cast and classical mines operating or having operated here. The major New Zealand clients for the mined coal are the power station and the New Zealand Steel mill at Glenbrook; the first coal to be mined was half a ton at Taupiri in 1849, followed by 32 tons in 1850, opposite Kupa Kupa, about 5 km south of Huntly, coal was discovered at Papahorohoro, near Taupiri. However, it wasn't being exploited when the geologist, Ferdinand von Hochstetter, visited it in 1859, it was used to fuel steamers during the 1863 invasion of the Waikato. Kupakupa mine was started in 1864 and produced 11,000 tons by 1866; the area was confiscated in 1865. It was auctioned by government in 1867. Taupiri Coal Co was producing 1,300 tons a month by 1879, up from 5,300 tons a year in 1878.
A mine across the river from Kupakupa was opened in 1879. After the Pukemiro railway opened in 1915, mines opened at Pukemiro, Glen Afton, Waikōkōwai and Renown. Open cast mining began west of Huntly during World War 2, an opencast mine at Kimihia; this is the only remaining mine operating in Huntly, producing 24,708 tonnes in 2016. It is a owned mine, opened in 1957 and selling to New Zealand Steel. It, Puke Rotowaro are the only mines still open in the Huntly area. Solid Energy closed this last Huntly mine on 22 October 2015, it opened in 1978, produced a peak of 465,000 tonnes in 2004 and was digging about 450,000 tonnes a year until production was cut to 100,000 tonnes in September 2013. The mine entrance was in Huntly East, but by 2012 all mining was west of the Waikato, with roadways 150 metres below the river, the two 8 to 20 metre thick sub-bituminous seams being 150 to 400 metres deep. In 2012 it was estimated that 7 million tonnes of recoverable coal remained in the consented mining areas, with a further 12 million available for future expansion.
Coal was mined by remote-controlled continuous miners and taken to the entrance in shuttle cars and by conveyor belt. It continued to Glenbrook via the Kimihia branch railway and the NIMT, it was down to 68 at closure. Kimihia Wetland was created on the former bed of Lake Kimihia to cope with subsidence and treat water from Huntly East Mine. Clay suited for bricks lies on top of some of the coal deposits. Brick making began in 1884, Huntly Brick and Fireclay was established in 1911 and Shinagawa Refractories continues on the site at the south end of the town. Nearby, Clay Bricks operate a brickworks. Huntly has a proud rugby league history – at one time the town had four rugby league clubs: Taniwharau, Huntly South, Huntly United and Rangiriri Eels. Taniwharau has been one of the most successful clubs having won 11 straight Waikato premierships during the 1970s and 1980s. Taniwharau won the inaugural Waicoa Bay championship in 2002 and again in 2007 a year in which they went through the season unbeaten.
The Waicoa Bay championship is a combined rugby league competition involving clubs from Waikato, Bay of Plenty and Coastlines. A number of Kiwi players have come out of Huntly including pre war players Tom Timms, Richard Trautvetter and Len Mason who after the 1926 Kiwi tour of Great Britain finished his playing career at Wigan, playing a record 365 games in 9 years including a winning Challenge Cup final at Wembley in 1929. Post war players include Albert Hambleton, Reg Cooke, Graeme Farrar, Roger Tait, Ted Baker, Paul Ravlich, Tawera Nikau and, more Wairangi Koopu and Lance Hohaia. Other Kiwi players to come out of Huntly include Andy Berryman, Don Parkinson, Rick Muru, Kevin Fisher and Vaun O'Callaghan; the town has produced numerous NZ Māori Rugby league representatives and two international referees. Huntly and its surrounding area is steeped in Māori history and falls within the rohe of Waikato-Tainui of the Tainui waka confederation. Ngati Mahuta and Ngati Whawhakia are the subtribes in the Huntly area.
