People's Party (Spain)
The Peoples Party is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain. It is one of the four parties of modern Spanish politics. The new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic, in 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of Founding Chairman. The PP was until November 2011 the largest opposition party in the Congress of Deputies, with 153 out of 350 deputies, and its youth organization is New Generations of the Peoples Party of Spain. In the elections of November 2011, the PP won a majority, the PP is a member of the center-right European Peoples Party, and in the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group. The PP is a member of the Centrist Democrat International, the PP was one of the founding organizations of the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The party has its roots in the Peoples Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga, although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an extremely gradual transition to democracy.
However, he underestimated the publics distaste for Francoism. Additionally, while he attempted to convey a reformist image, the number of former Francoists in the party led the public to perceive it as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, in the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fragas wing won the struggle, prompting most of the disenchanted reactionaries to leave the party, the AP joined with other moderate conservatives to form the Democratic Coalition. In the March 1979 general election, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote, at the APs Second Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had merely confused the voters, Fraga resumed control of the party, and the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP.
In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership and he was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right. It became the opposition party to the Spanish Socialist Workers Party. Whereas the APs parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the APs emphasis on law, subsequent political developments belied the partys aspirations to continue increasing its base of support
A parador, in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries, is a kind of luxury hotel, usually located in a converted historic building such as a monastery or castle. Parar means to stop, halt or stay, Paradores de Turismo de España is a chain of Spanish luxury hotels. The company was founded by Alfonso XIII as a means to promote tourism in Spain and this state-run business has been profitable. The hotels are located in adapted castles, fortresses, monasteries. They add to the attractions of heritage tourism and provide uses for historic buildings. The Hostal de los Reyes Catolicos in Santiago de Compostela is considered to be one of the oldest continuously operating hotels in the world and they are located from Galicia in the north-west through Catalonia to Andalusia in the south of Spain, and the Canary Islands. Prices usually vary according to category, room and season, Paradors are classified as Esentia - monumental and historic hotels, Civia - urban hotels, and Naturia - hotels close to the coast and nature.
Ninety-four Paradors are located in Spain and one, Casa da Ínsua, the Portuguese equivalent, the Pousadas de Portugal, were founded in 1942, after the Spanish model. They are frequented by guests looking to enjoy the local customs, often called country inns in English, paradores in Puerto Rico are usually located in rural areas. To be part of the Paradores de Puerto Rico Program, the hotel must meet standards set by the Puerto Rico Tourism Company. These include being located outside the San Juan metro area, having 15 to 75 rooms, having a restaurant on site or nearby, and being family-owned and operated
Joanna of Castile
Joanna of Castile, called the Mad, was queen of Castile from 1504 and of Aragon from 1516. From the union of two crowns modern Spain evolved. Joanna married Philip the Handsome on 20 October 1496, Philip was crowned King of Castile in 1506, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain. After Philips death that year, Joanna was deemed mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life. Though she remained the legal queen of Castile throughout this time, her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, was regent until his death, from 1517, her son, ruled as king, while she nominally remained co-monarch. Joanna was born in the city of Toledo, the capital of the Kingdom of Castile and she was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. Joanna was a clever and diligent child and an excellent student, Queen Isabella ensured that Joanna, along with her three sisters Isabella and Catherine, received a fine education.
Her academic education consisted of canon and civil law and heraldry, history, mathematics, reading and writing. In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest Andrés de Miranda, the respected educator Beatriz Galindo who was a member of the queens court, and her mother the queen. Joanna developed feminine accomplishments in court etiquette, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners and the arts of embroidery, needlepoint. She excelled in all of the Iberian Romance languages, Leonese, Galician-Portuguese, Joanna was given instruction in religious studies and she learned outdoor pursuits such as hawking and hunting. Praise was given to her for being a dancer and a talented musician, she played the clavichord, the guitar. As an infanta she was not expected to be heiress to the throne of either Castile or Aragon and she had a fair complexion, blue eyes and her hair colour was between strawberry-blonde and auburn, like her mother and sister Catherine. Already in 1495 Joanna showed signs of religious skepticism and little devotion to worship and this alarmed her mother, who ordered it to be kept secret.