There are a number of marae in and around Huntly: Waahi Pa, Te Kauri, Kaitimutimu, Te Ohaaki and further north and Horahora. Waahi Pa
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Dame Patricia Lee Reddy is a New Zealand lawyer and businesswoman serving as the 21st and current Governor-General of New Zealand, in office since 2016. She is the third woman to be appointed to the position, after Dame Catherine Tizard and Dame Silvia Cartwright. Before becoming Governor-General, Reddy was a partner of a law firm, headed a major review of intelligence agencies, held multiple directorships, chaired the New Zealand Film Commission, worked as a chief negotiator on Treaty of Waitangi settlements. Prime Minister John Key recommended her to succeed Sir Jerry Mateparae as Governor-General. Reddy was sworn in on 28 September 2016. Born in Matamata, New Zealand, on 17 May 1954, Reddy is the daughter of Neil William and Catherine Marjorie "Kay" Reddy, both of whom were schoolteachers. Three of her forebears left Ireland and went to Canada and New Zealand. A distant cousin, singer Helen Reddy, is descended from the Australian forebear. Reddy was raised in the small Waikato towns of Te Akau and Minginui until her family moved to Hamilton when she was six years old.
There, she attended Hillcrest Primary School, Peachgrove Intermediate School and Hamilton Girls' High School. Reddy completed her university studies at Victoria University of Wellington, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws in 1976 and a Master of Laws with first-class honours in 1979. Reddy was a junior lecturer and lecturer at Victoria University's Faculty of Law. In 1982 she joined the Wellington firm Watts and Patterson, becoming their first female partner in 1983, she specialised in tax and film law. She took up a position at Brierley Investments, where she was employed for 11 years, worked on large acquisition negotiations such as the privatisation of Air New Zealand. Reddy served as chair of the New Zealand Film Commission and Education Payroll Ltd and was a director of Payments NZ Ltd and Active Equity Holdings Ltd, she was a chief Crown negotiator for Treaty of Waitangi settlements and a lead reviewer for the Performance Improvement Framework for the State Services Commission. She was the deputy chair of the New Zealand Transport Agency.
Other directorships included Telecom Corporation of New Zealand Ltd, SKYCITY Entertainment Group, New Zealand Post and Air New Zealand. In 2016, Reddy and Sir Michael Cullen collaborated on an independent report to the New Zealand government reviewing legislation covering the country's intelligence agencies, their report was released on 9 March 2016, two weeks before Reddy's appointment as Governor-General was publicly announced. The report recommended expanding the Government Communications Security Bureau's rights to monitor the personal communications of New Zealanders, was met with some controversy. Reddy was involved in a number of non-governmental organisations in the arts and gender equality, she was one of the founding members in 2009 of Global Women New Zealand, a group of prominent women who advocate for inclusion and diversity in leadership. In March 2016, it was announced that Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of New Zealand, had approved the appointment of Reddy as the next Governor-General of New Zealand, for a five-year term starting in September 2016, on the advice of Prime Minister John Key.
She was sworn in as the 21st Governor-General by Chief Justice Dame Sian Elias on 28 September. The swearing-in ceremony included a Māori pōwhiri, a 21-gun salute, music from the Royal New Zealand Air Force Band and the New Zealand Opera Chorus. Reddy became the third woman to hold the position, after Dame Catherine Tizard and Dame Silvia Cartwright. Reddy gave her first Royal assent as Governor-General on 18 October 2016. Signing bills into law is an important part of the governor-general's constitutional role. On 7 November 2016, Reddy welcomed King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and Queen Maxima to New Zealand, she hosted a state banquet. On 12 December 2016, subsequent to the resignation of John Key, Reddy swore in Bill English as Prime Minister and Paula Bennett as Deputy Prime Minister. On 7 February 2017, Reddy delivered her first annual Waitangi Day Bledisloe Address at the Bledisloe Garden reception at Government House, Wellington. In her first overseas trip Reddy visited Niue and the Cook Islands, the associated states of New Zealand, on 21 and 22 March 2017 respectively.
Reddy was welcomed by the Queen's Representative in the Cook Islands. On 6 May 2017, Reddy travelled to Italy, where she visited various cultural events in Rome and Venice. On 14 May, she visited Barbados, where she met with the Governor-General of Barbados, Elliott Belgrave, the Prime Minister, Freundel Stuart. On 30 September 2017, Reddy travelled to Israel for a two-day trip, in which she represented New Zealand at official commemorations to mark the centennial of the liberation of Beersheba by the ANZAC forces, she was received by Israeli President Reuven Rivlin and met with Prime Minister Benjamin Netenyahu. On 16 October 2017, Reddy presided at the swearing-in of the new Executive Council, she signed warrants appointing the new Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, other ministers. On 8 November, Reddy attended the State Opening of Parliament where she addressed MPs from the throne. On 24 October 2017, she hosted a state welcome for the President of Ireland, Michael D. Higgins, at Government House.