English ambassadors at Valencia on 23 June 1505 attempted to give a description of her appearance according to fifteen criteria. In 1496, Joanna, at the age of sixteen, was betrothed to Philip the Handsome, Duke of Burgundy, Philips parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. The marriage was one of a set of alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámaras designed to strengthen both against growing French power. Joanna entered a marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid
Revolt of the Comuneros
The Revolt of the Comuneros was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521. At its height, the rebels controlled the heart of Castile, ruling the cities of Valladolid, the revolt occurred in the wake of political instability in the Crown of Castile after the death of Queen Isabella I in 1504. Joanna the Mad, Isabellas daughter, inherited the throne with her Burgundian husband King Philip I, Philip died two years into their reign, and their son Charles was only six years old. Due to his youth and Joannas mental instability, Castile was ruled by the nobles and her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, after Ferdinands death in 1516, the sixteen-year-old Charles was proclaimed king of both Castile and Aragon. Charles had been raised in the Netherlands with little knowledge of Castilian and he arrived in Spain in October 1517 accompanied by a large retinue of Flemish nobles and clerics. These factors resulted in mistrust between the new king and the Castilian social elites, who could see the threat to their power, in 1519, Charles was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
He departed for Germany in 1520, leaving the Dutch cardinal Adrian of Utrecht to rule Castile in his absence, soon, a series of anti-government riots broke out in the cities, and local city councils took power. The rebels chose Charles own mother, Queen Joanna, as an alternative ruler, the rebel movement took on a radical anti-feudal dimension, supporting peasant rebellions against the landed nobility. On April 23,1521, after nearly a year of rebellion, the following day, rebel leaders Juan de Padilla, Juan Bravo, and Francisco Maldonado were beheaded. The army of the comuneros fell apart, only the city of Toledo kept alive the rebellion, until its surrender in October 1521. The character of the revolution is a matter of historiographical debate, according to some scholars, the revolt was one of the first modern revolutions, notably because of the anti-noble sentiment against social injustice and its basis on ideals of democracy and freedom. Others consider it a more typical rebellion against high taxes and perceived foreign control, from the 19th century onwards, the revolt has been mythologized by various Spaniards, generally liberals who drew political inspiration from it.
Conservative intellectuals have traditionally adopted more pro-Imperial stances toward the revolt, with the end of Francos dictatorship and the establishment of the autonomous community of Castile and León, positive commemoration of the Comunidades has grown. April 23 is now celebrated as Castile and León Day, discontent had been brewing for years before the Revolt of the Comuneros. The second half of the 15th century saw profound political, economic growth created new urban industries and offered a route to power and wealth not tied to the aristocracy. Support from these urban elites was critical to Ferdinand and Isabellas centralization of power, and they acted as a counterweight to the landed aristocracy, with Queen Isabella Is death in 1504, this alliance between the national government and the budding middle class faltered. The Castilian government decayed with each successive administration, becoming rife with corruption, King Philip I ruled for a mere two years, he was replaced by Archbishop Cisneros as regent for a short time, and by Isabellas widower Ferdinand who ruled from Aragon.
The landed nobility of Castile took advantage of the weak and corrupt Royal Council to illegally expand their territory, in response, the towns signed mutual defense pacts, relying on each other rather than the national government
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. The layout of Spains provinces closely follows the pattern of the division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the sub-division of the Canary Islands into two rather than one. Historically, the provinces served mainly as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, the importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy. They nevertheless remain electoral districts for national elections and as references, for instance in postal addresses. A small town would normally be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the community of Castile. The provinces were the building-blocks from which the communities were created. Consequently, no province is divided more than one of these communities. Only two capitals of autonomous communities—Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia—are not the capitals of provinces, seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra.
These are sometimes referred to as uniprovincial communities, the table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs. The names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish-language names are the same, locally valid names in Spains other co-official languages are indicated where they differ
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, and private rooms may be available, in a few countries, such as the UK, Ireland and Australia, the word hostel sometimes refers to establishments providing longer-term accommodation. In India and South Africa, hostel refers to boarding schools or student dormitories in resident colleges and universities, in other parts of the world, the word hostel mainly refers to properties offering shared accommodation to travellers or backpackers. Backpackers Hostels began in Australia and New Zealand and differ from Hostels by being open during the day time, in 1912, in Altena Castle in Germany, Richard Schirrmann created the first permanent Jugendherberge or Youth Hostel. These first youth hostels were an exponent of the vision of the German Youth Movement to let poor city youngsters breathe fresh air outdoors.
The youths were supposed to manage the hostel themselves as much as possible, doing chores to keep the costs down and build character, because of this, many youth hostels closed during the middle part of the day. While most hostels still close during the day no longer require chores beyond washing up after self-catered meals. The words hotel and hostal are etymologically related, coming into the English language from Old French hostel, itself from Late Latin hospitale, however, they each refer to distinct types of accommodation. In particular, hostal is used in Spanish either with the sense as hostel. For those who prefer an environment, hostels do not usually have the same level of formality as hotels. For those who prefer to socialise with their guests, hostels usually have more common areas. The dormitory aspect of hostels increases the social factor, Hostels normally close during the day to keep down cost. There is less privacy in a hostel than in a hotel, sharing sleeping accommodation in a dormitory is very different from staying in a private room in a hotel or bed and breakfast, and might not be comfortable for those requiring more privacy.
Hostels encourage more interaction between guests due to the shared sleeping areas and communal areas such as lounges, kitchens. Care should be taken with personal belongings, as guests may share a living space. Noise can make sleeping difficult on occasions, whether from snoring, sexual activity, someone either returning late or leaving early, to mitigate this, some wear earplugs and/or sleeping masks. Some hostels may include a hot meal in the price, the traditional hostel format involved dormitory style accommodation. Some newer hostels include en-suite accommodation with single, double or quad occupancy rooms, in recent years, the numbers of independent and backpackers hostels have increased greatly to cater for the greater numbers of overland, multi-destination travellers
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 divided the Earth outside Europe into Castilian and Portuguese global territorial hemispheres for exclusive conquest, Portugal colonized parts of South America, but made some unsuccessful attempts to colonize North America in present-day Canada. Fragmentary evidence suggests an expedition in 1473 by João Vaz Corte-Real, their father, with other Europeans. Their existence is based on brief or fragmentary historical documents that are unclear concerning the destinations of voyages, in 1506, King Manuel I of Portugal created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters. João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established fishing outposts in Newfoundland and these were abandoned, when Portuguese colonizers began to focus their efforts mainly on South America. Nonetheless, the Portuguese-founded town of Portugal Cove-St. Philips and Labrador, Canada remains important as a cultural center, even today.
On 21 April 1500, a mountain was seen that was named Monte Pascoal, believing the land to be an island, he named it Ilha de Vera Cruz. The previous expedition of Vasco da Gama to India already recorded several signs of land near its western open Atlantic Ocean route, from the east coast, the fleet turned eastward to resume the journey to the southern tip of Africa and India. Landing in the New World and reaching Asia, the expedition connected four continents for the first time in history, in 1501–1502, an expedition led by Gonçalo Coelho, sailed south along the coast of South America to the bay of present-day Rio de Janeiro. Among his crew was the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci, according to Vespucci, the expedition reached the latitude South Pole elevation 52° S in the cold latitudes of what is now Patagonia, near the Strait of Magellan, before turning back. Vespucci wrote that they headed toward the southwest-south, following a long, unbending coastline and this seems controversial, since he changed part of his description in the subsequent letter, however, that they reached a similar 50° S latitude.
Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer in four Spanish and Portuguese exploratory voyages, the expeditions became widely known in Europe after two accounts attributed to him, published between 1502 and 1504. The explorers reported that after going by the 40th parallel to south, along the coast, they found a land or point extending into the sea, and further south, a Gulf. São Vicente, by its democratic municipal prerogatives and by the elections to its first Câmara on August 22,1532, is symbolically considered the birthplace of democracy in the Americas. From 1534 to 1536,15 Captaincy colonies were created in Portuguese America, the captaincies were autonomous, and mostly private, colonies of the Portuguese Empire, each owned and run by a Captain-major. In 1549, due to their failure and limited success, the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil were united into the Governorate General of Brazil, the captaincy colonies were reorganized as provincial districts to the Governorate. The captaincies continued to be ruled by their hereditary captain-majors but they now reported to the Governor-General of Brazil, the new system was implemented so that Portuguese America could be managed correctly and provide a steady and wealthy income for the Portuguese Empire.
The capital of the new governorate established its capital at São Salvador, with permanent settlement came the establishment of the sugar cane industry and its intensive labor demands which were met with Native and African slaves
Province of Valladolid
Valladolid is a province of northwest Spain, in the central part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 526,223 people in a total of 225 municipalities, an area of 8,110 km2, the capital is the city of Valladolid. It is bordered by the provinces of Zamora, León, Burgos, Segovia, Ávila and it is, the only Spanish province surrounded only - and entirely - by other provinces of the same autonomous community. Its the only province which doesnt have mountains. Precisely because of its plain has a strategic importance because it is an important communications hub. From the national point of view, is the track that connects Madrid with all the north of Spain, from the international point of view, here goes the shortest land route that connects Portugal with France, from the north of Portugal to the south of France. The capital has an important historical - artistic heritage and one of the important museums of sculpture of Europe. The province of Valladolid is specially famous for his processions of Holy Week, as much in the capital as in the localities of Medina de Rioseco and Medina del Campo.
The province of Valladolid was established as such by the Royal Decree of September 29,1833 driven by the minister Javier de Burgos, in the year 178 BC the Romans conquered the territory. After the invasion of the Iberian peninsula by the Muslims in the year 711, they arrived in these lands just a year later, in 712. Later, during the Reconquista, this area was the subject of battles between the Muslims and the Christian Kingdom of León in the first half of the eleventh century. In 939, after the Battle of Simancas clinched the domain of the basin of the Douro river by the Christian kingdoms, Valladolid was founded in the year 1072 by Count Pedro Ansúrez. From here its history was linked to that of the Crown of Castile, in fact, cities such as Medina del Campo or Valladolid became important administrative centers Castilians and experienced an economic boom. Had a great importance in the Discovery of the Americas in 1492, the revolt of the comuneros in the year 1520, which ended with the ringleaders of that revolt publicly executed in Villalar de los Comuneros.
Valladolid became the capital of the Spanish empire between the years 1601-1606, during the War of the Spanish Succession It positioned the side of the Bourbon pretender, that would be the one who got the throne. In the Peninsular War against France, There were a succession of small battles, the province was controlled by Francos Nationalists throughout the Civil War. During the Franco period there was an exodus from the countryside to the industrial cities. A further exodus occurred with the arrival of democracy in Spain, start a process of economic growth that peaked with the Spanish property bubble and suffers from the economic crisis of 2008-2015, like the rest of the south of Europe
Treaty of Tordesillas
This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage, named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia. The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile, the treaty was signed by Spain,2 July 1494 and by Portugal,5 September 1494. Originals of both treaties are kept at the Archivo General de Indias in Spain and at the Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo in Portugal. This treaty would be observed fairly well by Spain and Portugal, despite considerable ignorance as to the geography of the New World and those countries generally ignored the treaty, particularly those that became Protestant after the Protestant Reformation. The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to solve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus and his crew, on his way back to Spain he first reached Lisbon, in Portugal. There he asked for another meeting with King John II to show him the newly discovered lands, the Portuguese King stated that he was already making arrangements for a fleet to depart shortly and take possession of the new lands.