A couple of weeks Reddy hosted German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier at Government House from 5 to 7 November 2017. The visit started with a wreath-laying ceremony at Pukeahu National War Memorial Park. On 5 December 2017, Reddy began a three-day trip to Malaysia
A civil union is a recognized arrangement similar to marriage, created as a means to provide recognition in law for same-sex couples. Civil unions grant all of the rights of marriage except the title itself. Around the world, developed democracies began establishing civil unions in the late 1990s developing them from less formal domestic partnerships, which grant only some of the rights of marriage. In the majority of countries that established these unions in laws, they have since been either supplemented or replaced by same-sex marriage. Civil unions are viewed by LGBT rights campaigners as a "first step" towards establishing same-sex marriage, as civil unions are viewed by supporters of LGBT rights as a "separate but equal" or "second class" status. While civil unions are established for both opposite-sex couples and same-sex couples, in a number of countries they are available to same-sex couples only. Beginning with Denmark in 1989, civil unions under one name or another have been established by law in several developed, countries in order to provide legal recognition of relationships formed by unmarried same-sex couples and to afford them rights, tax breaks, responsibilities similar or identical to those of married couples.
In Brazil, civil unions were first created for opposite-sex couples in 2002, expanded to include same-sex couples through a supreme court ruling in 2011. Many jurisdictions with civil unions recognize foreign unions if those are equivalent to their own; the marriages of same-sex couples performed abroad may be recognized as civil unions in jurisdictions that only have the latter. The terms used to designate civil unions are not standardized, vary from country to country. Government-sanctioned relationships that may be similar or equivalent to civil unions include civil partnerships, registered partnerships, domestic partnerships, significant relationships, reciprocal beneficiary relationships, common-law marriage, adult interdependent relationships, life partnerships, stable unions, civil solidarity pacts, so on; the exact level of rights, benefits and responsibilities varies, depending on the laws of a particular country. Some jurisdictions allow same-sex couples to adopt, while others forbid them to do so, or allow adoption only in specified circumstances.
As used in the United States, beginning with the state of Vermont in 2000, the term civil union has connoted a status equivalent to marriage for same-sex couples. However, the legislatures of the West Coast states of California and Washington have preferred the term domestic partnership for enactments similar or equivalent to civil union laws in East Coast states. Civil unions are not seen as a replacement for marriage by many in the LGBT community. "Marriage in the United States is a civil union. "It is a proposed hypothetical legal mechanism, since it doesn't exist in most places, to give some of the protections but withhold something precious from gay people. There's no good reason to do that." However, some opponents of same-sex marriage claim that civil unions rob marriage of its unique status. The California Supreme Court, in the In Re Marriage Cases decision, noted nine differences in state law. Civil unions are criticised as being'separate but equal', critics say they segregate same-sex couples by forcing them to use a separate institution.
Supporters of same-sex marriage contend that treating same-sex couples differently from other couples under the law allows for inferior treatment and that if civil unions were the same as marriage there would be no reason for two separate laws. A New Jersey commission which reviewed the state's civil union law reported that the law "invites and encourages unequal treatment of same-sex couples and their children"; some have suggested that creating civil unions which are open to opposite-sex couples would avoid the accusations of apartheid. These have still been criticised as being'separate but equal' by former New Zealand MP and feminist Marilyn Waring as same-sex couples remain excluded from the right to marry. Proponents of civil unions say that they provide practical equality for same-sex couples and solve the problems over areas such as hospital visitation rights and transfer of property caused by lack of legal recognition. Proponents say that creating civil unions is a more pragmatic way to ensure that same-sex couples have legal rights as it avoids the more controversial issues surrounding marriage and the claim that the term has a religious source.
Many supporters of same-sex marriage state that the word'marriage' matters and that the term'civil union' do not convey the emotional meaning or bring the respect that comes with marriage. Former US Solicitor General and attorney in the Perry v. Schwarzenegger case Theodore Olsen said that recognizing same-sex couples under the term'domestic partnership' stigmatizes gay people's relationships treating them as if they were "something akin to a commercial venture, not a loving union". Many contend that the fact that civil unions are not understood can cause difficulty for same-sex cou