After reading the letter the Catholic Monarchs knew they did not have any power in the Atlantic to match the Portuguese. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands even if they were east of the line. The Portuguese King John II was not pleased with that arrangement, feeling that it gave him far too little land—it prevented him from possessing India, by 1493 Portuguese explorers had reached the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. The Portuguese were unlikely to go to war over the islands encountered by Columbus, the treaty effectively countered the bulls of Alexander VI but was subsequently sanctioned by Pope Julius II by means of the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis of 24 January 1506. Even though the treaty was negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the line the Papal Line of Demarcation. Very little of the divided area had actually been seen by Europeans. Castile gained lands including most of the Americas, which in 1494 had little proven wealth, the easternmost part of current Brazil was granted to Portugal when in 1500 Pedro Álvares Cabral landed there while he was en route to India.
Some historians contend that the Portuguese already knew of the South American bulge that makes up most of Brazil before this time, the line was not strictly enforced—the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. However, the Catholic Monarchs attempted to stop the Portuguese advance in Asia, by claiming the meridian line ran around the world, Portugal pushed back, seeking another papal pronouncement that limited the line of demarcation to the Atlantic. This was given by Pope Leo X, who was friendly toward Portugal and its discoveries, for a period between 1580 and 1640, the treaty was rendered meaningless, as the Spanish King was King of Portugal. It was superseded by the 1750 Treaty of Madrid which granted Portugal control of the lands it occupied in South America, the latter treaty was immediately repudiated by the Catholic Monarch. The First Treaty of San Ildefonso settled the problem, with Spain acquiring territories east of the Uruguay River, the Treaty of Tordesillas only specified the line of demarcation in leagues from the Cape Verde Islands
Crown of Aragon
Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the political center of the Crown of Aragon was Zaragoza, where kings were crowned at La Seo Cathedral. The de facto capital and leading cultural and economic centre of the Crown of Aragon was Barcelona followed by Valencia, Palma was an additional important city and seaport. For brief periods the Crown of Aragon controlled Montpellier, Corsica, the countries that are today known as Spain and Portugal spent the Middle Ages after 722 in an intermittent struggle called the Reconquista. This struggle pitted the northern Christian kingdoms against the Islamic taifa petty kingdoms of the South, in the Late Middle Ages, the expansion of the Aragonese Crown southwards met with the Castilian advance eastward in the region of Murcia. Afterward, the Aragonese Crown focused on the Mediterranean, acting as far as Greece and Barbary, whereas Portugal, mercenaries from the territories in the Crown, known as almogàvers participated in the creation of this Mediterranean empire, and found employment in countries all across southern Europe.
The Crown of Aragon has been considered by some as an empire which ruled in the Mediterranean for hundreds of years and it was indeed, at its height, one of the major powers in Europe. However, its different territories were connected through the person of the monarch. A modern historian, Juan de Contreras y Lopez de Ayala, Marqués de Lozoya described the Crown of Aragon as being more like a confederacy than a centralised kingdom, let alone an empire. Nor did official documents refer to it as an empire, instead. This union respected the institutions and parliaments of both territories. This was due to the loss of Catalan influence, the renunciation of the family rights of the counts of Barcelona in Occitania. Petronillas father King Ramiro, The Monk who was raised in the Saint Pons de Thomières Monastery and his brothers Peter I and Alfonso I El Batallador had bravely fought against Castile for hegemony in the Iberian peninsula. After the death of Alfonso I, the Aragonese nobility that campaigned close him feared being overwhelmed by the influence of Castile, and so, Ramiro was forced to leave his monastic life and proclaim himself King of Aragon.
He married Agnes, sister of the Duke of Aquitaine and betrothed his daughter to Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona. The wedding agreement provided Raymond Berengar IV the title of Princeps Aragonum and Dominator Aragonenesis and kept the title, Raymond Berengar IV, the first ruler of the united dynasty, called himself Count of Barcelona and Prince of Aragon. Alfonso II inherited two realms and with them, two different expansion processes, the House of Jiménez looked south in a battle against Castile for the control of the Mediterranean coast in the Iberian peninsula. The House of Barcelona looked north to its origins, soon, Alfonso II of Aragon and Barcelona committed himself to conquer Valencia as the Aragonese nobility demanded